Ancient History & Civilisation


This bibliography includes major studies under a series of thematic headings. It does not attempt to include all the specific items cited in the endnotes to the chapters of this book.

General Histories and Studies

1.     G. W. Bowersock, P. R. L. Brown, and O. Grabar (eds.), Late Antiquity. A Guide to the Post-Classical World (Cambridge Mass., 1999).

2.     P. R. L. Brown, The World of Late Antiquity from Marcus Aurelius to Muhammad (London, 1971). See also “The World of Late Antiquity revisited,” Symbolae Osloenses 72 (1997), 5–90.

3.     P. R. L. Brown, The Making of Late Antiquity (Cambridge Mass., 1978).

4.     J. B. Bury, The Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian (395–565) (2 vols., 2nd edn., London, 1923).

5.     Averil Cameron, The Later Roman Empire (London, 1993).

6.     Averil Cameron, The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity (1993, extensively revised second edition 2011).

7.     Averil Cameron, “The long late antiquity,” in T. P. Wiseman (ed.), Classics in Progress: Essays on Ancient Greece and Rome (Oxford, 2002), 165–91.

8.     Averil Cameron and P. Garnsey (eds.), The Late Empire AD 337–425 (CAH XIII, 1998).

9.     Averil Cameron, B. Ward-Perkins, and L. M. Whitby (eds.), Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors AD 425–600 (CAH XIV, 2000).

10. R. M. Collins, Early Medieval Europe (New York, 1991).

11. A. Demandt, Die Spätantike. Römische Geschichte von Diocletian bis Justinian 284–565 n. Chr. (Berlin, 1989).

12. C. Foss and P. Magdalino, Rome and Byzantium (London, 1977).

13. G. Fowden, Before and After Muhammad. The first millennium refocused (Princeton, 2014).

14. P. Garnsey and C. Humphress, The Evolution of the Late Antique World (Cambridge, 2001).

15. E. Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (rev. edn. J. B. Bury, London, 1929).

16. E. Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (new edn. by D. Womersley, Harmondsworth, 1994).

17. P. Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire. A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (Oxford, 2005).

18. P. Horden and N. Purcell, The Corrupting Sea. A study of Mediterranean history (Oxford, 2000).

19. A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire 284–602. A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey (Oxford, 1964).

20. A. H. M. Jones, The Decline of the Ancient World (London, 1966).

21. W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001).

22. J. R. Martindale et al., Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire (3 vols., Cambridge, 1971–92).

23. C. Morrisson, Le monde byzantin vol. I. L’Empire romain d’orient (330–641) (Paris, 2004).

24. Henri Pirenne, Mohammed and Charlemagne (1937).

25. D. S. Potter, The Roman Empire at Bay AD 180–395 (London, 2004).

26. Peter Sarris, Empires of Faith. The fall of Rome to the rise of Islam, 500–700 (Oxford, 2011).

27. E. Stein, Geschichte des spätrömischen Reiches I (284–476) (Strasburg, 1928). French trans. by J.-R. Palanque, Histoire du Bas-Empire I. De l’état romain à l’état byzantin. 1 Texte and 2 Notes (Bruges, 1959).

28. E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-Empire II. De la disparition de l’empire de l’occident à la mort de Justinien (476–565) (Paris, 1949).

29. S. Swain and M. Edwards, Approaching Late Antiquity. The Transformation from Early to Late Empire (Oxford, 2004).

30. B. Ward-Perkins, The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization (Oxford, 2005).

31. Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages. Europe and the Mediterranean 400–800 (Oxford, 2005).

32. Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome. A history of Europe from 400 to 1000 (London, 2009).

Collected Sources in Translation

1.     P. R. Coleman-Norton, Roman State and Christian Church. A Collection of Legal Documents to AD 535 (3 vols., London, 1966).

2.     B. Croke and J. Harries, Religious Conflict in Fourth-Century Rome (Sydney, 1982).

3.     G. Greatrex and S. N. C. Lieu, The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars. Part II AD 363–630. A Narrative Sourcebook (London and New York, 2002).

4.     A. D. Lee, Pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity (London and New York, 2000).

5.     S. N. C. Lieu and D. Montserrat, From Constantine to Julian. Pagan and Byzantine Views (London and New York, 1996). This includes the anonymous Origo Constantini Imperatoris (Anon. Val.), the Latin Panegyric VII (6) of 310, and Libanius, Or. 59.

6.     M. Maas, Readings in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook (London and New York, 2000).

7.     R. W. Mathisen, People, Personal Expression, and Social Relations in Late Antiquity (2 vols., Ann Arbor, 2003).

8.     J. Stevenson, A New Eusebius. Documents Illustrating the History of the Church to AD 337 (rev. edn. by W. Frend, London, 1987).

9.     J. Stevenson, Creeds, Councils and Controversies. Documents Illustrating the History of the Church AD 337–461 (rev. edn. by W. Frend, London, 1989).

10. R. Valantasis, Religions of Late Antiquity in Practice (Princeton, 2000).

Translated Texts

In addition to the titles listed here, there is an invaluable bibliography of English translations of the Christian patristic literature of late antiquity in P. R. L. Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom (Oxford, 2003), 554–64.

The Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers

This old series contains English translations of extensive selections from the works of the major church fathers, including Eusebius, Athanasius, Hilary of Poitiers, Basil, Gregory of Nysa, Gregory of Nazianzus, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, John Chrysostom, the church historians Rufinus, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, Leo the Great, and Gregory the Great. The publications are now available on-line at Further out-of-copyright translations of authors from late antiquity, including John of Ephesus, Zacharias of Mytilene, John of Nikiu, and other important texts, from several original languages, are at

Liverpool Translated Texts for Historians

This invaluable and growing series of translations includes important introductions and commentaries.

1.     Acts of the Council of Chalcedon (3 vols., R. W. Price and R. Gaddis, 2005).

2.     The Acts of the Council of Constantinople of 553: With related texts on the three chapters controversy (2 vols. R. W. Price, 2009–12).

3.     Ambrose of Milan. Political Letters and Speeches (W. Liebeschuetz, 2005).

4.     The Armenian History Attributed to Sebeos (R. W. Thompson and J. Howard-Johnston, 2 vols. 1999).

5.     Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus (H. W. Bird, 1994).

6.     Avitus of Vienne: Letters and Selected Prose (D. Shanzer and I. Wood, 2002).

7.     Caesarius of Arles: Life, Testament, Letters (W. Klingshirn, 1994).

8.     Cassiodorus: Variae (S. J. B. Barnish, 1992).

9.     The Chronicon Paschale 284–628 AD (Michael and Mary Whitby, 1989).

10. Constantine and Christendom (The Oration to the Saints. Greek and Latin Accounts of the Discovery of the Cross; The Edict of Constantine to Pope Sylvester) (M. Edwards, 2003).

11. Donatist Martyr Stories: The Church in Conflict in Roman North Africa (M. A. Tilley, 1996).

12. Evagrius Scholasticus, The Ecclesiastical History (Michael Whitby, 2000).

13. Eutropius, Breviarium (H. W. Bird, 1993).

14. The Goths in the Fourth Century (P. Heather and J. Matthews, 1991).

15. Iamblichus: On the Pythagorean Life (G. Clark, 1989).

16. The Emperor Julian. Polemic and Panegyric (Claudius Mamertinus, John Chrysostom, Ephraem the Syrian; S. Lieu, 1989).

17. Lactantius: Divine Institutes (A. Bowen and P. Garnsey, 2003).

18. Libanius: Antioch as a Centre of Hellenic Culture (A. F. Norman, 2000).

19. Libanius. Select Letters from the Age of Constantius and Julian (S. Bradbury, 2004).

20. Neoplatonic Saints. The Lives of Plotinus and Proclus by their Students (M. Edwards, 2000).

21. Optatus: Against the Donatists (M. Edwards, 1997).

22. Orosius. Seven Books of History against the Pagans (A. T. Fear, 2010).

23. Pacatus: Pangeyric to the Emperor Theodosius (C. E. V. Nixon, 1987).

24. Ps-Dionysius of Tel Mahre, Chronicle part 11 (W. Witowski, 1996).

25. Ps-Joshua the Stylite, Chronicle (J. Watt and F. Trombley, 2000).

26. Pseudo-Zachariah Rhetor, Chronicle (G. Greatrex, Robert Phenix, and Cornelia Horn, 2011).

27. Ruricius of Limoges and Friends. A Collection of Letters from Visigothic Gaul (R. W. Mathisen, 1999).

28. Themistius, Select Orations. Politics, Philosophy and Empire in the Fourth Century (P. Heather and D. Moncur, 2001).

29. Theophilus of Edessa, Chronicle (R. Hoyland, 2011).

30. Three Political Voices from the Age of Justinian [Agapetus, Paul the Silentiary] (P. N. Bell, 2009).

31. Vegetius, Epitome of Military Science (N. P. Milner, 2nd edn. 1996).

32. Victor of Vita: History of the Vandal Persecution (J. Moorhead, 1992).

33. West-Syrian Chronicles for the Seventh Century (A. Palmer, 1993).

Loeb Classical Library (Original Texts with English Translations)

1.     Ammianus Marcellinus, ed. J. C. Rolfe (3 vols., trans. J. C. Rolfe, 1935–40). Vol. 3 contains a translation of the anonymous Origo Constantini Imperatoris (Anon. Val.).

2.     Augustine, City of God (7 vols., G. E. McCracken and others, 1957–72), Confessions (2 vols., W. Watt, 1912), Select Letters (J. H. Baxter, 1930).

3.     Ausonius, Poems (H. K. Evelyn-White, 1919–21).

4.     Basil, Letters (4 vols., R. J. Deferrari, 1926–34).

5.     Boethius, Theological Tractates and On the Consolation of Philosophy (H. F. Stewart and E. K. Rand, rev. by S. J. Tester, 1973).

6.     Claudian (2 vols., M. Platnauer, 1922).

7.     Eunapius, Lives of the Philosophers and Sophists (with Philostratus, W. C. Wright, 1921).

8.     Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History (2 vols., K. Lake and J. Oulton, 1926–33).

9.     Jerome, Select Letters (F. A. Wright, 1933).

10. Julian (3 vols., W. C. Wright, 1913–23).

11. Libanius, Orations (selection, 3 vols., trans. A. F. Norman, 1969–77), Autobiography and Selected Letters (A. F. Norman, 2 vols. 1992).

12. Procopius (8 vols., trans. H. B. Dewing, 1914–54).

13. Prudentius, Poems (H. J. Thompson, 1949–53).

14. Scriptores Historiae Augustae (3 vols., D. Magie, 1921–32).

15. Sidonius Apollinaris, Letters and Poems (2 vols., W. B. Anderson, 1936–65).

Penguin Classics

1.     Ammianus Marcellinus. The Later Roman Empire (AD 354–378) (selection only, trans. W. Hamilton, 1986).

2.     Eusebius, History of the Church (trans. G. A. Williamson, rev. edn. 1989).

3.     Gregory of Tours, History (History of the Franks) (L. Thorpe, 1974).

Routledge Early Church Fathers

This series contains introductions to the writers and a selection of their works in translation with explanatory notes. The emphasis is on their theological contributions.

1.     Ambrose (B. Ramsey, 1997), Cyril of Alexandria (N. Russell, 2000), Gregory of Nyssa (A. Meredith, 1999), John Chrysostom (W. Mayer and P. Allen, 2001), Jerome (S. Rebenich, 2002).

Other Translations

1.     Agathias, The Histories (Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae, vol. 2a, J. D. Frendo, Berlin, 1975).

2.     Augustine, Confessions (H. Chadwick, Oxford, 1991).

3.     Augustine, On Christian Teaching (R. P. H. Green, Oxford, 1997).

4.     Ausonius, Works (R. P. H. Green, Oxford, 1991).

5.     Cyril of Scythopolis, The Lives of the Monks of Palestine (R. M. Price, Kalamazoo, 1991).

6.     Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus, The Fragmentary Classicizing Historians of the Fifth Century (R. C. Blockley, 2 vols., Liverpool, 1983).

7.     Eusebius, Life of Constantine (Averil Cameron and Stuart Hall, Oxford, 1999).

8.     Eusebius, In Praise of Constantine and Tricennial Orations (H. A. Drake, Berkeley, 1976 and 1978).

9.     Hydatius, Chronicle (R. W. Burgess, Oxford, 1993).

10. Jordanes, Getica (P. Mierow, Princeton, 1931).

11. (Ps.-) Joshua the Stylite, Chronicle (W. Wright, Cambridge, 1882).

12. Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors (J. L. Creed/T. D. Barnes, Oxford, 1984).

13. The Latin Panegyrics: B. Rodgers and C. E. V. Nixon, In Praise of Later Roman Emperors. The Panegyrici Latini (California, 1994).

14. Malalas, Chronicle (E. Jeffreys, R. Scott, M. Jeffreys, Sydney, 1986).

15. Marcellinus, Chronicle (B. Croke, Sydney, 1995).

16. Menander the Guardsman, History (R. C. Blockley, Liverpool, 1985).

17. The Lives of Simeon Stylites (R. Doran, Kalamazoo, 1992).

18. Symmachus, Relationes (R. H. Barrow, Symmachus Relationes, Prefect and Emperor. AD 384, Oxford, 1973).

19. The Theodosian Code (C. Pharr, Princeton, 1952).

20. Theophanes Confessor, Chronicle of Byzantine and Near Eastern History AD 284–813 (C. Mango and R. Scott, Oxford, 1997).

21. Theophylact Simocatta, History (Michael and Mary Whitby, Oxford, 1986).

22. Zacharias of Mytilene. Syriac text ed. by E. W. Brooks, Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 83/84 (1924). English trans. by E. J. Hamilton and E. W. Brooks (1899, available on-line).

23. Zosimus, text, French translation, and commentary by F. Paschoud (Paris, 1971–89, with a new, extensively revised edition of book 1, 2003); English trans. by R. T. Ridley (Sydney, 1982).

24. There are English translations of many of the important fragments of the fifth-century historians in C. D. Gordon, The Age of Attila. Fifth-Century Byzantium and the Barbarians (Michigan, 1960).

25. S. P. Scott, The Civil Law (17 vols., Cincinnati 1932), contains translations of the Digest, the Codex Justininianus, and the Novellae of Justinian, and is available on-line at

Historiography and Sources

1.     P. Allen, Evagrius Scholasticus, the Church Historian (Louvain, 1981).

2.     N. Baker-Brian and S. Tougher (eds.), Emperor and Author. The writings of Julian the apostate (Swansea, 2012).

3.     B. Baldwin, “Malchus of Philadelphia,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 32 (1978), 101–25.

4.     B. Baldwin, “Olympiodorus of Thebes,” Antiquité Classique 49 (1980), 212–31.

5.     B. Baldwin, “Priscus of Panium,” Byzantion 50 (1980), 18–61.

6.     T. D. Barnes, “The lost Kaisergeschichte and the Latin historical tradition,” Bonner Historia Augusta Colloquium (1968/9), 13–43.

7.     T. D. Barnes, “The epitome de Caesaribus and its sources,” Classical Philology 71 (1976), 258–68.

8.     T. D. Barnes, The Sources of the Historia Augusta (Brussels, 1978).

9.     T. D. Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius (Harvard, 1981).

10. T. D. Barnes, “Panegyric, history and hagiography in Eusebius’ Life of Constantine” in R. Williams (ed.), The Making of Orthodoxy: Essays in Honour of Henry Chadwick (Cambridge, 1989), 94–123.

11. T. D. Barnes, Ammianus Marcellinus and the Representation of Historical Reality (Cornell, 1998).

12. M. Shane Bjornlie, Politics and Tradition between Rome, Ravenna and Constantinople. A study of Cassiodorus and the Variae, 527–554 (Cambridge, 2013).

13. Alan Cameron, “The Roman friends of Ammianus,” JRS 54 (1964), 15–28.

14. Alan Cameron, Claudian: Poetry and Propaganda at the Court of Honorius (Oxford, 1970).

15. Alan and Averil Cameron, “Christianity and tradition in the historiography of the late empire,” CQ 14 (1964), 312–28.

16. Averil Cameron, Agathias (Oxford, 1971).

17. Averil Cameron, Procopius and the Sixth Century (London, 1985).

18. G. Clarke et al. (ed.), Reading the Past in Late Antiquity (Rushcutters’ Bay, 1990).

19. P. Cox, Biography in Late Antiquity. A Quest for the Holy Man (Berkeley, 1983).

20. B. Croke, Count Marcellinus and His Chronicle (Oxford, 2001).

21. B. Croke and A. M. Emmett (eds.), History and Historians in Late Antiquity (Sydney, 1983).

22. J. W. Drijvers and E. D. Hunt (eds.), The Late Roman World and its Historian: Interpreting Ammianus Marcellinus (London, 1999).

23. J. A. S. Evans, Procopius (New York, 1972).

24. W. Goffart, “Zosimus: The first historian of Rome's fall,” American Historical Review 76 (1971), 412–41, reprinted in Goffart, Rome's Fall and After (London, 1989), 81–110.

25. W. Goffart, The Narrators of Barbarian History (Princeton, 1988).

26. G. Greatrex, “The date of Procopius’ works,” Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 18 (1994), 101–14.

27. G. Greatrex, “Recent work on Procopius and the composition of Wars VIII,” Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 27 (2003), 45–67.

28. T. Hägg and P. Rousseau, Greek Biography and Panegyric in Late Antiquity (Berkeley, 2000).

29. J. Harries, Sidonius Apollinaris and the Fall of Rome (Oxford, 1994).

30. C. Holdsworth and T. P. Wiseman, The Inheritance of Historiography 350–900 (Exeter, 1986).

31. James Howard-Johnston, Witnesses to a World Crisis: Historians and histories of the Middle East in the seventh century (Oxford, 2010).

32. W. E. Kaegi, Byzantium and the Decline of Rome (Princeton, 1968).

33. A. Kaldellis, “The historical and religious views of Agathias: A reinterpretation,” Byzantion 69 (1999) 206–52.

34. A. Kaldellis, Procopius of Caesarea. Tyranny, History, and Philosophy at the End of Antiquity (Philadelphia, 2004).

35. A. Kaldellis, Hellenism in Byzantium: The Transformations of Greek Identity and the Reception of the Classical Tradition (Cambridge, 2011).

36. G. Kelly, “Ammianus and the great tsunami,” JRS 94 (2004), 141–67.

37. M. Kulikowski, “Coded polemic in Ammianus book 31 and the date and place of its composition,” JRS 102 (2012),79–102.

38. G. Marasco (ed.), Greek and Roman Historiography in Late Antiquity, 4th–6th Century AD (Leiden, 2003).

39. J. F. Matthews, “Olympiodorus of Thebes,” JRS 63 (1973), 79–97; reprinted in Political Life and Culture in Late Roman Society (Aldershot, 1985) III.

40. J. F. Matthews, The Roman Empire of Ammianus Marcellinus (London, 1989).

41. J. J. O’Donnell, Cassiodorus (Berkeley, 1979; available with 1995 “Postprint” at (accessed February 27, 2014).

42. J. J. O’Donnell, “The aims of Jordanes,” Historia 31 (1982), 223–40.

43. R. Rees, Layers of Loyalty in Latin Panegyric (Oxford, 2002).

44. W. Rohrbacher, The Historians of Late Antiquity (London and New York, 2002).

45. B. Rubin, Prokopios von Kaisareia (Stuttgart, 1954) RE 23.1, 273–599 (publ. 1957).

46. C. E. Stevens, Sidonius Apollinaris and his Age (Oxford, 1933).

47. W. Treadgold, “The Byzantine world histories of John Malalas and Eustathius of Epiphania,” The International History Review 29 (2007), 709–45.

48. W. Treadgold, The Early Byzantine Historians (London, 2010).

49. T. Urbainczyk, Socrates of Constantinople (Michigan, 1997).

50. T. Urbainczyk, “Observations on the differences between the church histories of Socrates and Sozomen,” Historia 46 (1997), 355–73.

51. T. Urbainczyk, Theodoret of Cyrrhus: The Bishop and the Holy Man (Michigan, 2002).

52. Peter Van Nuffelen, Un héritage de paix et piété. Étude sur les histoires ecclésiastiques de Socrate et Sozomène (Leuven, 2005).

53. Peter Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (Oxford, 2012).

54. J. Vanderspoel, Themistius and the Imperial Court. Oratory, Civic Duty and Paideia from Constantius to Theodosius (Michigan, 1995).

55. Mary Whitby (ed.), The Propaganda of Power. The Role of Panegyric in Late Antiquity (Leiden, 1998).

56. Michael Whitby, “Greek historical writing after Procopius: Variety and vitality,” in Averil Cameron and L. Conrad (eds.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East I: Problems in the Literary Source Material (Princeton, 1992), 25–80.

57. G. Zecchini, “Teodosio II nella storiografia ecclesiastica,” Mediterraneo Antico 5 (2002), 529–46.

The Historical Narrative

1.     T. D. Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius (Cambridge Mass., 1981).

2.     T. D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (Cambridge Mass., 1982).

3.     T. D. Barnes, “Constantine and the Christians of Persia,” JRS 65 (1985), 126–36.

4.     T. D. Barnes, Athanasius and Constantius (Cambridge Mass., 1993).

5.     T. D. Barnes, Constantine. Dynasty, Religion and Power in the Later Roman Empire (Oxford, 2011).

6.     R. P. C. Blockley, East Roman Foreign Policy: Formation and Conduct from Diocletian to Anastasius (Leeds, 1992).

7.     G. W. Bowersock, Julian the Apostate (London, 1978).

8.     H. Brandt, Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit von Diokletian bis zum Ende der konstantinischen Dynastie (284–363) (Berlin, 1998).

9.     J. B. Bury, “The Nika riot,” JHS 17 (1897), 92–119.

10. Alan Cameron, “Theodosius the Great and the regency of Stilicho,” HSCP 73 (1969), 247–80.

11. Alan Cameron, “The empress and the poet: Paganism and politics at the court of Theodosius II,” Yale Classical Studies 27 (1982), 217–89.

12. Alan Cameron, J. Long, and L. Sherry, Barbarians and Politics at the Court of Arcadius (Berkeley, 1993).

13. Averil Cameron, “Constantinus Christianus” (review of Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius), JRS 73 (1983), 184–90.

14. P. J. Casey, Carausius and Allectus: The British Usurpers (London, 1994).

15. S. Corcoran, The Empire of the Tetrarchs (rev. edn. Oxford, 2000).

16. G. E. M. de Ste Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World (London, 1983).

17. P. S. Davies, “The origin and purpose of the persecution of AD 303,” JTS 40 (1989), 66–94.

18. H. A. Drake, Constantine and the Bishops: The politics of intolerance (Baltimore, 2000)

19. R. M. Errington, “The accession of Theodosius I,” Klio 78 (1996), 438–53.

20. R. M. Errington, “Theodosius and the Goths,” Chiron 26 (1996), 1–27.

21. R. M. Errington, “Church and state in the first years of Theodosius I,” Chiron 27 (1997), 21–72.

22. R. M. Errington, Roman Imperial Policy from Julian to Theodosius I (Chapel Hill, 2006).

23. Andrew Gillett, “Rome, Ravenna and the last western emperors,” Papers of the British School at Rome 69 (2001), 131–67.

24. M. Gleason, “Festive satire: Julian's Misopogon and the new year at Antioch,” JRS 76 (1986), 106–19.

25. G. Greatrex, “The Nika riot: A reappraisal,” JHS 117 (1997), 60–86.

26. Fiona Haarer, Anastasius I. Politics and Empire in the Late Roman World (Cambridge, 2006).

27. K. Holum, Theodosian Empresses. Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity (Berkeley, 1982).

28. F. Kolb, Diocletian und die Erste Tetrarchie (Berlin, 1987).

29. A. D. Lee, Information and Frontiers: Roman Foreign Relations in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, 1993).

30. N. Lenski, Failure of Empire: Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century AD (Berkeley, 2002).

31. W. Liebeschuetz, Barbarians and Bishops (Oxford, 1990).

32. S. Lieu and D. Montserrat (eds.), Constantine. History, Historiography and Legend (London, 1998).

33. P. Maraval, L’empéreur Justinien (Paris, 1999).

34. J. F. Matthews, Western Aristocracies and the Imperial Court AD 364–425 (rev. edn. Oxford, 1990).

35. M. Meier, Justinian. Herrschaft, Reich und Religion (Munich, 2004).

36. M. Meier, Anastasios I. Die Entstehung des Byzantinischen Reiches (Stuttgart, 2009).

37. J. Moorhead, Justinian (London, 1994).

38. R. Rees, Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (Edinburgh, 2004).

39. S. Schmidt-Hofner, Reagieren und Gestalten. Der Regierungsstil des spätrömischen Kaisers am Beispiel der Gesetzgebung Valentinians I. (Munich, 2008).

40. R. Van Dam, The Roman Revolution of Constantine (Cambridge, 2007).

41. S. Williams, Diocletian and the Roman Recovery (London and New York, 1985).

42. S. Williams and G. Friell, Theodosius. The Empire at Bay (London, 1994).

State and Society

1.     C. Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (Berkeley, 2000).

2.     J. Banaji, Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity: Gold, labour and aristocratic dominance (Oxford, 2001).

3.     P. R. L. Brown, Power and Persuasion in Late Antiquity. Towards a Christian Empire (Wisconsin, 1992).

4.     P. R. L. Brown, Through the Eye of a Needle: Wealth, the Fall of Rome, and the Making of Christianity in the West, 350–550 AD (Princeton, 2012).

5.     R. Browning, Justinian and Theodora (London, 1987).

6.     Alan Cameron, Porphyrius the Charioteer (Oxford, 1973).

7.     Alan Cameron, Circus Factions. Blues and Greens and Rome and Byzantium (Oxford, 1976).

8.     G. E. M. de Ste Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World from the Archaic Age to the Arab Conquests (London, 1981).

9.     J. Dillon, The Justice of Constantine: Law, Communication, and Control (Michigan, 2012).

10. H. Elton, Warfare in Roman Europe AD 350–425 (Oxford, 1996).

11. J. A. S. Evans, The Age of Justinian. The Circumstances of Imperial Power (London and New York, 1996).

12. D. Feissel, Documents, droit, diplomatique de l’empire romain tardif (Paris, 2010).

13. J. Harries, “The Roman imperial quaestor from Constantine to Theodosius II,” JRS 78 (1988), 148–72.

14. Jill Harries, Law and Empire in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, 1999).

15. Jill Harries and Ian Wood (eds.), The Theodosian Code: Studies in the Imperial Law of Late Antiquity (London, 1993).

16. T. Honoré, Emperors and Lawyers (2nd edn. Oxford, 1994).

17. A. H. M. Jones, The Roman Economy: Studies in Ancient Economic and Administrative History (ed. P. A. Brunt, Oxford, 1974).

18. C. Kelly, Ruling the Later Roman Empire (Cambridge Mass., 2004).

19. Anne Kolb, Transport und Nachrichtentransfer im römischen Reich (Berlin, 2000).

20. F. Kolb, Herrscherideologie in der Spätantike (Berlin, 2001).

21. R. Kaster, Guardians of Language: The Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity (Berkeley, 1988).

22. A. Laniado, Recherches sur les notables municipaux dans l’empire protobyzantin (Paris, 2002).

23. A. D. Lee, War in Late Antiquity: A Social History (Oxford, 2007).

24. W. Liebeschuetz, “The circus factions,” Convegno per Santo Mazzarino, Roma 9–11 Maggio 1991 (Saggi di storia antica 13, Rome, 2002), 163–85.

25. W. Liebeschuetz, Decline and Change in Late Antiquity. Religion, barbarians and their historiography (London, 2006).

26. H. P. L’Orange, Art Forms and Civic Life in the Later Roman Empire (Princeton, 1965).

27. Edward N. Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire (Cambridge, Mass./London, 2009).

28. M. Maas, John Lydus and the Roman Past. Antiquarianism and Politics in the Age of Justinian (London and New York, 1992).

29. M. Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2005).

30. S. MacCormack, Art and Ceremony in Late Antiquity (Berkeley, 1981).

31. M. McCormick, Eternal Victory. Triumphal Rulership in Late Antiquity, Byzantium and the Early Medieval West (Cambridge, 1986).

32. Meaghan A. McEvoy, Child Emperor Rule in the Late Roman West, AD 367–455 (Oxford, 2013).

33. R. MacMullen, Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire (New Haven, 1964).

34. R. MacMullen, Corruption and the Decline of Rome (New Haven, 1988).

35. R. MacMullen, “Cultural changes and political changes in the 4th and 5th centuries AD,” Historia 52 (2003), 465–95.

36. J. F. Matthews, Laying Down the Law. A Study of the Theodosian Code (New Haven, 2000).

37. F. Millar, Rome, the Greek World and the East, Volume 2. Government, Society, and Culture in the Roman Empire (Chapel Hill, 2004).

38. F. Millar, A Greek Roman Empire. Power, Belief and Reason under Theodosius II, 408–50 (Berkeley, 2006).

39. S. Mitchell and G. Greatrex, Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity (Wales and London, 2000).

40. A. Momigliano, “Cassiodorus and the Italian culture of his time,” PBA 41 (1955), 207–45.

41. M. J. Nicasie, Twilight of Empire: The Roman Army from Diocletian until the Battle of Adrianople (Amsterdam, 1998).

42. C. Roueché, Performers and Partisans at Aphrodisias in the Roman and Late Roman Periods (London, 1993).

43. Peter Sarris, Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2006).

44. Brent Shaw, Rome's Mediterranean World System and its Transformation (April 2008). Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics Paper No. 040801.

45. A. Smith (ed.), The Philosopher and Society in Late Antiquity (Swansea, 2005).

46. R. R. R. Smith, “Late Roman philosopher portraits from Aphrodisias,” JRS 80 (1990), 127–55.

47. R. R. R. Smith, “The public image of Licinius I: Portrait sculpture and imperial ideology in the early fourth century,” JRS 87 (1997), 170–202.

48. R. R. R. Smith, “Late antique portraits in a public context: Honorific statuary at Aphrodisias in Caria,” JRS 89 (1999), 155–89.

49. R. R. R. Smith, “The statue monument of Oecumenius: A new portrait of a late antique governor from Aphrodisias,” JRS 92 (2002), 134–56.

50. W. Thiel, “Tetrakionia. Überlegungen zu einem Denkmaltypus tetrachischer Zeit im Osten des römischen Reiches,” Ant. Tard. 60 (2002), 299–326.

51. W. Treadgold, Byzantium and its Army (Stanford, 1995).

52. L. Van Hoof and P. Van Nuffelen, “Monarchy and mass communication: Antioch AD 362/3 revisited,” JRS 101 (2011), 166–84.

53. E. Watts, “Justinian, Malalas, and the end of Athenian philosophical teaching in AD. 529,” JRS 94 (2004), 168–83.

54. E. Watts, City and School in Late Antique Athens and Alexandria (Berkeley, 2006).

55. Michael Whitby, “Recruitment in Roman armies from Justinian to Heraclius (ca. 565–615),” in Averil Cameron (ed.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East III. States, Resources and Armies (Princeton, 1995), 61–124.

56. Michael Whitby, “The violence of the circus factions,” in K. Hopwood (ed.), Organised Crime in Antiquity (Wales, 1998), 229–53.

57. Michael Whitby, Rome at War AD 293–696 (Oxford, 2002).

58. Michael Whitby, “Emperors and armies AD 235–395,” in S. Swain and M. Edwards (eds.), Approaching Late Antiquity (Oxford, 2004), 156–86.

59. K. W. Wilkinson, “Palladas and the age of Constantine,” JRS 99 (2009), 36–60.

60. K. W. Wilkinson, “Palladas and the foundation of Constantinople,” JRS 100 (2010), 179–94.


1.     P. Amory, “Names, ethnic identity and community in fifth and sixth century Burgundy,” Viator 25 (1994), 1–30.

2.     P. Amory, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy (Cambridge, 1997).

3.     S. J. B. Barnish, “Taxation, land and barbarian settlement in the western empire,” PBSR 54 (1986), 170–95.

4.     T. S. Burns, Barbarians Within the Gates of Rome. A Study of Roman Military Policy and the Barbarians c. 375–425 AD (Indiana, 1984).

5.     F. M. Clover, The Late Roman West and the Vandals (Variorum, 1993).

6.     W. Goffart, Romans and Barbarians AD 418–584. Techniques of Accommodation (Princeton, 1980).

7.     P. Heather, “Cassiodorus and the rise of the Amals: Genealogy and the Goths under Hun domination,” JRS 79 (1989), 103–28.

8.     P. Heather, Goths and Romans 332–489 (Oxford, 1991).

9.     P. Heather, “The emergence of the Visigothic kingdom,” in J. Drinkwater and H. Elton (eds.), Fifth-Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity (Cambridge, 1992), 84–92.

10. P. Heather, “The historical culture of Ostrogothic Italy,” Atti del XIII congresso internazionale di studi sull’Alto Medioevo (Spoleto, 1993), 317–53.

11. P. Heather, “Theoderic king of the Goths,” Early Medieval Europe 4 (1995), 145–73.

12. P. Heather, “The Huns and the end of the Roman Empire in the West,” EHR (1995), 4–41.

13. P. Heather (ed.), The Visigoths from the Migration Period to the Seventh Century: An Ethnographic Perspective (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1999).

14. P. Heather and J. F. Matthews, The Goths in the Fourth Century (Liverpool, 1991).

15. E. James, The Franks (Oxford, 1988).

16. C. Kelly, Attila the Hun. Barbarian terror and the fall of the Roman Empire (London, 2008).

17. S. Lebecq, “The two faces of king Childeric: History, archaeology, historiography,” in T. F. X. Noble (ed.), From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms. Rewriting histories (Abingdon, 2006), 327–44.

18. W. Liebeschuetz, Barbarians and Bishops (Oxford, 1990).

19. W. Liebeschuetz, “Cities, taxes and the accommodation of the barbarians: The theories of Durliat and Goffart,” in W. Pohl (ed.), Kingdoms of the Empire: The Integration of Barbarians in Late Antiquity (Leiden, 1997).

20. J. Man, Attila. A Barbarian King and the Fall of Rome (London, 2005).

21. A. H. Merrills (ed.), Vandals, Romans and Berbers. New perspectives on late antique North Africa (London, 2004).

22. A. H. Merrills and R. Miles, The Vandals (Oxford, 2010).

23. J. Moorhead, The Roman Empire Divided 400–700 (London, 2001).

24. W. Pohl (ed.), Kingdoms of the Empire: The Integration of Barbarians in Late Antiquity (Leiden, 1997).

25. W. Pohl and H. Reinitz (eds.), Strategies of Distinction: The Construction of Ethnic Communities 300–800 (Leiden, 1998).

26. E. A. Thompson, Romans and Barbarians: The Decline of the Western Empire (Madison, 1982).

27. E. A. Thompson, The Huns (rev. edn. of A History of Attila and the Huns [Oxford, 1948] with afterword by P. Heather, Oxford, 1996).

28. H. Wolfram, History of the Goths (English trans. by T. Dunlap, California, 1988).

29. H. Wolfram, The Roman Empire and its Germanic Peoples (English trans. by T. Dunlap, California, 1997).

30. I. Wood, “Ethnicity and the ethnogenesis of the Burgundians,” in H. Wolfram and W. Pohl, Typen der Ethnogenese unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Bayern (Vienna, 1990), 53–69.

31. I. Wood, The Merovingian Kingdoms 450–751 (London, 1994).


1.     B. Ankarloo and S. Clark (eds.) Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: Ancient Greece and Rome (London and Pennsylvania, 1999).

2.     P. Athanassiadi, Julian. An Intellectual Biography (London, 1992; first published as Julian and Hellenism, London, 1981).

3.     P. Athanassiadi, Damascius. The Philosophical History. Text, with Translation and Notes (Athens, 1999).

4.     P. Athanassiadi and M. Frede (eds.), Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity (Oxford, 1999).

5.     T. D. Barnes, “Christians and Pagans under Constantius,” L’Église et l’Empire au IVe Siècle (1989), 301–38.

6.     T. D. Barnes, Athanasius and Constantius. Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire (Harvard, 1993).

7.     T. D. Barnes, Early Christian Hagiography and Roman History (Stuttgart, 2010).

8.     R. Beck, “The mysteries of Mithras: A new account of their genesis,” JRS 88 (1998), 115–28.

9.     G. W. Bowersock, Hellenism in Late Antiquity (Ann Arbor, 1990).

10. P. R. L. Brown, Religion and Society in the Age of Saint Augustine (London, 1972).

11. P. R. L. Brown, The Cult of the Saints. Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity (Chicago, 1981).

12. P. R. L. Brown, Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity (London, 1982).

13. P. R. L. Brown, Poverty and Leadership in the Later Roman Empire (Hanover, New England and London, 2002).

14. P. R. L. Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom (2nd edn. Oxford, 2003).

15. Alan Cameron, The Last Pagans of Rome (Oxford, 2011).

16. Averil Cameron, Continuity and Change in Sixth-century Byzantium (Aldershot, 1981).

17. Averil Cameron, Changing Cultures in Early Byzantium. (Aldershot, 1996).

18. Averil Cameron, “How to read heresiology,” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 33 (2003) 471–492.

19. H. Chadwick, The Early Church (London, 1967).

20. A. Chaniotis, “The Jews of Aphrodisias: New evidence and old problems,” Studia Classica Israelica 21 (2002), 209.

21. E. D. Digeser, The Making of a Christian Empire. Lactantius and Rome (Cornell, 2000).

22. J. W. Drijvers and J. W. Watt (eds.), Portraits of Spiritual Authority in Late Antiquity. Religious Power in Early Christianity. Byzantium and the Christian Orient (Leiden, 1999).

23. Susanna Elm, Sons of Hellenism, Fathers of the Church. Emperor Julian, Gregory of Nazianzus, and the vision of Rome (Berkeley, 2012).

24. C. A. Faraone and D. Obbink (eds.), Magika Hiera. Ancient Greek Magic and Religion (Oxford, 1990).

25. G. Fowden, “Bishops and temples in the eastern empire,” JTS 29 (1978), 53–78.

26. G. Fowden, “The pagan holy man in late antique society,” JHS 102 (1982), 33–59.

27. G. Fowden, From Empire to Commonwealth. Consequences of Monotheism in Late Antiquity (Princeton, 1993).

28. W. H. C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (Oxford, 1965).

29. W. H. C. Frend, The Rise of the Monophysite Movement (Cambridge, 1972).

30. W. H. C. Frend, Religion Popular and Unpopular in the Early Christian Centuries (London, 1976).

31. W. H. C. Frend, The Rise of Christianity (London, 1984).

32. W. H. C. Frend, The Donatist Church: A Movement of Protest in Roman North Africa (3rd edn. Oxford, 1985).

33. W. H. C. Frend, Archaeology and History in the Study of Early Christianity (London, 1988).

34. I. Gardner and S. N. C. Lieu, Manichaean Texts from the Roman Empire (Cambridge, 2004).

35. J. Geffcken, The Last Days of Graeco-Roman Paganism (English trans. by S. MacCormack, Amsterdam, London, New York, 1978).

36. J. Hahn, Gewalt und Religiöser Konflikt. Studien zu den Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Christen, Heiden und Juden im Osten des römischen Reiches (von Konstantin bis Theodosius II) (Berlin, 2004).

37. R. P. C. Hanson, The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God. The Arian Controversy 318–381 AD (Edinburgh, 1988).

38. J. D. Howard-Johnston and P. A. Hayward (eds.), The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 1999).

39. S. Huebner, Der Klerus in der Gesellschaft des spätantiken Kleinasiens (Stuttgart, 2005).

40. E. D. Hunt, “Christians and Christianity in Ammianus Marcellinus,” CQ 35 (1985), 186–200.

41. W. Klingshirn, “Charity and power: Caesarius of Arles and the ransoming of prisoners in sub-Roman Gaul,” JRS 75 (1985), 183–203.

42. R. Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians (London, 1985).

43. J. Leemans and P. Van Nuffelen, Episcopal Elections in Late Antiquity (Berlin, 2011).

44. W. Liebeschuetz, Continuity and Change in Roman Religion (Oxford, 1972).

45. S. N. C. Lieu, Manichaeism in the Later Roman Empire and in Medieval China (2nd edn., Tübingen, 1992).

46. Richard Lim, “The nomen Manichaeorum and its uses in late antiquity,” in E. Irichinschi and H. M. Zellentin, Heresy and Identity in Late Antiquity (Stuttgart, 2008), 143–67.

47. R. Lizzi, “Ambrose's contemporaries and the Christianization of northern Italy,” JRS 80 (1990), 156–77.

48. N. McLynn, Ambrose of Milan. Church and Court in a Christian Capital (Berkeley, 1994).

49. R. MacMullen, Paganism in the Roman Empire (New Haven, 1981).

50. R. MacMullen, Christianizing the Roman Empire AD 100–400 (New Haven, 1984).

51. R. MacMullen, Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries (New Haven, 1997).

52. R. A. Markus, The End of Ancient Christianity (Cambridge, 1990).

53. F. Millar, “The Jews of the Graeco-Roman diaspora between paganism and Christianity AD 312–438,” in J. Lieu, J. North, and T. Rajak (eds.), The Jews among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire (London, 1992), 97–123.

54. F. Millar, “Christian emperors, Christian church and the Jews of the Diaspora in the Greek East, CE 379–450,” Journal of Jewish Studies 55 (2004), 1–24.

55. S. Mitchell, “Maximinus and the Christians in AD 312: A new Latin inscription,” JRS 78 (1988), 105–24.

56. S. Mitchell, Anatolia. Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor II, The Rise of the Church (Oxford, 1993).

57. S. Mitchell and P. Van Nuffelen (eds.), Monotheism between Pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity (Leuven, 2010).

58. A. Momigliano (ed.), The Conflict between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century (Oxford, 1963).

59. D. Ogden, Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds. A Sourcebook (Oxford, 2002).

60. Claudia Rapp, Holy Bishops in Late Antiquity: The Nature of Christian Leadership in an Age of Transition (Berkeley, 2005).

61. J. B. Rives, “The decree of Decius and the religion of the empire,” JRS 89 (1999), 135–54.

62. M. Salamon (ed.), Paganism in the Later Roman Empire and in Byzantium (Krakow, 1991).

63. M. R. Salzman, On Roman Time. The Codex-Calendar of 354 and the Rhythms of Urban Life in Late Antiquity (Berkeley, 1990).

64. Brent D. Shaw, Sacred Violence: African Christians and Sectarian Hatred in the Age of Augustine (Cambridge, 2011).

65. R. B. E. Smith, Julian's Gods. Religion and Philosophy in the Thought and Action of Julian the Apostate (London, 1995).

66. P. Thonemann, “Amphilochius of Iconium and Lycaonian asceticism,” JRS 101 (2011), 185–205.

67. R. Tomlin, “Christianity and the late Roman army,” in S. Lieu and D. Montserrat, Constantine. History, Historiography and Legend (London, 1998), 21–51.

68. F. R. Trombley, Hellenic Religion and Christianization (2 vols., Leiden, 1993–4).

69. R. van Dam, Saints and their Miracles in Late Antique Gaul (Princeton, 1993).

70. P. Weiss, “The vision of Constantine,” JRA 16 (2003), 237–59.

71. R. L. Wilken, John Chrysostom and the Jews. Rhetoric and Reality in the Late Fourth Century (Berkeley, 1983).

72. R. Williams, Arius. Heresy and Tradition (2nd edn. London, 2001).

73. Frances Young, From Nicaea to Chalcedon (London, 1983; 2nd ed. 2010).

Regions and Economies

1.     S. J. B. Barnish, “The transformation of classical cities and the Pirenne debate,” JRA 2 (1989), 385–400.

2.     M. O. H. Carver, Arguments in Stone: Archaeological Research and the European Town in the First Millennium (Oxford, 1993).

3.     N. Christie and S. T. Loseby, Towns in Transition. Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Aldershot, 1996).

4.     A. Giardino (ed.), Società romana e impero tardoantico vol. 3. Le merci, le insediamenti (Milan, 1986).

5.     M. F. Hendy, Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c.300–1450 (Cambridge, 1985); cf. review by F. Millar, JRS 78 (1988), 198–202.

6.     R. Hodges and D. Whitehouse, Mohammed, Charlemagne and the Origins of Europe (London, 1983).

7.     Hommes et richesses dans l’empire byzantin I, IVe–VIIe siècle (Paris, 1989).

8.     W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001).

9.     M. McCormick, Origins of the European Economy. Communications and Commerce AD 300–900 (Cambridge, 2002).

10. J. Rich (ed.), The City in Late Antiquity (London, 1992).

11. C. Wickham, “Marx, Sherlock Holmes and late Roman commerce,” JRS 78 (1988), 183–93.


1.     R. Chenault, “Statues of senators in the Forum of Trajan and the Roman forum in late antiquity,” JRS 102 (2012), 103–12.

2.     J. Curran, Pagan City and Christian Capital. Rome in the Fourth Century (Oxford, 2000).

3.     Lucy Grig and Gavin Kelly (eds.), Two Romes: Rome and Constantinople in Late Antiquity (Oxford, 2012).

4.     W. V. Harris (ed.), The Transformation of Rome in Late Antiquity (JRA Suppl. 33, 1999).

5.     R. R. Holloway, Constantine and Rome (New Haven and London, 2003).

6.     D. Kinney, “Rome,” in G. W. Bowersock et al. (eds.), Late Antiquity. A Guide to the Post-Classical World (Cambridge Mass., 1999), 673–4.

7.     R. Krautheimer, Rome: Profile of a City 312–1308 (Princeton, 1980).

8.     B. Lançon, Rome in Late Antiquity (Edinburgh, 2000).

9.     A. Logan, “Constantine, the Liber Pontificalis and the Christian basilicas of Rome,” Studia Patristica 50 (2010), 31–53.

10. C. Pietri, Roma Christiana (2 vols, Paris, 1976).

11. Roma. Dall’Antichità al Medioevo. Archeologia e Storia (Rome, 2001).


1.     J. Bardill, “The great palace of the Byzantine emperors and the Walker Trust excavations,” JRA 12 (1999), 217–30.

2.     J. Crow, “Investigating the hinterland of Constantinople: Interim report on the Anastasian Long Wall,” JRA 10 (1997), 235–62.

3.     J. Crow, J. Bardill, and R. Bayliss, The Water Supply of Byzantine Constantinople (JRS Monograph 11, London, 2008).

4.     G. Dagron, Naissance d’une capitale: Constantinople et ses institutions de 330 à 441 (Paris, 1974).

5.     G. Downey, Constantinople in the Age of Justinian (Oklahoma, 1960).

6.     C. Mango, Le developpement urbain de Constantinople IVe–VIIe siècles (Paris, 1991).

7.     C. Mango and G. Dagron (eds.), Constantinople and its Hinterland (Aldershot, 1995).

8.     A. Ricci, “Constantinople,” in G. W. Bowersock et al. (eds.), Late Antiquity. A Guide to the Post-Classical World (Cambridge Mass., 1999), 391–2.

9.     L. M. Whitby, “The long walls of Constantinople,” Byzantion 55 (1985), 560–83.


1.     C. Haas, Alexandria in Late Antiquity. Topography and Social Conflict (Baltimore, 1997).

2.     C. Haas, “Alexandria,” in G. W. Bowersock et al. (eds.), Late Antiquity. A Guide to the Post-Classical World (Cambridge Mass., 1999), 285–7.

3.     J. Mackenzie, “Glimpsing Alexandria from archaeological evidence,” JRA 16 (2003), 35–63.

4.     J. Mackenzie, S. Gibson, and A. T. Reyes, “Reconstructing the Serapeum in Alexandria from archaeological evidence,” JRS 94 (2004), 73–121.


1.     S. Campbell, Mosaic Pavements of Antioch (Toronto, 1988).

2.     G. Dagron, “Un tarif des sportules à payer aux curiosi du port de Séleucie de Pisidie,” Travaux et Mémoires 9 (1985), 435–55.

3.     G. Downey, “The economic crisis at Antioch under Julian the apostate,” Studies in Honour of A. C. Johnson (Princeton, 1951), 312–21.

4.     G. Downey, A History of Antioch in Syria from Seleucus to the Arab Conquest (Princeton, 1961). Abbreviated edn. Ancient Antioch (Princeton, 1963).

5.     A. J. Festugière, Antioche paienne et chrétienne: Libanius, Chrysostome et les moines de Syrie (Paris, 1959).

6.     H. Kennedy, “Antioch: From Byzantine to Islam and back again,” in J. Rich (ed.), The City in Late Antiquity (London, 1992), 181–98.

7.     C. Kontoleon (ed.), Antioch. The Last Ancient City (Princeton, 2001).

8.     J. Lassus, “Antioch on the Orontes,” Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (Princeton, 1976), 61–3.

9.     W. Liebeschuetz, Antioch. City and Imperial Administration in the Later Roman Empire (Oxford, 1972).

10. P. Petit, Libanius et la vie municipale à Antioche au IVe siècle après J.-C. (Paris, 1955), 305–22.

11. I. Sandwell and J. Huskinson (eds.), Culture and Society in Later Roman Antioch (Oxford, 2004).

12. L. M. Whitby, “Procopius and Antioch,” in D. French and C. S. Lightfoot (eds.), The Eastern Frontier of the Roman Empire (2 vols., Oxford, 1989), 537–53.

The Near East

1.     K. Butcher, Roman Syria and the Near East (London, 2003), 135–79.

2.     H. C. Butler, Early Churches in Syria. Fourth to Seventh Centuries (Princeton, 1929, repr. Amsterdam, 1969).

3.     M. O. H. Carver, “Transitions to Islam: Urban roles in the east and south Mediterranean, fifth to tenth centuries AD,” in N. Christie and S. T. Loseby, Towns in Transition. Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Aldershot, 1996), 184–212.

4.     P. Casey, “Justinian, the limitanei, and Arab-Byzantine relations in the sixth century,” JRA 9 (1996), 214–22.

5.     M. Decker, “Food for an empire: Wine and oil production in North Syria,” in S. Kingsley and M. Decker (eds.), Economy and Exchange in the East Mediterranean during Late Antiquity (Oxford, 2001), 69–86.

6.     C. Foss, “The near eastern countryside in late antiquity: A review article,” in J. Humphreys (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Near East. Some Recent Archaeological Research (Michigan, 1995), 213–34.

7.     C. Foss, “Syria in transition AD 550–750. An archaeological approach,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 51 (1997), 189–269.

8.     C. Foss, “Urban and rural housing in Syria,” JRA 13 (2000), 796–800 (review article).

9.     E. K. Fowden, The Barbarian Plain. Saint Sergius between Rome and Iran (Berkeley, 1999).

10. P.-L. Gatier, “Villages du Proche-Orient protobyzantin,” in G. King and A. Cameron (eds.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East (Princeton, 1994), 17–48.

11. C. A. M. Glucker, The City of Gaza in the Roman and Byzantine Periods (Oxford, 1987).

12. L. J. Hall, Roman Berytus: Beirut in Late Antiquity (London and New York, 2004).

13. Y. Hirschfeld, The Palestinian Dwelling in the Roman-Byzantine Period (Jerusalem, 1995).

14. Y. Hirschfeld, “Social aspects of the late-antique village of Shivta (Negev),” JRA 16 (2003), 395–408.

15. A. Hoffmann and S. Kerner (eds.), Gadara-Gerasa und die Dekapolis (Antike Welt Sonderband, Mainz, 2002).

16. H. Kennedy, “From polis to medina: Urban change in late antique and early Islamic Syria,” Past and Present 106 (1985), 3–27.

17. H. Kennedy, “The last century of Byzantine Syria: A reinterpretation,” Byzantinische Forschungen 10 (1985), 141–54.

18. H. Kennedy and W. Liebeschuetz, “Antioch and the villages of northern Syria in the fifth and sixth centuries: Trends and problems,” Nottingham Medieval Studies 32 (1988), 65–90.

19. M. Konrad, “Research on the Roman and early Byzantine frontier in North Syria,” JRA 12 (1999), 392–410.

20. W. Liebeschuetz, “Late late antiquity in the cities of the Roman Near East,” Mediterraneo Antico (economie società culture) 3 (2000), 43–75.

21. P. Mayerson, The Ancient Agricultural Systems of Nessana and the Central Negeb (London, 1960).

22. I. Pena, The Christian Art of Byzantine Syria (Eng. trans. Reading, 1996).

23. J.-P. Sodini, “ Productions et échanges dans le monde protobyzantine (IVe–VIIe siècle): le cas de la céramique,” in Byzans als Raum (Vienna, 2000), 181–208.

24. C. Strube, Die “toten Städte.” Stadt und Land in Nordsyrien in der Spätantike (Mainz, 1996).

25. G. Tate, Les campagnes de Syrie du Nord I (Paris, 1992).

26. G. Tchalenko, Villages antiques de la Syrie du Nord I–III (Paris, 1958).

27. Y. Tsafrir and G. Foerster, “Urbanism at Scythopolis: Bet Shean in the fourth to seventh centuries,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 51 (1997), 85–146.

28. F. Villeneuve, “L’économie rurale et la vie des campagnes dans le Hauran antique,” in J. M. Dentzer (ed.), Hauran I (Paris, 1986), 63–129.

29. B. de Vries, “Continuity and change in the urban character of the southern Hauran from the 5th to the 9th century: the archaeological evidence at Umm al-Jimal,” Mediterranean Archaeology 13 (2000), 39–46.

30. A. Walmsley, “Byzantine Palestine and Arabia: Urban prosperity in late antiquity,” in N. Christie and S. T. Loseby, Towns in Transition. Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Aldershot, 1996), 126–58.

Asia Minor

1.     R. Cormack, “The classical tradition in the Byzantine provincial city: The evidence of Thessalonike and Aphrodisias,” Byzantium and the Classical Tradition (1981), 103–18.

2.     R. Cormack, “The temple as cathedral,” in C. Roueché and K. Erim (eds.), Aphrodisias Papers: Recent Work on Architecture and Sculpture (Ann Arbor, 1990), 75–88.

3.     H. Elton, “The nature of the sixth century Isaurians,” in S. Mitchell and G. Greatrex, Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity (2000), 293–307.

4.     K. Feld, Barbarische Bürger. Die Isaurier und das römische Reich (Berlin, 2005).

5.     C. Foss, Byzantine and Turkish Sardis (Cambridge Mass., 1976).

6.     C. Foss, “Late antique and Byzantine Ankara,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 31 (1977), 27–87.

7.     C. Foss, Ephesus after Antiquity. A Late Antique, Byzantine and Turkish City (Cambridge Mass., 1979).

8.     C. Foss, History and Archaeology of Byzantine Asia Minor (Aldershot, 1990).

9.     C. Foss, “Cities and villages of Lycia in the Life of St Nicholas of Holy Zion,” Greek Orthodox Theological Review 36 (1991), 303–39.

10. C. Foss, Cities, Fortresses and Villages of Byzantine Asia Minor (Aldershot, 1996).

11. S. Hill, The Early Byzantine Churches of Cilicia and Isauria (Birmingham Byzantine and Ottoman Monographs 1, Birmingham, 1996).

12. Ine Jacobs, “A tale of prosperity. Asia Minor in the Theodosian period,” Byzantion 82 (2012), 113–64.

13. N. Lenski, “Assimilation and Revolt in the Territory of Isauria,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 42 (1999), 413–65.

14. S. Mitchell, Anatolia. Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor II. The Rise of the Church (Oxford, 1993).

15. S. Mitchell, Cremna in Pisidia. An Ancient City in Peace and in War (Wales and London, 1995).

16. S. Mitchell and M. Waelkens, Pisidian Antioch. The Site and its Monuments (Wales and London, 1998).

17. C. Ratté, “New research on the urban development of Aphrodisias in late antiquity,” in D. Parrish (ed.), Urbanism in Western Asian Minor (Rhode Island 2001), 117–47.

18. C. Roueché, Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity (JRS Monograph no. 5, London, 1989).

19. C. Roueché, Performers and Partisans at Aphrodisias in the Roman and Late Roman Periods (JRS Monograph no. 6, London, 1993).

20. B. Shaw, “Bandit highlands and lowland peace: the mountains of Isauria-Cilicia,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 33 (1990), 199–233, 237–70.

21. Tabula Imperii Byzantini vols. 2, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10, covering Cappadocia, Galatia, Lycaonia, Paphlagonia, Cilicia, Isauria, Phrygia, Pisidia, Pamphylia, and Lycia, by M. Restle, F. Hild, H. Hellenkemper, and K. Belke (Vienna, 1981–2004).

22. M. Waelkens, “The late antique city in Southwest Anatolia. A case study: Sagalassos and its territory,” in Die spätantike Stadt - Niedergang oder Wandel? (2006), 199–255.

23. Michael Whitby, “Justinian's bridge over the Sangarius and the date of Procopius’ de aedificiis,” JHS 105 (1985), 129–48.

24. Philip Wood, “The invention of history in the later Roman world. The conversion of Isauria in the Life of Conon,” Anatolian Studies 59 (2009), 129–38.

The Eastern Frontier

1.     R. C. Blockley, “The division of Armenia between Rome and the Persians at the end of the fourth century,” Historia 36 (1987), 222–34.

2.     D. Braund, Georgia in Antiquity. A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC–AD 562 (Oxford, 1994).

3.     B. Croke and J. Crow, “Procopius and Dara,” JRS 63 (1983), 143–59.

4.     E. K. Fowden, The Barbarian Plain. Saint Sergius between Rome and Iran (Berkeley, 1999).

5.     D. H. French and C. S. Lightfoot, The Eastern Frontier of the Roman Empire (2 vols., Oxford, 1989).

6.     G. Greatrex, Rome and Persia at War 502–532 (Liverpool, 1998).

7.     E. Gren, Kleinasien und der Ostbalkan in der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung der römischen Kaiserzeit (Uppsala, 1942).

8.     J. D. Howard-Johnston, “Procopius, Roman defences north of the Taurus and the new fortress of Citharizon,” in D. H. French and C. S. Lightfoot, The Eastern Frontier of the Roman Empire I (Oxford, 1989), 203–29.

9.     W. Liebeschuetz, “The defences of Syria in the sixth century,” Studien zu den Militärgrenzen Roms II (Cologne, 1977), 487–99.

10. R. W. Thompson, “Armenia in the fifth and sixth century,” CAH XIV, 662–77.

11. Michael Whitby, “Procopius and the development of Roman defences in upper Mesopotamia,” in P. Freeman and D. Kennedy, The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East (Oxford, 1986), 717–35.

12. E. Winter, “On the regulation of the eastern frontier of the Roman empire in 298,” in D. H. French and C. S Lightfoot (eds.), The Eastern Frontier of the Roman Empire II (Oxford, 1989), 555–71.


1.     R. Alston, “Urban population in late Roman Egypt and the end of the ancient world,” in W. Scheidel (ed.), Debating Roman Demography (Leiden, 2001).

2.     R. Alston, The City in Roman and Byzantine Egypt (London, 2002).

3.     R. S. Bagnall, Egypt in Late Antiquity (Princeton, 1993).

4.     R. Bagnall and D. Rathbone (eds.), Egypt from Alexander to the Copts. An Archaeological and Historical Guide (London, 2004).

5.     J. Banaji, Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity: gold, labour, and aristocratic dominance (Oxford, 2001).

6.     A. K. Bowman, Egypt after the Pharaohs 332 BC–AD 642. From Alexander to the Arab Conquest (London, 1986).

7.     J. Gascou, “Les grandes domaines, la cité et l’état en Égypte byzantine,” Travaux et Mémoires 9 (1985), 1–90.

8.     J. Gascou, “L’Égypte byzantin (284–641),” in C. Morrisson (ed.), Le monde byzantin I (2004), 403–36.

9.     D. Kehoe, “Aristocratic dominance in the late Roman agrarian economy and the question of economic growth,” JRA 16 (2003), 711–19 (review of Banaji, Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity).

10. L. MacCoull, Disocorus of Aphrodito: His work and his world (Berkeley, 1988).

11. D. Rathbone, “Village, land and population in Graeco Roman Egypt,” PCPS 36 (1990), 103-42.

12. P. Sarris, Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2006).


1.     Averil Cameron, “Byzantine Africa, the literary evidence,” in J. Humphrey (ed.), Excavations at Carthage 1978, conducted by the University of Michigan VII (Ann Arbor, 1982), 26–92.

2.     A. Carandini, “Pottery and the African economy,” in P. Garnsey et al. (eds.), Trade in the Ancient Economy (Cambridge, 1983), 145–62.

3.     C. Courtois, Les Vandales et l’Afrique (Paris, 1955).

4.     N. Duval, “Quinze ans de recherches archéologiques sur l’antiquité tardive en Afrique du Nord 1975–90,” REA 92 (1990), 349–87.

5.     N. Duval, “Vingt ans de recherches archéologiques sur l’antiquité tardive en Afrique du Nord 1975–94,” REA 95 (1993), 583–640.

6.     W. H. C. Frend, The Archaeology of Early Christianity. A History (London, 1996).

7.     C. Lepelley, Les cités de l’Afrique romaine au bas-empire (2 vols. Paris, 1979, 1981).

8.     C. Lepelley, “The survival and fall of the classical city in late Roman Africa,” in Aspectes de l’Afrique romaine. Les cités, la vie rurale, et le christianisme (Bari, 2001), 85–104 (originally in J. Rich [ed.], The City in Late Antiquity [London 1992], 50–76).

9.     D. J. Mattingly, “Oil for export? A comparison of Libyan, Spanish and Tunisian olive oil production in the Roman empire,” JRA 1 (1988), 33–56.

10. D. J. Mattingly, “Olive cultivation and the Albertini tablets,” in L’Africa Romana 6. 1 (1989), 403–15.

11. D. J. Mattingly and R. Hitchner, “Roman Africa: An archaeological survey,” JRS 85 (1995), 165–213.

12. A. H. Merrills, Vandals, Romans and Berbers. New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa (Aldershot, 2004).

13. Y. Modéran, “L’établissment territorial des Vandales en Afrique,” Ant. Tard. 10 (2002), 87–122.

14. D. Pringle, The Defence of Byzantine Africa from Justinian to the Arab Conquest (2 vols., Oxford, 1981).

15. P. Salama, Bornes milliaires de l’Afrique Proconsulaire. Un panorama historique du Bas-Empire romain (Paris, 1987).

16. B. D. Shaw, Rulers, Nomads and Christians in Roman North Africa (Aldershot, 1995).

17. B. H. Warmington, The North African Provinces from Diocletian to the Vandal Conquest (Cambridge, 1954).


1.     B. S. Bachrach, “Fifth-century Metz. Late Roman Christian urbs or ghost town?” Ant. Tard. 10 (2002), 363–81.

2.     J. Drinkwater and H. Elton, Fifth Century Gaul. A Crisis of Identity? (Cambridge, 1992).

3.     G. Halsall, Settlement and Social Organisation. The Merovingian Region of Metz (Cambridge, 1995).

4.     G. Halsall, “Towns, societies and ideas: The not-so-strange case of late Roman and early Carolingian Metz,” in N. Christie and S. T. Loseby, Towns in Transition. Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Aldershot, 1996), 235–61.

5.     W. Klingshirn, Caesarius of Arles. The Making of a Christian Community in Late Antique Gaul (Cambridge, 1993).

6.     S. Loseby, “Marseilles: A late antique success story?” JRS 82 (1992), 165–85.

7.     S. Loseby, “Arles in late antiquity: Gallula Roma Arelate and Urbs Genesii,” in N. Christie and S. T. Loseby, Towns in Transition. Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Aldershot, 1996), 45–70.

8.     M. Meijmanns, “La topographie de la ville d’Arles durant l’antiquité tardive,” JRA 12 (1999), 143–67.

9.     H. von Petrikovitz, “Fortifications in the north-western Roman empire from the 3rd to the 5th century,” JRS 61 (1971), 178–218.

10. W. Reusch, “Augusta Treverorum,” Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (Princeton, 1976), 119–21.

11. H. Schöneberger, “The Roman frontier in Germany: An archaeological survey,” JRS 59 (1969), 144–97.

12. R. Seager, “Roman policy on the Rhine and the Danube in Ammianus,” CQ 49 (1999), 579–605.

13. C. Wickham, “Un pas vers le Moyen Âge. Permanences et mutations,” in P. Ouzoulias et al., Les campagnes de la Gaule à la fin de l’antiquité (Colloque Montpellier 1998, publ. Antibes, 2001).

14. P. van Ossel and P. Ouzoulias, “Rural settlement economy in Northern Gaul in the late empire: An overview and assessment,” JRA 13 (2000), 133–57.


1.     P. Arthur, “Some observations on the economy of Bruttium under the later Roman empire,” JRA 2 (1989), 133–42.

2.     S. J. B. Barnish, “Pigs, plebeians and potentes: Rome's economic hinterland c.350–600 AD,” PBSR 55 (1987), 157–85.

3.     S. J. B. Barnish, “’Transformation and survival in the western senatorial aristocracy c. AD 400–700,” PBSR 56 (1988), 120–55.

4.     P. S. Barnwell, Emperors, Prefects and Kings: The Roman West 395–565 (London, 1992).

5.     N. Christie, “The Alps as a frontier (AD 168–774),” JRA 4 (1991), 410–30.

6.     N. Christie, The Lombards (Oxford, 1995).

7.     B. Ward-Perkins, From Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Public Building in Northern and Central Italy AD 300–850 (Oxford, 1984).

8.     C. Wickham, Early Medieval Italy. Central Power and Local Society 400–1000 (London, 1981).

9.     C. Wickham, Land and Power. Studies in Italian and European social history, 400–1200 (London, 1994).

The Danube Region

1.     B. Bavant, “Illyricum,” in C. Morrisson (ed.), Le Monde Byzantin I, 303–48.

2.     N. Christie, “Towns and peoples on the middle Danube in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages,” in N. Christie and S. T. Loseby, Towns in Transition. Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Aldershot, 1996), 71–98.

3.     B. Croke, “Hormisdas and the late Roman walls of Thessalonica,” GRBS 19 (1978), 251–8.

4.     B. Croke, “Thessalonika's early Byzantine palaces,” Byzantion 51 (1981), 475–83.

5.     F. Curta, The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, ca. 500–700 (Cambridge 2001, revised ed. 2007).

6.     T. E. Gregory, “Kastro and diateichisma as responses to early Byzantine frontier collapse,” Byzantion 62 (1992), 235–53.

7.     J. Haberl with Christopher Hawkes, “The last of Roman Noricum: St Severin on the Danube,” in C. F C. Hawkes and S. Hawkes (eds.), Greeks, Celts and Romans. Studies in Venture and Resistance (Towota, 1973), 97–149.

8.     R. L. Hohlfelder (ed.), City, Town, and Countryside in the Early Byzantine Era (New York, 1982).

9.     P. Lemerle, Les plus anciens recueils des miracles de Saint Démétrius et la pénétration des Slaves dans les Balkans (2 vols., Paris, 1979–81).

10. F. Lotter, Severinus von Noricum. Legende und historische Wirklichkeit (Stuttgart, 1976)

11. D. M. Metcalf, “Avar and Slav invasions into the Balkan peninsula (c.575–625): The nature of the numismatic evidence,” JRA 4 (1991), 140–8.

12. V. Popovic, “La descente des Koutrigours, des Slaves et Avars vers la mer Égée: le témoignage de l’archéologie,” CRAI 1978, 596–648.

13. V. Popovic, “Aux origines de la slavisation des Balkans: la constitution des premières sklavinies macédoniennes vers la fin du Vie siècle,” CRAI 1980, 230–57.

14. A. G. Poulter, “The transition to late antiquity on the Lower Danube: An interim report (1996–98),” Antiquaries Journal 79 (1999), 145–85.

15. A. G. Poulter, “The Lower Danubian frontier in Late Antiquity: Evolution and dramatic change in the frontier zone, c.296–600,” in P. Herz et al. (eds.), Zwischen Region und Reich: das Gebiet der oberen Donau im Imperium Romanum (Berlin, 2008), 11–42.

16. J. M. Spieser, “Les inscriptions de Thessalonique,” Travaux et Mémoires 5 (1973), 145–80.

17. J. M. Spieser, Thessalonique et ses monuments du IVe au VIe siècles. Contribution à l’étude d’une ville paléochrétienne (Paris, 1984).

18. Villes et peuplement dans l’ Illyricum Protobyzantin (Collection Ecole Française de Rome 77, 1984).

19. J. J. Wilkes, Diocletian's Palace, Split (Sheffield, 1986).

The Sassanians

1.     Averil Cameron, “Agathias on the Sassanians,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23/4 (1969/70), 67–183.

2.     B. Dignas and E. Winter, Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity. Neighbours and rivals (Cambridge, 2007)

3.     G. Fowden, Empire to Commonwealth. Consequences of Monotheism in Late Antiquity (Princeton, 1993).

4.     J. Howard-Johnston, “The two great powers of late antiquity: A comparison,” in Averil Cameron (ed.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East III (Princeton, 1995), 157–226.

5.     P. Pourshariati, Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire. The Sasanian–Parthian confederacy and the Arab conquest of Iran (London, 2009).

6.     Z. Rubin, “The reforms of Khusro Anushirwan,” in Averil Cameron (ed.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East III (Princeton, 1995), 227–97.

7.     Michael Whitby, “The Persian king at war,” in E. Dabrowa (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Army in the East (Krakow, 1994), 227–63.

The Later Sixth Century

1.     P. Allen, “The Justinianic plague,” Byzantion 49 (1979), 5–20.

2.     A. Arjava, “The mystery cloud of 536 CE in the Mediterranean sources,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 59 (2005), 73–94.

3.     Averil Cameron, “Images of authority: Elites and icons in late sixth century Byzantium,” Past and Present 84 (1976), 3–35.

4.     Averil Cameron, “The Theotokos in sixth century Constantinople,” JTS 29 (1978), 79–108.

5.     Averil Cameron (ed.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East III. States, Resources and Armies (Princeton, 1995).

6.     Averil Cameron and L. Conrad (eds.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East I. Problems in the Literary Source Material (Princeton, 1992).

7.     L. Conrad, “Epidemic disease in central Syria in the late sixth century,” Modern Greek and Byzantine Studies 18 (1994), 12–58.

8.     J. Durliat, “La peste du VIe siècle,” Hommes et richesses dans l’empire byzantin (Paris, 1989), 107–19.

9.     D. Keys, Catastrophe. An Investigation into the Origin of the Modern World (London, 1999).

10. W. Liebeschuetz, “Late late antiquity (6th and 7th centuries) in the cities of the Roman Near East,” Mediterraneo Antico 3 (2000), 43–75.

11. Lester K. Little (ed.), Plague and the End of Antiquity. The pandemic of 541–750 (Cambridge, 2007).

12. M. McCormick, “Bateaux de vie, bateaux de mort, maladie, commerce, transports annonaires et le passage économique du Bas-Empire au Moyen-Age,” Morfologie sociali e culturali di Europa fra tarda antichità e alto medioevo (Spoleto, 1998), 35–122.

13. M. Meier, Das andere Zeitalter Justinians. Kontingenzerfahrung und Kontingenzbewältigung im 6. Jht. n. Chr. (Göttingen, 2003).

14. H. Pirenne, Mohammed and Charlemagne (English trans. London, 1937).

15. D. Stathakopoulos, “The Justinianic plague revisited,” Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 24 (2000), 256–76.

16. D. Stathakopoulos, Famine and Pestilence in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine Empire. A systematic survey of subsistence crises and epidemics (London, 2004).

17. M. Whittow, The Making of Byzantium 600–1025 (London, 1996).

Heraclius and the Final Wars with Persia

1.     Averil Cameron, “The Virgin's robe: An episode in the history of early seventh-century Constantinople,” Byzantion 49 (1979), 42–56.

2.     C. Foss, “The Persians in Asia Minor and the end of antiquity,” EHR 90 (1975), 721–47.

3.     C. Foss, “The Persians in the Roman Near East,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 13 (2003), 149–70.

4.     J. Howard-Johnston, “The siege of Constantinople in 626,” in C. Mango and G. Dagron (eds.), Constantinople and its Hinterland (Aldershot, 1985), 131–42.

5.     J. Howard-Johnston, “The official history of Heraclius’ Persian campaigns,” in E. Dabrowa (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Army in the East (Krakow, 1994), 57–87.

6.     J. Howard-Johnston, “Heraclius’ Persian campaigns and the revival of the East Roman Empire, 622–30,” War in History 6. 1 (1999), 1–44.

7.     W. E. Kaegi, Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium (Cambridge, 2003).

8.     G. J. Reinink and B. H. Stolte (eds.), The Reign of Heraclius (610–41). Crisis and Confrontation (Leiden, 2002).

9.     J. Russell, “The Persian invasion of Syria/Palestine and Asia Minor in the reign of Heraclius: Archaeological and numismatic evidence,” in E. Kountoura-Galake (ed.), The Dark Centuries of Byzantium (7th–9th cent.) (Athens, 2001), 41–71.

10. Mary Whitby, “A new image for a new age: George of Pisidia on the emperor Heraclius,” in E. Dabrowa (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Army in the East (Krakow, 1994), 197–225.


1.     R. W. Bulliet, The Camel and the Wheel (Cambridge Mass., 1975).

2.     A. J. Butler, The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty Years of the Roman Dominion (rev. edn. by P. M. Fraser, Oxford, 1978).

3.     P. Crone, Slaves on Horses. The Evolution of the Islamic Polity (Cambridge, 1980).

4.     F. M. Donner, The Early Islamic Conquests (Princeton, 1981).

5.     F. M. Donner, Narratives of Islamic Origins. The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing (Princeton, 1998).

6.     R. Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It. A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam (Princeton, 1997).

7.     W. E. Kaegi, Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests (Cambridge, 1992).

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