Art and Architecture


The Romans built triumphal arches to recognize the accomplishments of their leaders. The Arch of Titus, shown here, commemorates Rome’s victory over rebels in Judaea. Titus was the son of the emperor Vespasian and heir to the imperial throne.


This relief sculpture is an example of plebeian art—work created by and for the Roman lower classes. The figure is shown facing the viewer, and the focus is on the action in which the figure is engaged. Here a greengrocer is displaying her wares.


Hadrian’s Villa, shown here, was a vast complex of buildings, gardens, and pools stretching more than a half a mile in length.This elongated pool may have represented the Canopus, a canal in Egypt.


This fresco is from the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii. Frescoes were produced by applying paint to wet plaster. The paint bonds with the plaster as it dries.


Nearly 100 feet high, the spectacular Column of Trajan stands in Rome. Spiraling around the exterior of this marble structure are 150 scenes from the emperor’s victorious campaign against the Dacians.

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