Ancient History & Civilisation

Further Reading


The texts of virtually all the Greek and Roman authors are available in translation in the Loeb Classical Library series produced by Harvard University Press. Many are also available in other translations, most notably the Penguin Classics series.

Sources for documents associated with the Roman army include:

Bowman, A. K. and B. Thomas, The Vindolanda Writing-Tablets (Tabulae Vindolandenses ii) (London, 1994).

Collingwood, R. G. and R. P. Wright (updated by

R. S. O. Tomlin), The Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Vol. 1 (1995).

Dessau, H., Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (Berlin, 1892-1916).

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (Berlin, 1862-) Fink, R. O., Roman Military Records on Papyrus (Cleveland, 1971).

An extremely useful collection of translated sources is provided in B. Campbell, The Roman Army 31 BC-ad 337: A Sourcebook (London, 1994).

I The Republican Army

The Origins of the Roman Army

Cornell, T., The Beginnings of Rome. Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c 1000-264 вс), (London, 1995). An up-to-date general account of the earliest periods of Roman history.

D'Agustino, B., 'Military Organization and Social Structure in Archaic Etruria’, in 0. Murray and S. Price (eds.), The Greek City (Oxford, 1990), pp. 59-82.

McCarteney, E„ The Military Indebtedness of Early Rome to Etruria’, Memoirs of the American Academy at Rome 1 (1917), pp. 122-67.

Nilsson, M. P„ The introduction of Hoplite Tactics at Rome’ Journal of Roman Studies 19 (1929), PP-1-11

Rawson, E., The Literary Sources for the Pre- Marian Roman Army’, Papers of the British School at Rome 39 (1971), pp. 13-31.

Rawlings, L., ‘Condottieri and Clansmen: Early Italian Warfare and the State’, in K. Hopwood, Organized Crime in the Ancient World (Swansea, 2001).

Snodgrass, A. M., The Hoplite Reform and History’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 85 (1965), pp. 110-22.

The Polybian Legion

Adcock, F., The Roman Art of War under the Republic (Cambridge Mass., 1940).

Bell, M., Tactical Reform in the Roman Republican Army’, Historia 14 (1965), pp. 404-22.

Brunt, P., Italian Manpower, 225 bc-ad 14 (Oxford, 1971).

Connolly, P., Greece and Rome at War (London, 1981).

Feugere. M. (ed.), V Equipment Militaire et L'Armement de la Republiquc. JRMES 8 (1997).

Gabba, E., The Roman Republic, the Army and the Allies (Oxford, 1976), trans. P. J. Cuff.

Keppie, L„ The Making of the Roman Army (London, 1984).

The Roman Navy

Basch, L. and H. Frost, ‘Another Punic wreck in Sicily: its ram’, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 4 (1976), pp. 201-28.

Casson, L., Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times (London, 1994).

Frost, H., et al, Ulybaeum (Marsala) - The Punic Ship: Final Excavation Report. Notizie Degli Scavi di Antichita Supplemento al vol 30,1976 (Rome, 1981), pp. 267-70.

Frost, H., The prefabricated Punic Warship’, in H. Deviyner and E. Lipinski, Studio Phoenica X: Punic Wars (Leuven, 1989), pp. 127-35.

Morrison, J. S. (and J. F. Coates), Greek and Roman Oared Warships (Oxford, 1996).

Rodgers, W., Greek and Roman Naval Warfare (Annapolis, 1937).

Shaw, T. (ed.), The Trireme Project: Operational Experience 1987-90; Lessons Learnt. Oxbow Monograph 32 (Oxford, 1993).

Thiel, J., Studies on the History of Roman Sea- Power in Republican Times (Amsterdam, 1946).

Wallinga, H. T., The Boarding-Bridge of the Romans (Gravenhage, 1956).

II The Professional Army


Le Bohec, Y„ The Imperial Roman Army (London and New York, 1994).

Campbell, J., The Emperor and the Roman A rmy (Oxford, 1984).

Cheesman, G., The Auxilia of the Roman Imperial Army (Oxford, 1914).

Dixon, K. and P. Southern, The Roman Cavalry (London, 1992).

Harmand, J., L’armee et le soldat a Rome de 107a 50 avant notre ere (Paris, 1967).

Holder, P, Studies in the Auxilia of the Roman Army from Caesar to Trajan, BAR 70 (Oxford, 1980).

Parker, H., The Roman Legions (Oxford, 1928).

Saddington, D., The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian (Harare, 1982).

Smith, F., Service in the Post-Marian Roman Army (Manchester, 1958).

Speidel, M., Riding for Caesar (Cambridge, Mass., 1994).

Starr, C„ The Roman Imperial Navy (Ithaca, NY, 1941).

Webster, G., The Roman Imperial Army (London, 1985: reprint with updated bibliography Oklahoma, 1998).

Unit Organization and Career Structures

Birley, E., Roman Britain and the Roman Army (Kendal, 1953).

Birley, E„ The Roman Army (Amsterdam, 1988).

Breeze, D. and B. Dobson, Roman Officers and Frontiers (Stuttgart, 1993).

Dobson, B., Die Primipilares (Cologne and Bonn, 1978).

Devijver, H„ The Equestrian Officers of the Roman Army, 2 vols. (Amsterdam, 1989 and 1992).

von Domaszewski, A., Die Rangordnung des rdmischen Heeresgeschichte, 2nd ed. Ed. B.

Dobson (Bohlau and Cologue, 1967).

Gilliam, J., Roman Army Papers (Amsterdam, 1986).

Sailer, R. P., ‘Promotion and patronage in equestrian careers’, Journal of Roman Studies 70 (1980), 44-63.

Spaul, J., ALA- (Andover, 1994).

Spaul, J., COHORSr . BAR International Series 841 (Oxford, 2000).

Speidel, M., Roman Army Studies, 2 vols (Stuttgart, 1984-1992).

Ill The Life of a Roman Soldier

Enlistment and Daily Routine

Alston, R., ’Roman Military Pay from Caesar to Diocletian’, Journal of Roman Studies 84 (1994), pp. 93-104.

Alston, R., Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt (London, 1995).

Bidwell, P., Roman Forts in Britain (London, 1997).

Brunt, P., ‘Pay and superannuation in the Roman Army’, Papers of the British School at Rome 18 (1950), pp. 50-71.

Campbell, B„ The marriage of soldiers under the Empire’ Journal of Roman Studies 68 (1978), 153-66.

Cotton, H. M. and J. Geiger, Masada II, the Latin and Greek Documents Qerusalem, 1989).

Davies, R., Service in the Roman Army (Edinburgh, 1989).

Davison, D. P„ The Barracks of the Roman Army from the First to Third centuries ad, BAR 472 (Oxford, 1989).

Fink, R. O., A. S. Hoey and W. F. Snyder, The Feriale Duranum’, Yale Classical Studies 7 (1940), pp. 1-222.

Goldsworthy, A. and I. Haynes (eds.), The Roman Army as a Community in Peace and War. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series (Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1999).

Helgeland, J., 'Roman Army religion’, Aufstieg und Niedergang der rdmischen Welt (Berlin, 1978), pp. 1470-505.

Holder, P., The Roman Army in Britain (London, 1982).

Johnson, A., Roman Forts (London, 1983).

MacMullen, R., The Legion as Society’, Historia 33 (1984), pp. 440-56.

Mann, J., Legionary Recruitment and Veteran Settlement during the Prindpate (London, 1983).

Maxfield, V., The Military Decorations of the Roman Army (London, 1981).

Maxfield, V, Soldier and Civilian: Life beyond the ramparts Eighth Annual Caerleon Lecture (Cardiff, 1995).

Nock, A. D„ The Roman Army and the Religious Year’, Harvard Theological Review 45 (1952), 187-252.

Roxan, M. M., Roman Military Diplomas 1954-1977(London, 1978).

Roxan, M. M., Roman Military Diplomas 1978-1984 (London, 1985).

Speidel, M. A., ‘Roman Army Pay Scales', Journal of Roman Studies 82 (1992), pp. 87-106.

Watson, G., The Roman Soldier (London, 1969).


Bishop, M. (ed.). The Production and Distribution of Roman Military Equipment. Proceedings of the Second Roman Military Equipment Conference. BAR 275 (Oxford, 1985).

Bishop, M. and J. Coulston, Roman Military Equipment (London, 1993).

Connolly, P., Greece and Rome at War (London, 1981).

Connolly, P. and C. Van Driel-Murray, The Roman Cavalry Saddle’, Britannia 22 (1991), pp. 33-50.

Coulston, J. C. (ed.), Military Equipment and the Identity of Roman Soldiers. Proceedings of the Fourth Roman Military Equipment Conference. BAR 394 (Oxford, 1988).

Dawson M. (ed.), Roman Military Equipment: the Accoutrements of War. Proceedings of the Third Roman Military Equipment Conference. BAR 336 (Oxford, 1987).

van Driel-Murray, C. (ed.), Roman Military Equipment: the Sources of Evidence. Proceedings of the Fifth Roman Military Equipment Conference. BAR 476 (Oxford, 1989).

Gilliver, С. M., ‘Hedgehogs, caltrops and palisade stakes’, JRMES 4 (1993), 49-54.

Hyland, A., Equus: The Horse in the Roman World (London, 1990).

Hyland, A„ Training the Roman Cavalry (Gloucester, 1993).

Junkelmann, M., Die legionem dies Augustus (Mainz am Rhein, 1991).

Junkelmann, M., Die Reiter Roms, 3 vols (Mainz am Rhein, 1990-92).

Junkelmann, M., Romischen Helme (Mainz am Rhein, 2000).

Lepper, F. and S. S. Frere, Trajan’s Column (Gloucester, 1988).

Richmond, I., Trajan's Army on Trajan’s Column (London, 1982).

Robinson, H. R„ The Armour of Imperial Rome (London, 1975).

Rossi, L., Trajan's Column and the Dacian Wars (London, 1971).

Stephenson, I. P„ Roman Infantry Equipment: the later Empire (Stroud, 1999).

Sumner, G., Roman Army: Wars of Empire (London, 1997).

The journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies (Oxford, 1990+) is dedicated to papers discussing various aspects of the army’s equipment.

Garrisons and Frontiers

Breeze, D. and B. Dobson, Hadrian’s Watt (London, 1987).

Dyson, S., The Creation of the Roman Frontier (Princeton, N.J., 1985).

Ferrill, A., Roman Imperial Grand Strategy (New York, 1991).

Freeman, P. and D. Kennedy (eds.), The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East, BAR International Series 297 (Oxford, 1986).

Isaac, B„ The Limits of Empire. The Roman Army in the East (Oxford, 1992).

Johnson, S„ Hadrian's Watt (London, 1984).

Kennedy, D., The Roman Army in the East. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series 18 (Ann Arbor, 1996).

Kennedy, D. and D. Riley, Rome’s Desert Frontier from the Air (London, 1990).

Luttwak, E., The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire (New York, 1976).

Mann, J., ‘The Frontiers of the Principate’, ANRW II. 1 (1974), pp. 508-33.

Mattern, S., Rome and the Enemy: Imperial Strategy in the Principate (Berkeley and London, 1999) .

Maxfield, V, ‘Pre-Flavian Forts and their Garrisons’, Britannia 17 (1986), pp. 59-72.

Maxfield, V., ‘Conquest and Aftermath’, in M. Todd, Research on Roman Britain 1960-1989(1988), pp. 19-29

Wheeler, E., ‘Methodological limits and the mirage of Roman strategy’, The Journal of Military History 57 (1993), pp. 7-11,215-40.

Whittaker, C., Frontiers of the Roman Empire. A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).

IV The Army at War

Austin, N. and B. Rankov, Exploratio: Military and Political Intelligence in the Roman World from the Second Punic War to the Battle of Adrianople (London, 1995).

Breeze, D., ‘The Logistics of Agricola's Final Campaign’, Talanta 18-19 (1986-7), pp. 7-28.

Delbruck, H. (trans J. Renfroe), History of the Art of War within the Framework of Political History, vols 1-2 (Westport, 1975).

Elton, H., Warfare in Roman Europe, At) 350-425 (Oxford, 1996).

Erdkamp, P., Hunger and Sword: Warfare and Food Supply in Roman Republican Wars 264-30 к (Amsterdam, 1998).

Gilliver, С. M., The Roman Art of War (Gloucester, 2000) .

Goldsworthy, A., The Roman Army at War, IOObc-ad200 (Oxford, 1996).

Goldsworthy, A., Roman Warfare (London, 2000).

Hawkes, C, The Roman Siege of Masada’,

Antiquity 3 (1929), pp. 195-213.

Labisch, A., Frumentum Commeatusque Die Nahrungsmittelversongung der Heere Caesars (Meisenheim am Gian, 1976).

Marsden, E. W., Greek and Roman Artillery: Historical Development (Oxford, 1969).

Peddie.J., The Roman War Machine (Gloucester, 1994).

Richmond, I. A., The Roman Siege Works at Masada, Israel’, Journal of Roman Studies 52 (1962), pp. 142-55.

Roth, J., The logistics of the Roman Army at War, 264 HC-AO235 (1999).

Warry, J., Warfare in the Classical World (London, 1980) .

V The Army of Late Antiquity

Austin, N., Ammianus on Warfare. An Investigation into Ammianus' Military Knowledge. Collection Latomus 165 (Brussels, 1979).

Barnes, T, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (Cambridge, Mass, and London, 1981) .

Burns, T„ Barbarians within the Gates of Rome:

A Study of Roman Military Policy and the Barbarians, CA. 375-425 AD (Indiana, 1994).

Coello, T., Unit Sizes in the Late Roman Army. BAR S645 (Oxford, 1996).

Crump, G., Ammianus Marcettinus as a Military Historian, Historia-Einzelschriften 27 (Wiesbaden, 1975).

Dodgeon, M. and S. Lieu, The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars, 226-363 (London, 1991).

Ferrill, A., The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation (London and New York, 1986).

Goodburn, R. and P. Bartholomew (eds.), Aspects of the Notitia Dignitatum. BAR 15 (Oxford, 1976).

Heather, P., Goths and Romans, 332-489 (Oxford, 1991).

Johnson, S., Late Roman Fortifications (Totowa, NJ, 1983).

Jones, A. H. M., The Later Roman Empire (Oxford, 1964).

Lee, A., Information and Frontiers (Cambridge, 1993).

Liebeschuetz, J., Barbarians and Bishops Army, Church and State in the Age of Arcadius and Chrysostom (Oxford, 1990).

MacMullen, R., Soldier and Civilian in the Ixiter Roman Empire (Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Nicasie, M„ Twilight of Empire (Amsterdam, 1998).

Southern, P. and K. Dixon, The Late Roman Army (London, 1996).

Tomlin, R. S. O., ‘Seniores-luniores in the I-ate Roman Field Army’, American Journal of Philosophy 93 (1972), pp. 253-78.

Treadgold, W., Byzantium and its Army, 281-1081 (Stanford, 1995).

Williams, S., Diocletian and the Roman Recovery (London, 1985).

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