106 Birth of Pompey and Cicero

105 Romans suffer massive defeat at Arausio at the hands of migrating German tribes

104±100 Marius elected to five successive consulships to deal with German threat

100 Birth of Julius Caesar

91±89 The Social War, a widespread rebellion of Rome’s Italian allies. Defeated only after heavy Roman losses. Roman citizenship is extended to nearly all the peoples of Italy

88 Marius attempts to take the eastern command away from Sulla. Sulla marches with his army on Rome, the first time any Roman commander has done this

87 Marius and his ally Cinna seize power in Rome, massacring their opponents. Marius dies of natural causes

83±80 Sulla lands in Italy and is joined by Pompey. Sulla defeats his opponents and wins the civil war. Sulla becomes dictator and publishes the proscriptions, lists of names of men who are to be executed. He attempts to reform the state, rebuilding the Senate’s authority

79 Sulla retires

78 One of the consuls, Lepidus, stages a coup. The Senate uses Pompey to defeat him

73±71 An escaped gladiator called Spartacus rebels and forms a huge army of slaves. He defeats successive Roman armies and devastates much of Italy before he is finally defeated by Crassus

71 Pompey and Crassus camp with their armies outside Rome and demand the right to stand for election to the consulship

70 Consulship of Pompey and Crassus

67 Pompey given extraordinary command against the pirates

66 Pompey given extraordinary command against Mithridates of Pontus

63 The consul Cicero defeats the attempted coup of Catiline

62 Pompey returns from the east but fails to secure land for his veterans or the ratification of his Eastern Settlement

61 Caesar becomes propraetorian governor of Further Spain

60 Caesar returns and forms the ‘first triumvirate’ with Pompey and Crassus

59 Caesar’s consulship

58±50 Caesar’s campaigns in Gaul

58 Clodius forces Cicero into exile

57 Serious rioting in Rome. Pompey called upon to supervise corn supply

56 Crisis in the triumvirate averted by meeting of Pompey, Crassus and Caesar at Luca

55 Second consulship of Pompey and Crassus

54 Serious rioting in Rome. Death of Julia. Crassus invades Parthia

53 Crassus defeated and killed by Parthians at Carrhae

52 Milo’s gang kills Clodius

51 Repeated attacks on Caesar’s position in the Senate. Pompey passes law requiring a five-year interval between holding a magistracy and being appointed to a province. Cicero sent to Cilicia

50 Curio acts on Caesar’s behalf in the Senate. However, Cato and other prominent senators struggle to ensure that Caesar will not be permitted to stand for the consulship without laying down his command. Pompey’s position unclear for much of the year

49 The tribunes flee from Rome. Caesar crosses the Rubicon and the Civil War begins. Pompey chased out of Italy, but able to sail with most of his troops from Brundisium to Macedonia. Caesar goes to Spain and defeats Afranius and Petreius in the Ilerda campaign. Curio defeated and killed in Africa

48 Caesar crosses to Macedonia. Prolonged stalemate at Dyrrachium eventually broken when Caesar retreats. Pompey brought to battle at Pharsalus and utterly defeated. Pompey flees to Egypt and is murdered. Caesar pursues him and is besieged in Alexandria. Beginning of affair between Caesar and Cleopatra

47 Reinforcements arrive and Caesar is able to break the siege and defeat the Egyptian army. Later in the year he moves to Asia and defeats Pharnaces at Zela. Caesar returns to Rome and prepares to campaign against the Pompeian army mustering in Africa under Scipio, Cato and Juba

46 African war ended by Caesar’s victory at Thapsus. Cato and Juba commit suicide, and Scipio is drowned. Caesar returns to Rome and celebrates triumphs, but departs for Spain in the autumn

45 Spanish War ended by Caesar’s victory at Munda. Labienus, Pompey’s eldest son killed. Caesar returns to Rome and establishes dictatorship

44 Caesar planning major Parthian expedition. However, on 15 March he is murdered by a conspiracy led by Brutus and Cassius. Octavian arrives in Rome and rallies support from Caesar’s veterans. Antony given command in Cisalpine Gaul

43 Octavian initially fights Antony on the Senate’s behalf, but later in the year they are joined by Lepidus to form the Second Triumvirate. They capture Rome and reintroduce the proscriptions, executing large numbers of prominent Romans, including Cicero

42 Brutus and Cassius defeated at Philippi

41 Antony visits Cleopatra in Alexandria and their affair begins (or at least becomes publicly known)

40 Antony marries Octavia

40±36 Antony’s Parthian War

38 Sextus Pompeius wins naval victories over Octavian

37 Antony publicly ‘marries’ Cleopatra

36 Sextus Pompeius defeated at Naulochus near Sicily

32 Octavia openly divorced by Antony. Open civil war between Antony and Octavian

31 Octavian defeats Antony at Actium. Antony and Cleopatra escape, but commit suicide. Octavian undisputed master of the Roman world. In stages he creates the Principate, a veiled form of monarchy that will endure for over 300 years.

You can support our site by clicking on this link and watching the advertisement.

If you find an error or have any questions, please email us at Thank you!