Preface

The primary scope of this book is to introduce students of ancient history to the world of Athenian democracy and its continuing legacy in the Hellenistic and Roman ages.

The people of classical Athens considered their city to be like no other, and the democratic constitution the most extraordinary product of the uniqueness of the Athenian experience, whether they liked it or not. The Greek noun usually translated as ‘constitution’ is politeia. The term derives from the same stem of polis, or – not very appropriately – ‘city-state’, the most typical form of civic organization of the classical world. Politeia generally refers to the form of government of a polis and its political institutions, but can also indicate its members, the body of citizens, and the right to be one of its members, citizenship. The fact that the same word signified ‘constitution’ and ‘citizenship’ (meant both as civic/political rights and body of citizens) is very important for understanding the political mentality of the Greeks: in a society where political participation was not a universal right, but indeed the privilege of a minority, from which women and foreign residents were excluded, not to mention slaves, the set of rules and institutions that formed the politeia-constitution represented a vital element in defining the culture and identity of the polis community. This book will analyze Athenian democracy from this wider perspective: it will consider the evidence relating to the political activity within the polis as well as the other spheres of life to investigate how the development of a system of government based on public debate and collective decision-making, albeit confined to a tiny minority, contributed to the birth of a new kind of society and, indeed, of a new kind of man. This book will therefore present a very wide range of texts, from administrative documents to private letters, from legal speeches to epic poems.

All the translations are my own; the most common proper names and other words have been transliterated in their Latinized or Anglicized version. All the dates in this book are BC, unless otherwise stated.

This book is dedicated to my sister Silvia.

The University of Queensland, June 2014

Abbreviations

Ancient authors

Aes.

Aeschines

Ag. Tim

Against Timarchus

Aesch.

Aeschylus

Eum.

Eumenides

Supp.

Suppliant Women

And.

Andocides

Ag. Ctes.

Against Ctesiphon

Myst.

On the Mysteries

App.

Appian

Myth.

The Mythridatic Wars

Ar.

Aristophanes

Lys.

Lysistrata

Arist.

Aristotle

Ath. Const.

Constitution of the Athenians

Pol.

Politics

Ath.

Athenaeus

Deip.

Deipnosophistae

Cic.

Cicero

Att.

Letters to Atticus

Dem.

Demosthenes

Ag. Ev. Mnes.

Against Evergus and Mnesibulus

Ag. Lep.

Against Leptines

Ag. Nea.

Against Neaera

Ag. Tim.

Against Timotheus

Alex.

On the Treaty with Alexander

Answer Alex.

Answer to Alexander

Answer Phil.

Answer to Philip

Crown

On the Crown

Emb.

On the False Embassy

On. Org.

On Organization

Phil. III

Third Philippic

Rhod.

For the Liberty of the Rhodians

Diod.

Diodorus Siculus

Dion.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus

Hdt.

Herodotus

Hist. Aug.

Historia Augusta

Hom.

Homer

Il.

Iliad

Od.

Odyssey

Hyp.

Hyperides

Ag. Ath.

Against Athenogenes

Fun. Speech

Funerary Speech

Isoc.

Isocrates

Areop.

Areopagiticus

Hel.

Helen

Peace

On the Peace

Lyc.

Lycurgus

Ag. Leoc.

Against Leocrates

Lys.

Lysias

Ag. Nic.

Against Nicomachus

Aristoph.

On the Property of Aristophanes

Corr.

Defence against a change of corruption

Paus.

Pausanias

Pl.

Plato

Ap. Soc.

Apology of Socrates

Gor.

Gorgias

Hipp.

Hipparchus

Lett.

Letters

Plin.

Pliny the Elder

Nat. Hist.

Natural History

Plut.

Plutarch

Arist.

Life of Aristides

Demet.

Life of Demetrius

Per.

Life of Pericles

Sol.

Life of Solon

Sull.

Life of Sulla

Them.

Life of Themistocles

Thes.

Life of Theseus

Pol.

Polybius

Poll.

Pollux

PS. Ap.

Pseudo-Apollodorus

Ps. Xen.

Pseudo Xenophon

Ath. Const.

Constitution of the Athenians

Stob.

Stobaeus

Tac.

Tacitus

Or.

Dialogue on Oratory

Theoph.

Theophrastus

Char.

Characters

Thuc.

Thucydides

Xen.

Xenophon

Hell.

Hellenica

Sp. Const.

Constitution of the Spartans

Symp.

Symposium

Modern texts and collections

AAntHung

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae

ABSA

The Annual of the British School at Athens

AC

L’Antiquité classique

Agora Inv.

Agora Inventory

AgoraPicBk

Excavations of the Athenian Agora Picture BookPrinceton, 1958–

AH

Ancient History

AJA

American Journal of Archaeology

AJAH

American Journal of Ancient History

AncSoc

Ancient Society

AncW

Ancient World

APRS

The American Political Science Review

ATL

B. D. Meritt, H. T. Wade-Gery, M. F. McGregor, The Athenian Tribute Lists, Cambridge (MA) and Princeton, 1939–53

Benjamin

A. S. Benjamin, ‘The altars of Hadrian in Athens and Hadrian’s Panhellenic program’, Hesperia 32 (1963), 57–86

Bergk

Poetae lyrici graeci recensuit Theodorus Bergk, Lipsiae, 1878–82

BICS

Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies

BSA

The Annual of the British School at Athens

CCC

Civiltà classica e cristiana

CIL

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Berlin, 1847–

CJ

The Classical Journal

ClAnt

Classical Antiquity

CQ

The Classical Quarterly

DHA

Dialogues d’Historie Ancienne

EMC

Échos du monde classique

FGH

F. Jacoby, Die Fragmente der grieschischen Historiker, Berlin and Leiden, 1923–

Fornara

C. V. Fornara, Translated Documents of Greece and Rome, Volume 1. Archaic Times to the End of the Peloponnesian War, Cambridge, 1986

G&R

Greece and Rome

GHI

J. Rhodes and R. Osborne, Greek Historical Inscriptions: 404–323, Oxford, 2003

GRBS

Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies

Hansen

M. H. Hansen, The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes: Structures, Principles and Ideology, Oxford and Cambridge, MA, 1991

HPTh

History of Political Thought

HSCP

Harvard Studies in Classical Philology

HT

History Today

IDRE

C. C. Petolescu, Inscriptiones Daciae Romanae. Inscriptiones extra fines Daciae repertae, Bucharest, 1996

IG

Inscriptiones Graecae, Berolini, 1873–

ILS

Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, Berolini, 1892–1916

InscrAtt

Inscriptiones Atticae, Chicago, 1976

JHS

The Journal of Hellenic Studies

JNS

Journal of Near Eastern Studies

JP

The Journal of Politics

LexRetCant

Lexicon Rhetoricum Cantabrigense

M&L

R. Meiggs and D. Lewis, eds, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions to the End of the Fifth Century BC, Oxford, 1969

MedArch

Mediterranean Archaeology

MHR

Mediterranean Historical Review

PCPhS

Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society

PRIA

Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy

QUCC

Quaderni urbinati di cultura classica

RSQ

Rhetoric Society Quarterly

SCI

Scripta Classica Israelitica

SEG

Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum

SMEA

Studi micenei ed egeo-anatolici

SyllClass

Syllecta Classica

TAPhA

Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association

Tod I

M. N. Tod, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions, vol. I, To the End of the Fifth Century BC, Oxford, 1946

Tod II

M. N. Tod, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions, vol. II, From 403 to 323 BC, Oxford, 1948

YClS

Yale Classical Studies

ZPE

Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik

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