The Dictionary

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TACTICS. The evidence for the tactics employed in Egyptian battles is very limited for the pharaonic period. There are accounts of the battles fought by Thutmose III at Megiddo, and Ramesses II at Qadesh, which give some idea of the events leading up to and during the battle. Both battles have been reconstructed on the evidence, and even though the sources are recognized as highly prejudiced royal apologia, they do appear to have some basis in the historical moment. One tactical move at Thutmose III’s siege of Qadesh is described in the autobiographical text of Amenemhab: the prince of Qadesh sent a mare into the Egyptian chariotry to cause chaos among the stallions.

The Victory Stela of Piye also gives some idea of military operations, again with an emphasis on the wisdom of the king (and doubtless owing something to the earlier accounts as a literary creation). There is more evidence from the Ptolemaic period for the battles of Raphia, Panion, and Aktion. There is considerable evidence for Roman tactics, even if not related directly to events in Egypt. The formalized nature of Egyptian battle scenes allows only the broadest comments to be made on the use and disposition of chariots, infantry, and the pursuit of siege and storming of fortresses. The conflation of numerous different events spread over time, into one image, further complicates interpretation.

TAHARQO (reigned 690–664 BC). Pharaoh of the Kushite 25th Dynasty. His name is often spelled Taharka. Taharqo supported the machinations of the western Asiatic rulers against the ambitions of Assyria, which eventually led to direct conflict. Esarhaddon marched his armies toward Egypt in 679 BC. He captured the Brook-of-Egypt and took the ruler to Nineveh, where he was publicly humiliated. Taharqo might have responded with an action in southern Palestine as Esarhaddon returned to attack Sidon in 677 BC. An uncertain entry in the annalistic text known as the Babylonian Chronicle indicates that Esarhaddon’s army was defeated in battle in Egypt in 674 BC, probably in the region of the border at Tjaru. A major assault on Egypt was launched in 671. The Assyrians marched past Gaza, engaging Taharqo’s army at Ishkhupri. Three battles were fought as the Assyrians pushed toward Memphis. There was battle outside the city, which was then stormed. Resistance from the people and troops within Memphis resulted in great carnage. Taharqo fled south, but many people, including members of his family, were deported to Assyria.

The Libyan dynasts of the Delta initially accepted Assyrian rule but soon sent messages to Taharqo, who regained Memphis. In 669 BC, Esarhaddon and his army set out for Egypt again, but the king died in Palestine granting Egypt a respite.

Esarhaddon’s successor, Ashurbanipal, marched on Egypt in 667 BC. He marshaled the princes of Syria and Palestine to accompany him. The Egyptian army was defeated at Kar-baniti (an Assyrian name for an unidentified place), and the Assyrian ruler captured Memphis. Perhaps wounded in battle, Taharqo again fled south: the Assyrians now followed but had to return when the Libyan dynasts rebelled. The Assyrians attacked Sau, and other Delta towns, flaying the inhabitants. The dynasts were taken to Assyria, where many were executed.

Taharqo’s position in Egypt was made difficult by the self-interest of the Libyan dynasts of the Delta, who constantly changed their allegiance. The principal anti-Kushite and pro-Assyrian ruler was Nekau I of Sau, although even he joined with other dynasts in the rebellion against Ashurbanipal. The details of the conflict between Taharqo and the Assyrians are documented in official Assyrian inscriptions, including a rock-cut stela at the Nahr el-Kelb and records of omens responding to requests to the sun god Shamash. Although it is generally thought that the Assyrian fighting machine was better equipped and trained than that of Egypt, Taharqo showed remarkable ability in assembling new forces and some success in open battle. The internal political intrigues of the rulers of the Delta and western Asia played a significant role in the successes and failures of both sides.

TANWETAMANI (reigned 664–656 BC). Last pharaoh of the Kushite 25th dynasty. His name can be rendered as Tanutamun or Tantamani. After the death of Taharqo and his accession, Tanwetamani led his army to Egypt. The coalition of Delta rulers fled to their hometowns and Tanwetamani regained control of Memphis. He supposedly defeated Nekau I of Sau in battle. Ashurbanipal mustered his army, and in 663 BC marched to Egypt, accompanied by Nekau’s son, Psamtik I, who hoped to be installed in his father’s place. Ashurbanipal appears to have received little opposition, and he pursued Tanwetamani from Memphis to Thebes, which was sacked. Ashurbanipal withdrew, but the Thebans still acknowledged Tanwetamani as pharaoh. In the north, Psamtik I ascended the throne in Sau, and Egypt was divided between the two powers. Ashurbanipal now faced problems in other parts of the Assyrian Empire, and Psamtik began to consolidate his position. His successes ended with a Kushite withdrawal from Upper Egypt, achieved through diplomatic means in the year 9 of both pharaohs.

TANWETAMANI, DREAM STELA OF. Stela found in the temple of Amun at Gebel Barkal (Sudan) in 1862 and now in the Nubia Museum, Aswan (Cairo JE 48863). The 42 lines of text describe the king’s accession and his conflict with, and victory over, the Libyan dynasts of the Delta.

TAO (reigned c. 1555 BC). Ruler of Thebes in the 17th Dynasty, with the throne name Seqenenre (by which he is called in some books). He led his army against the Hyksos, and a literary work names his opponent as Apepy. There are no details of his military actions, although his body has wounds caused by axes and spears. It was assumed that he was killed in battle, but re-examination of the body suggests that he might have survived a first violent attack, but died later, perhaps also through violence. There is no certain record of military actions in Nubia, although these might be expected as a defense of the Theban rear before campaigns in the north. The wars against the Hyksos were continued by his son Kamose.

TEFNAKHT (reigned c. 727–721 BC). Ruler of Sau in the western Delta. He began to expand his power, firstly gaining acceptance in Memphis, then advancing on the towns of Middle Egypt that were allied to the Kushite king Piye, who controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt. Peftjauawybast, the ruler of Herakleopolis, was besieged and Nimlot, king of Khmunu, went over to Tefnakht’s side. In the ensuing conflict with the army of Piye, there were battles near Khmunu and throughout Middle Egypt. With the fall of Memphis and the capitulation of the rulers to the Kushite king, Tefnakht fled to Sau. He did not go to Hut-hery-ib (Athribis) to pay homage but swore an oath of fealty in the principal temple in Sau. This was in the presence of Piye’s general and a chief priest. A peace treaty was probably also concluded. See also KUSH.

TEFNUT. The “Eye of Re.” The sun god Re-Harakhty sent forth his burning eye, in the form of his daughter Hathor, to destroy mankind. This violent aspect of Hathor assumed the form of a lioness. The 18th Dynasty Queens Tiye and Nefertiti were identified with Tefnut as vanquishers of Egypt’s female enemies and were therefore depicted as a female sphinx. The violent lioness was also given the name Sakhmet, “the powerful one.”

TENT. There is remarkably little evidence surviving, and no known examples are preserved (or recognized). The tent must have been used regularly as temporary accommodation for the pharaoh and officials in routine progress around Egypt (attested in a text of Akhenaten), as well as on military campaign. There are scenes of military tents in the tomb of Horemheb (later pharaoh) at Saqqara and in the pictorial representations of the Egyptian camp at the battle of Qadesh. The royal tent was a grand affair with wooden poles and fully equipped with folding beds, headrests, tables, and stools. Thutmose III captured the tent of the prince of Megiddo, which had seven poles of mery-wood, decorated with silver.

TERESH (TURSHA). Asiatic ethnic group. They are listed among the Sea Peoples and were allies of the Libyans in the Karnak inscriptions of Merneptah, where more than 700 are accounted slain in the war of year 5. A text from Deir el-Medina of the reign of Ramesses III claims that the Teresh and the Peleset jointly attacked Egypt and were defeated. Their place of origin is still debated, but a connection with Tyrsenia (Tyrrhenia) on the southern and western coasts of Italy seems possible. The relatively small numbers involved in the military actions lends support to the idea that this was not a mass migration, but that many of these groups were mercenaries.

TEUDJOI. The modern archaeological site of el-Hiba. Teudjoi, meaning “Their walls,” was a fortress in northern Middle Egypt, built by the high priest of Amun Menkheperre in the 21st Dynasty. Teudjoi marked the northern limit of the territory of Thebes and formed a defense against any threat from the princes of Herakleopolis. Teudjoi was the residence of a number of generals and princes in the troubled Third Intermediate Period, most notably the crown prince and high priest of Amun, Osorkon. It was also known in documents as Ihu, “The Camps,” and Tehnet, “The Crag,” sometimes more specifically “The Crag of Amun.” The natural defensive features of the site were used to advantage, and some 600 meters of mud brick wall, 12.6 meters thick, still survive to a height of 10 meters.

THEBES. A Greek name for the principal royal residence, burial place, and administrative city in Upper Egypt. Originally called Waset, it first rose to importance under its local rulers during the First Intermediate Period. One of these (Intef I) appears to have rebelled against the pharaohs of Herakleopolis and adopted some royal style. Expansion by his successor, Intef II, brought Upper Egypt as far as Tjeny north of Abydos under Theban control. Civil war continued, involving the rulers of Middle Egypt, but the Theban pharaoh Menthuhotep II eventually crushed opposition and reunited Egypt (the Middle Kingdom). Similarly, in the Second Intermediate Period, Waset had its own rulers, claiming descent from earlier pharaohs and using royal style. However, their realm was constrained by the power of the Kushite kingdom of Kerma to the south and the Hyksos in the north. Wars launched against both by Seqenenre, Kamose, and Ahmose eventually reunited Egypt inaugurating the most important phase of the city’s history.

As a royal burial place and ancestral home, Thebes was lavishly endowed with temples to Amun, whose importance had overtaken that of the local god, Monthu. During the later New Kingdom, Memphis and the Delta cities were more important–even though Thebes remained the royal burial place and endowments continued to be made to Amun. Thebes was apparently the center of the rebellion of Amenmesse against Sety II. In the 20th Dynasty, the Theban region suffered from incursions of Libyans, and during the reign of Ramesses XI there was a major civil war involving the viceroy of Kush, Panehesy.

Under the Libyan pharaohs were periods of Theban rebellion, most notably during the pontificate of the crown prince and high priest of Amun, Osorkon. At some point in the mid-eighth century BC, Thebes and Upper Egypt were occupied by the Kushite king Kashta. The city was sacked by Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria, during his conflict with Tanwetamani. The importance of Thebes declined during the Late Period because the principal political and population centers were in the north, and Thebes was no longer a royal burial place. The loss of Nubia as a territory probably also affected the city’s importance. A further blow to Theban prestige was dealt when the Ptolemies established a new administrative center for Upper Egypt at Ptolemais Hermiou, but the city continued to be a focus of rebellions throughout the Ptolemaic period.

The Theban kings Haronnophris and Chaonnophris led the major rebellion of Upper Egypt in the reign of Ptolemy V. Later, the civil and dynastic war between Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II and Kleopatra II saw their armies taking and retaking the city, while another Theban rebel pharaoh, Harsiesis, also tried to impose his own rule. In the rebellions, the cities to the south, Pathyris and Apollonopolis Megale (Edfu), remained loyal to the Ptolemies. There was further unrest in Thebes in 123–122 BC and further dynastic troubles affecting the city between 101 and 88 BC between Ptolemy IX Soter II and Ptolemy X Alexander I. When Egypt fell to the Romans in 30 BC, Cornelius Gallus, the prefect appointed by Augustus, had to suppress rebellions in the Theban region. By this time, the city had declined to be little more than a collection of villages and a tourist attraction, but the Roman emperors continued to add to the temples of Amun, and a garrison was stationed in the town. With the increased problems on the southern border because of raids by the Blemmyes, a fortress was built around the temple of Luxor.

The monuments and discoveries in Thebes have supplied much information on warfare in Egypt. The walls of the temple of Amun at Karnak carry battle scenes, notably the wars of Sety I. The Annals of Thutmose III are inscribed around the principal sanctuary, and the pharaoh’s Poetical Stela was found nearby. Other reliefs and inscriptions record military activities by Kamose, Ramesses II, Merenptah, and Sheshonq I. The temple of Amun at Luxor also carries reliefs of the wars of Ramesses II. The so-called “mortuary” temples on the west bank also have cycles of reliefs, the best-preserved being in the temples of Ramesses II (the Ramesseum) and Ramesses III (Medinet Habu). Numerous fragments have been excavated from other temples such as that of Menthuhotep II. The hundreds of private tombs include those of important military officials, such as Userhet, Horemheb, and Tjanuni. Private and royal tombs have been a principal source of well-preserved military equipment, such as weapons and chariots, the biggest collection being from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Thebes has also been the finding place of some of the best-preserved literature relating to military activities.

Identifying actual military sites in Thebes is difficult because most of the ancient city lies beneath the modern town of Luxor. The Roman fort around the temple of Luxor is well preserved, but no pharaonic fortifications have been discovered, although texts refer to city walls. Massive defensive brick walls, probably erected by Nakhtnebef, surrounded the temples. The “Place-beloved-of-Thoth” might be a small garrison fort in Thebes. It is documented from the 19th Dynasty onward. Its officials have connections with the main Theban temples and are also called Chiefs of Soldiers. It perhaps stood near the later cult center of Thoth at Qasr el-Agouz on the west bank of the river some distance south of Medinet Habu. As such, it would have controlled access along the valley from the south. In the later Ptolemaic period, a garrison was stationed at Medinet Habu.

THROWSTICK. A common weapon used in warfare and for fowling. The throwstick appears on the Hunter’s Palette of the late Predynastic Period and in the battle scenes in the early Middle Kingdom tombs of Khety and Khnumhotep at Beni Hasan. In the temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari (Thebes) a contingent of soldiers is shown on ceremonial duty, some carrying throwsticks, the others axes. A contingent in the tomb of Tjanuni is also armed with throw-sticks. There were 21 throwsticks in the tomb of Tutankhamun, probably for fowling, rather than war.

THUTMOSE I (reigned c. 1504–1492 BC). Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty. He continued the Egyptian expansion into western Asia and Nubia. The reign began with a campaign into Nubia, which is documented by a number of sources. There are rock inscriptions at Tumbos (at the Third Cataract), Tangur (south of the Second Cataract), and at Aswan, where the canal of Senusret III was cleared. The autobiographical inscription of Ahmose son of Ebana refers to the pulling of the royal barge through a cataract, although opinion is divided as to which it was. Thutmose launched an offensive against Kerma, probably using Sai as his base. The evidence from Kerma shows that it was burned about this time, and it has been assumed that this campaign marks the end of the kingdom of Kush. Recent excavations have shown that there was extensive rebuilding work and the creation of a new “royal” cemetery, suggesting that, although the Kushite ruler was defeated and the capital sacked, a vassal was installed. The royal record of events states that a Kushite ruler, perhaps the ruler of Kerma himself, was killed in battle and his body hung upside down from the prow of the royal flagship for its ceremonial return to Thebes. Inscriptions at Hagar el-Merwa attest the presence of the army at the point where the desert routes regain the Nile near the Fifth Cataract. It is more likely that the army used the desert routes than the river, which is almost unnavigable from the Fourth to Fifth Cataracts. This inscription paralleled that which Thutmose I set up at the Euphrates and was similarly copied by Thutmose III. The inscriptions define the limit of Egypt’s frontier across the desert in relation to the powers of the Berber-Shendi Reach of the Nile (perhaps Miu and Irem). Although Kerma was attacked, the border seems to have been established at the Third Cataract and a fortress built on the island of Tumbos.

The campaign in Asia took the army as far as Naharin (Mitanni). It is probable that Thutmose’s army was conveyed by the fleet to Byblos, rather than marching through Palestine and Canaan. Inscriptional evidence suggests that the army marched from Byblos to Sumur, across the mountains of Lebanon, into the Orontes Valley. From there, they advanced north through the Syrian steppe to Mitanni. The pharaoh set up his stela at the Euphrates (“the river which goes south in going north”), an act which marked the farthest limit of Egyptian military expansion and which was copied by Thutmose III.

THUTMOSE II (reigned c. 1492–1479 BC). Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, son of Thutmose I. At his accession, a “rebellion” broke out in Kush. This was led by the sons of the ruler of Kush. The rebellion is recorded in the accession inscription of the pharaoh. Rebellion often occurred at the change of ruler, partly because any peace treaty was regarded as valid only for the lifetime of the signatories and because it was always a point of weakness. The report of rebellion was also associated with the pharaoh’s role of re-establishing order in the universe and was a symbolic act as well as demonstration of actual power. The campaign is recorded by the inscription of Ahmose-pen-Nekhbet. The reign furnishes the first evidence for Nubian princes being taken to Egypt as hostages to be installed later as Egyptian vassals.

THUTMOSE III (reigned c. 1479–1425 BC). Son of Thutmose II, Thutmose III ascended the throne as a minor, with Hatshepsut as regent and later coruler. There were probably as many as four campaigns into Nubia in the coreign with Hatshepsut, Thutmose III leading at least two in person. One expedition, recorded by a stela from and reliefs on the pylon of the temple of Armant, was directed against Miu, where a rhinoceros was hunted. Inscriptions on the rocks at Tangur, south of the Second Cataract, attest the young pharaoh’s presence with the army.

In his sole reign, following the death of Hatshepsut, Thutmose III campaigned in western Asia almost annually. There were a total of 17 expeditions from years 22–42. His predecessors, notably Amenhotep I and Thutmose I, had established Egyptian influence as far as the Euphrates and Naharin, but the intensive military actions of Thutmose III established Egypt as the dominant power. The battles, captures of cities, and tribute brought large numbers of horses, chariots, and other military equipment, as well as human captives, raw materials, and harvests. The Asiatic campaigns are detailed in the Annals of Thutmose III carved in the hall surrounding the sanctuary of the temple of Amun at Karnak (Thebes). These are, for temple records of military action, remarkably factual and are stated to have been epitomized from the Day Books of the campaign. Some sections of the inscriptions have been damaged, making interpretation difficult. There are also two lists of cities captured and further texts on the seventh pylon at Karnak. There are, however, no depictions of the campaigns. The Poetical Stela attributes the victories to Amun. Autobiographical texts of a number of soldiers and officials add a little more detail.

Veterans from earlier Asiatic expeditions, such as Ahmose-pen-Nekhbet, ended their careers in this reign, while a new generation, such as Amenemhab, began theirs. The army scribe Tjanuni, who might have been responsible for some of the later entries in the Day Books, also began his career under Thutmose III. The viceroy of Kush, Nehi, seems to have undertaken some military actions in Nubia during the years of Asiatic expansion. In addition to the “historical” accounts, some events are narrated in popular literature. One papyrus story has an account of the capture of Joppa, and a fragmentary papyrus in the Egyptian Museum, Turin, probably dating from the 20th Dynasty, is part of another literary work relating to the pharaoh’s Syrian Wars. The passages surviving relate incidents during a battle (perhaps Megiddo) in which the pharaoh is protected by three forms of the god Monthu: Monthu, lord of Armant, at his right hand; Monthu, lord of Djerty, at his left hand; and Mont, lord of Thebes, in front. The pharaoh also likens himself to Monthu and his enemies’ horses to Seth and Baal.

The first campaign, in years 22–23, culminated in the Battle of Megiddo. The army set out from Tjaru and marched to Gaza, where the feast of the coronation took place (beginning the new regnal year 23). From Gaza, the march along the coastal plain passed Yehem (c. 135 kilometers). A division might have broken off and captured Joppa en route. Thutmose heard that the prince of Qadesh was at Megiddo, with the princes of Naharin, Kharu, and Qode. The pharaoh chose to take the army through the short, but more difficult, Aruna pass. The battle at Megiddo was followed by a lengthy siege. Thutmose marched farther north and ordered the building of a fortress, before the return to Egypt and festival of victory at Thebes.

The next significant campaign was directed against Qadesh itself. On this campaign, the army sailed to, and from, Sumur. At Qadesh, the orchards were cut down and the grain harvested. The inscription of Amenemhab records events in this expedition. The campaign of year 33 marked the ultimate focus of the pharaoh’s plans, the attack on Mitanni (Naharin). Again, the expedition sailed to Sumur before marching inland, carrying their boats with them. There was a battle in Naharin, apparently an Egyptian victory. This was followed by the capture of Carchemish, the crossing of the Euphrates, and the setting up of a boundary stela next to that of Thutmose I. Naharin paid a tribute of 513 slaves and 260 horses. The pharaoh ensured that there were supplies for the harbors. The inscription of Amenemhab says that there were three battles in Naharin.

The 10th campaign of year 35 was provoked by the “rebellion” of Naharin. There was a battle. Thutmose carried off as booty two suits of bronze armor. The army captured 180 horses and 60 chariots, 13 inlaid corselets, 13 suits of bronze armor, and five bronze helmets. The 13th campaign, in year 38, was followed by the tribute of Syria comprising 328 horses, 522 slaves, 9 chariots of silver and gold, 61 painted chariots, bronze spears, shields, bows, and other weapons of war, adding considerably to the pharaoh’s arsenal. The tribute of Cyprus included copper and horses. The 14th campaign, in year 39, was against the Shasu: this expedition is also mentioned by Amenemhab. The Syrian tribute that followed included 229 horses. The 17th campaign, in year 42, returned to consolidate the pharaoh’s position around Qadesh and Tunip.

These campaigns established Egypt as the rival to Mitanni in Syria. They brought enormous wealth in booty and annual levies (tax and tribute). Thutmose states that he made a gift of three cities of Upper Retenu to Amun, whose temple received tax from them. The campaigns through booty and tribute ensured that the king had large supplies of horses and chariots, along with other armor and weapons.

In year 47, Thutmose III returned to Nubia and made a royal progress as far as the Fourth Cataract and the “Holy Mountain” of Gebel Barkal. A stela states that Thutmose was the first pharaoh to visit the “Holy Mountain.” He built a fortress, Sema-khasut, nearby which contained a chapel dedicated to Amun. It is thought that this became the later town of Napata.

THUTMOSE IV (reigned c. 1400–1390 BC). Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, son of Amenhotep II. The only military action known for this reign is a Nubian campaign of year 8, recorded by an inscription on the island of Konosso, near Philae (Aswan). This expedition was probably directed against the gold-mining regions of the Eastern Desert. The pharaoh’s diplomatic contacts with the kingdom of Mitanni are referred to in the Amarna Letters. These reveal that he made a diplomatic marriage with a Mitannian princess, probably sealing a peace treaty between the two rulers. Parts of the pharaoh’s chariot were recovered from his tomb, with decoration showing a battle with Asiatics. In the scene, Thutmose is shown standing in his chariot with the god Monthu behind him, helping him to draw his bow.

TJANUNI. Military official buried at Thebes. The damaged autobiographical text in his tomb says that he served Thutmose III, Amenhotep II, and Thutmose IV. His many titles and variants include those of Royal Scribe, Overseer of the Scribes, Scribe of the (Great) Army (of the King), Overseer of Scribes of the Army, Scribe of Recruits, Scribe of the Palace Guard, and General. These titles reveal that there was no significant division between the military and the bureaucracy in the Egyptian New Kingdom. The paintings in Tjanuni’s tomb depict the presentation of horses as part of the tribute and the enlisting of neferu-recruits in the army, with drill exercises. Some army musicians are depicted: two trumpeters and a Nubian drummer. Among other military groups, with their standards, are perhaps Libyans with two feathers in their hair, carrying throwsticks.

TJARU (TELL EL-HEBWA). Fortress on the eastern border of Egypt, protecting the Ways of Horus and the route across north Sinai to Gaza and Palestine. Now identified with Tell el-Hebwa, it was formerly suggested to be the nearby Tell Abu Sefa. During the reign of Horemheb, the future pharaoh Sety I was governor of Tjaru. The defense is depicted in the battle scenes of Sety I at Karnak as two forts on either side of a crocodile-infested canal.

The surviving archaeological remains are the foundations of the fortress of the reign of Diocletian overlaying a much larger construction, probably of the Persian period. Diocletian’s fortress is very similar to others of the period in Egypt, notably the well-preserved el Deir in Kharga Oasis. It is a slightly stretched rectangle with walls of mud brick about four meters thick. The inner length is 160.2 meters on the north and south, but 99.7 meters on the east and 101.2 meters on the west. As at Deir, round towers are at the corners. Towered gates are at the middle of both north and south sides, with semicircular towers between the corner towers (on east and west), and between the gates and corner towers. An inscription in Latin records the Ala 1 Thracum Mauretana, although the Notitia Dignitatum names the Ala 1 Aegyptiorum here.

TJEKKER. Asiatic ethnic group. Listed among the Sea Peoples. In the late 20th Dynasty, they are closely identified with the port of Dor in Palestine.

TRIBUTE. A term used for the foreign products depicted in temple and tomb scenes, although these can actually belong to a number of different economic categories: gift exchange between rulers, taxes on controlled territories, items of trade. In Egyptian ideology, all were depicted as if they were the tribute offered to the pharaoh by subjects, even if the political reality was different. A good example of the ideological relationship between war and tribute is found in the temple of Beit el-Wali in Nubia, where a large scene shows Ramesses II leading his sons and chariotry against a fleeing Nubian infantry. The Nubian village is shown schematically with one hut. The balancing half of the wall depicts the Nubian tribute, brought to the pharaoh, who is depicted in full majesty: this includes natural products, such as ivory, ebony, and incense, the products of long-distance trade, wild animals, skins, and products of manufacturing centers such as shields, bows, and furniture. None of this tribute could have been acquired from the defeated village, but the scene emphasizes the cause (war) and effect (tribute). There are many fine scenes of tribute, and of the New Year gifts to the pharaoh (the products of the royal workshops) in tombs at Thebes, notably that of Qenamun. These have some good depictions of weapons and armor.

TRIREME. The standard type of Greek warship of the fifth century BC to the fourth century AD. It was notable for its bronze ram at water level on the prow. Triremes were rowed by oarsmen in groups of three. Some scholars suggest that the trireme was developed from an Egyptian or Phoenician type of vessel of the sixth century. Larger warships, with oarsmen in groups of four or more (polyremes, quinquereme), were developed from the fourth century onward. The Egyptian term kebenet has been understood as indicating triremes of the Greek type.

TUMBOS (19° 42'N 30° 23'E). Island site near Third Cataract of the Nile in Upper Nubia. There are three rock inscriptions of Thutmose I and denuded remains of a massive mud brick enclosure that could be the ruins of a fortress built in his reign. The enclosure, some 75 meters by 35 meters is oriented east-west and has mud-brick walls, in places 3.5 meters thick and surviving up to a height of 4 meters. Some parts of the walls are built on rough stone foundations, elsewhere they stand directly on the granite boulders that form part of the island. Tumbos and the Third Cataract seem to have marked the southern limit of Egyptian expansion in the early years of the 18th Dynasty, with the main military stronghold on the island of Sai. Thutmose I certainly launched a major offensive against Kerma, which lay immediately south of the Third Cataract. When Egyptian control was extended over Kerma and the rest of Upper Nubia, Tumbos ceased to have a significant role in the defensive (or offensive) network and there are no indications of prolonged occupation at the site. Later rock inscriptions and activity seem to be connected with exploitation of the granite quarries nearby.

TUNIP. City and state of Syria. The exact location is uncertain, but it lay to the west of the Orontes River and northwest of Qadesh. It seems to have had some coastal territory, although mostly lay in the Lebanon range and the plain to the east. It figures quite prominently in the later Asiatic campaigns of Thutmose III, presumably because of its proximity to Qadesh. It seems to have been a vassal of Mitanni at this time. Tunip might have been the ultimate goal of the campaign of Thutmose III’s 29th year, but was not captured until the expedition of year 42. It figures in the Amarna Letters when its citizens wrote to the pharaoh (probably Akhenaten), apparently requesting that the son of their deceased king be sent as ruler. The letter alludes to the city’s capture by “Manakhpirya” (i.e., Menkheperre - Thutmose III) and also complains that, although they have been writing for “twenty years” (i.e., a long time), their requests are never dealt with. Later letters state that the Hittite king is only two days march away from the city. Tunip appears in the battle reliefs of Ramesses II and Ramesses III.

TUTANKHAMUN (reigned c. 1336–1327 BC). Pharaoh of the late 18th Dynasty. Although there is no evidence that Tutankhamun conducted any military campaigns himself, it is likely that there were campaigns in both Nubia and Asia during his reign. Reliefs from a dismantled chapel at Karnak (Thebes), Gebel Silsila (the Speos of Horemheb), and in the tomb of the general (later pharaoh) Horemheb at Saqqara show episodes in a military action against the Nubians. Reliefs from the Karnak chapel and the Saqqara tomb of Horemheb show an Asiatic battle and tribute being brought by defeated peoples, including Hittites. It is likely that the conduct of these actions was under the control of, and very possibly led in person by, Horemheb. Scenes on a painted chest showing the king in his chariot fighting Asiatic and Nubian battles are probably symbolic because they are paralleled by scenes showing him hunting wild animals and as a triumphant sphinx.

Tutankhamun’s substantially intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings is important as the finding place of the largest number of complete chariots surviving from ancient Egypt. There was a considerable amount of other military paraphernalia and weapons, including 14 self- and at least 29 (perhaps 32) composite bows, more than 400 arrows and arrowheads, eight shields (four with openwork designs are probably ceremonial), daggers (one with an iron blade), two khepesh-swords, a leather cuirass, swords, two fragmentary plaited linencord slings, 13 clubs of varying shapes, throwsticks and boomerangs (some of these were ceremonial, others for use in fowling rather than warfare). Most of these items included full-size examples and some that were clearly made for the pharaoh as a boy.

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