Ancient History & Civilisation

Appendix IV

King Lists

Kings of Parthia (c.247- 50 BC)

Exact dates for the majority of the Parthian kings are impossible to determine. The names in brackets are their real names before assuming the throne and the name Arsaces.

Arsaces I


c.247–211 BC

Arsaces II


c.211–191 BC

Arsaces III


c.191–176 BC

Arsaces IV

(Phraates I)

c.176–171 BC

Arsaces V

(Mithradates I)

c.171–138 BC

Arsaces VI

(Phraates II)

c.138–128 BC

Arsaces VII

(Artabanus I)

c.128–124 BC

Arsaces VIII

(Mithradates II)

c.123–88 BC

Arsaces IX

(Gotarzes I)

c.91–81 BC

Arsaces X

(Orodes I)

c.80–76 BC

Arsaces XI


75–70 BC

Arsaces XII

(Phraates III)

69–58 BC

Arsaces XIII

(Mithradates III)

c.57–54 BC

Arsaces XIV

(Orodes II)

c.57–37 BC


(Pacorus I)

c.50–38 BC

* There is no consensus over whether Pacorus actually became king and assumed the name Arsaces (but see Chapter 7). He has not here been given the numeral XV to avoid confusion as some Parthian king lists include him and some don’t. The ones that don’t have his brother (Phraates IV) as Arsaces XV.

Kings of Macedon (359–167 BC)

From the period when Macedon gained dominance over the states of Greece.

Philip II

359–336 BC


287–285 BC

Alexander III (The Great)

336–323 BC


287–281 BC

Alexander IV

323–310 BC

Seleucus I

281 BC

Philip III

323–317 BC


281–279 BC


317–316 BC

Antigonus II

276–239 BC


315–297 BC

Demetrius II

239–229 BC

Philip IV

297 BC

Antigonus III

229–221 BC

Alexander V

297–294 BC

Philip V

221–179 BC

Antipater I

297–294 BC


179–167 BC

Demetrius I

294–288 BC


Kingdom of Macedonia

abolished by Rome 167 BC


Seleucid Kings (c.311–64 BC)

From the foundation of the Seleucid empire, following the death of Alexander the Great.

Seleucus I

c.311–281 BC

Demetrius II (again)

129–125 BC

Antiochus I

281–261 BC


126–123 BC

Antiochus II

261–246 BC

Antiochus VIII

126–96 BC

Seleucus II

246–226 BC

Seleucus V

126 BC

Seleucus III

226–223 BC

Antiochus IX

114–95 BC

Antiochus III (The Great)

223–187 BC

Seleucus VI

95 BC

Seleucus IV

187–175 BC

Antiochus X

95 BC

Antiochus IV

175–164 BC

Demetrius III

95–88 BC

Antiochus V

164–162 BC

Antiochus XI

95 BC

Demetrius I

162–150 BC

Philip I

95–83 BC

Alexander I

150–145 BC

Antiochus XII

87 BC

Demetrius II

145–139 BC

Philip II

83 BC

Antiochus VI

145–142 BC

Tigranes (King of Armenia)

83–69 BC

Antiochus VII

138–129 BC

Antiochus XIII

69–64 BC

Seleucid empire annexed by Rome 64 BC

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