Ancient History & Civilisation

Notes

Introduction

1. The only study I have been able to discover that considers the issue is by Blanche Parsi, Désignation et Investiture de l’Empereur Romain, Paris 1963, though, as the title shows, it is much more restricted in scope than succession as a whole; M. Hammond, ‘The Tribunician Day During the Early Empire’, Memoirs of the American Academy at Rome, 15, 1938, is also relevant. For the powers and duties of the emperor treated thematically, see Fergus Miller, The Emperor in the Roman World, London 1977, and on a smaller scale Barry Baldwin, The Roman Emperors, Québec 1980, though neither considers the issue of accession, despite their thematic approaches. From the very opposite angle to this study, there is also F. Meijer, Emperors Don’t Die in Bed, trans. S.J. Leinach, London 2001. Adrastos Omissi, Emperors and Usurpers in the Later Roman Empire, Oxford 2018, takes the idea of a usurper seriously.

Chapter 1

1. By modern convention he is called Octavian until he was awarded the special title of Augustus by the Senate in 27 BC.

2. Biographies of Augustus always examine the ‘restoration of the Republic’: R. Holland, Augustus: Godfather of Europe, Stroud 2004, W. Eck, The Age of Augustus, trans. D.L. Schneider, Oxford 2003, are recent works; note also A.H.M. Jones, Augustus, London 1970, and the essay by G. Bowersock in F. Millar and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects, Oxford 1984.

3. The early attempts by Augustus to find and train successors (Marcellus, Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius) are briefly referred to by Tacitus, Annals 1.2–4, Suetonius, Augustus 63, 65, and Cassius Dio, book 56.

4. Tiberius’ selection is discussed by Suetonius, Augustus 97–101, and Tiberius 7–26, Tacitus, Annals 1.3–8, Velleius Paterculus II.123–125, and Cassius Dio 56.31–47.

5. Tacitus, Annals 1.3; Cassius Dio 56.30.

6. The most accessible modern study of Tiberius is B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician, London 1976.

7. Tacitus, Annals 1.4; Cassius Dio 56; see also the account in Meijer, Emperors, 19–20.

8. Tacitus, Annals 1.5–15.

9. Tacitus, Annals 1.4–5; Suetonius, Tiberius 22.

10. Tacitus, Annals 1.18–29.

11. Tacitus, Annals 1.30–48.

Chapter 2

1. Tacitus, Annals 1.11–15; Suetonius, Tiberius 23–25; B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician, London 1976, 71–81.

2. Suetonius, Tiberius 25.

3. Tacitus, Annals 3.56.

4. Suetonius, Tiberius 54–55.

5. Levick, Tiberius, ch. 10.

6. Agrippina: Tacitus, Annals 4.75; Drusilla and Julia Livilla: Tacitus, Annals 6.15.1; Julia: Tacitus, Annals 6.27.1.

7. Tacitus, Annals 6.46.

8. Tacitus, Annals, 6.50; Suetonius, Tiberius 73.

9. PIR A 32.

10. Tacitus, Annals 6.50.6.

11. Josephus, AJ 18.124; ILS 19.

12. Suetonius, Caligula 14.1; Cassius Dio 59.3.1–2.

13. Suetonius, 58.2–3; Josephos AJ 19.105–113; Cassius Dio 59.29.7.

14. The conspiracy is discussed in A. Barratt, Caligula: The Corruption of Power, London 1989.

15. Josephus AJ 19.180; Suetonius, Claudius 10.

16. Josephus AJ 19.188–284, and BJ 2.205–214; Suetonius, Caligula 60 and Claudius 10; Cassius Dio 60.1.1–4.

17. Suetonius, Caligula 15.2 (adoption); and 23.3 (death); Cassius Dio 59.8.1–2.

18. Suetonius, Caligula 24.1; Barrett, Caligula, ch. 6.

19. A clear account is in B. Levick, Claudius, London 1990, ch. 4.

20. Suetonius, Claudius 13.2; Cassius Dio 60.15.1–16.8.

21. Tacitus, Annals 12.69; Suetonius, Claudius 45: M.T. Griffin, Nero: The End of a Dynasty, London 1985, 32–33.

Chapter 3

1. The conspiracy of Piso is in Tacitus, Annals, 15.46–74.

2. Suetonius, Nero 36.1.

3. Suetonius, Galba 6–12; Plutarch, Galba 6.3.23; Tacitus, Histories 1.13.4 and 1.53.

4. Suetonius, Galba 11; Plutarch, Galba 6.4–7.3.

5. Suetonius, Nero 47–49; Plutarch, Galba 2; Tacitus, Histories 1.3: Cassius Dio 63.29.1.

6. Plutarch, Galba 19–21 and 23; Tacitus, Histories 1.12–19.

7. Tacitus, Histories, Plutarch, Galba, Otho; Suetonius, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian; modern accounts include M. Griffin, Nero: The End of a Dynasty, London 1984, K. Wellesley, The Long Year, A.D. 69, 2nd ed., London 1988, P.A.L. Greenhalgh, The Year of the Four Emperors, London 1975, Gwyn Morgan, 69 A.D.: The Year of the Four Emperors, Oxford 2006.

8. Plutarch, Galba 22–27; Suetonius, Galba 19–20; Tacitus Histories 1.27–46.

9. Tacitus, Histories 1.47; Suetonius, Otho 6–7; Plutarch, Galba 27–28.

10. Suetonius, Vitellius 8; he took the title Augustus later.

11. Tacitus, Histories 4.3.3.

Chapter 4

1. Tacitus, Histories 4.3.3.

2. Commemorated on a coin of c.70: M. McCrum and A.G. Woodhead, Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors, AD 69–96, Cambridge 1961, no. 85.

3. Cassius Dio 65.12.1; Suetonius, Vespasian 25.

4. B. Levick, Vespasian, London 1999, 88–89 for the discussion and authorities.

5. Suetonius, Titus 9.3.

6. Suetonius, Titus 11.

7. Suetonius, Domitian 12.3: for discussion see B.W. Jones, The Emperor Domitian, London 1992, 44–47.

8. Suetonius, Domitian, 15.1; Jones, Domitian 47–48.

Chapter 5

1. Suetonius, Domitian 17; Cassius Dio 57.15.1–5.

2. The ancient evidence for Nerva is collected by A. Birley in Lives of the Later Caesars, Harmondsworth 1976, 29–37; Syme, Tacitus, 1–9 and 627–629; also J.D. Grainger, Nerva and the Roman Succession Crisis of AD 96–99, London 2003, for details of the plot and the murder.

3. Sir Ronald Syme, Tacitus, vol. 1, Oxford 1958, 1.

4. Cassius Dio 68.3.2; Epitome de Caesaribus 12.6.

5. Birley, Lives 38–39.

6. Birley, Lives 35–36.

7. Grainger, Nerva 92–94; this is speculative, based on only fragments of evidence.

8. Cassius Dio 68.3.4.

9. Cassius Dio 68.4.2; Epitome de Caesaribus 12.10–11.

Chapter 6

1. A.R. Birley, Hadrian: The Restless Emperor, London 1997.

2. Cassius Dio 69.1.1–2.1.

3. Cassius Dio 69.2.2.

4. HA, Hadrian 5.2.

5. HA Hadrian 6.8; Cassius Dio 69.2.5–6.

6. HA Hadrian 23.10; Birley, Hadrian 289–291.

7. Cassius Dio 69.12.1; HA Hadrian 15.8, 23.2, 23.8 and 25.8; Birley, Hadrian 291–292.

8. HA Hadrian 23.15–16 and Aelius 6.6–7; Cassius Dio 69.20.1.

9. HA Hadrian 26.6 and Antoninus 4.4–7; Cassius Dio 69.20.1–21.2.

10. This has provoked some legalistic theories: J. Carcopino, ‘l’Hérédité dynastique chez les Antonins’, Revue des Études Anciennes 51, 1949, 262–321, P. Grenade, ‘Le Règlement successoral d’Hadrien’, Revue des Études Anciennes 52, 1950, 258–277, and H.G. Pflaum, ‘Le Règlement Successoral d’Hadrien’, Historia Augustae Colloquium, Bonn 1963, Bonn 196, 95–122.

11. HA Marcus 7.3–5.

12. Cassius Dio 71.1–3.

13. HA Commodus 1.10–13.

14. HA Avidius; R. Syme, ‘Avidius Cassius: His Rank, Age and Quality’, Bonner Historia Augusta Colloquium 1984/1985, Bonn 1986, 207–222; Maria Laura Astarita, Avidio Cassio, Rome 1983.

Chapter 7

1. HA Commodus 16; Pertinax 4.4–6; Cassius Dio 72.19.1–22.6; Herodian 1.15–17.

2. HA Pertinax 4.5–7; Cassius Dio 73.1.1–3.

3. HA Pertinax 5.1–6.2; Cassius Dio 73.1.5–2.3; A. Birley, Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, London 1988, 87–91.

4. HA Pertinax 10.8–11.13; Cassius Dio 73.9.1–10.

5. Cassius Dio 73.11.2–4; HA Didius Iulianus 2.6–7; Herodian 2.6.8–14.

6. HA Severus 5.1–5; Herodian 2.10.1–9; Epitome de Caesaribus 19.2; Birley, Septimius 97–98.

7. HA Didius Iulianus 8.2–8; Cassius Dio 74.17.1–5.

8. HA Severus 5.1–10.

9. HA Severus 6.11; Cassius Dio 75.1.1–2; Herodian 2.13.1.

10. Herodian 2.14.3–4: HA Severus 7.4–7; Cassius Dio 74.2.1–2.

Chapter 8

1. HA Pescennius Niger, 1.1; the greater part of this biography is either fiction or plagiarized from other biographies.

2. A.R. Birley, Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, London 117; the sources for this are coins (British Museum Catalogue V, p. 136) and a rather confused passage in HA Severus 10.3–6; Commodus’ deification was proclaimed later.

3. HA Severus 10.7–11.8.

4. HA Severus 16.8; Birley, Septimius 139–140.

5. Cassius Dio 76.15.2–3.

6. HA Caracalla 2.4–6; Cassius Dio 77.2.1–6.

7. HA Caracalla 2.7–8; Cassius Dio 77.3.1–2.

8. HA Caracalla 2.9–11; Cassius Dio 77.3.3.

9. HA Caracalla 6.6; Cassius Dio 78.5.4–5; Herodian 4.13.1–7.2.

10. HA Macrinus 2.5; Cassius Dio 78.11.4–12.7.

11. Cassius Dio 78.33.1–40.1.

12. For the various women involved see Barbara Levick, Julia Domna: Syrian Empress, London 2007, and Geoffrey Turton, The Syrian Princesses: The Women who Ruled Rome AD 193–235, London 1974.

13. Cassius Dio 79.17.2–3; Elagabalus is an irresistible subject for biography, see Martijn Icks, The Crimes of Elagabalus: The Life and Legacy of Rome’s Decadent Boy Emperor, London 2013.

14. PIR G 123.

15. HA Elagabalus 16.5–17.3; HA Severus Alexander 1.1–3; Cassius Dio 79.19.4–20.2.

16. HA Severus Alexander 49.3; G. Barbieri, L’Albo Senatorio da Settimio Severo a Carino (193–285), Rome 1952, no 463; R. Syme, Emperors and Biography, Oxford 1971, 157; much here is vague and speculative.

17. Sybilline Oracles 13.147–153; H.R. Baldus, Uranius Antoninus, Bonn 1971.

18. HA Severus Alexander 15.6–16.3; Herodian 6.1.2.

19. Herodian 6.9.4–5.

20. A recent biography is Paul N. Pearson, Maximinus Thrax: From Common Soldier to Emperor of Rome, Barnsley 2016.

21. Herodian 7.1.9: HA Thirty Tyrants 32.1; HA Maximin 11.1–6.

22. HA Maximin 10.1–6, and Thirty Tyrants 32.1.

Chapter 9

1. ‘Revolution’ was a term used by Prescott W. Townend, ‘The Revolution of AD 238: The Leaders and Their Aims’, Yale Classical Studies 14, 1955, 49–105; it is, perhaps, going a little too far.

2. Herodian 7.3.5.

3. Herodian 7.4.2–5.7; HA Gordians 7.2–9.5.

4. Herodian 7.6.3–4; HA Gordians 9.6–8.

5. Karen Haegemans, ‘The Representation and Perception of Imperial Power in AD 238: The Numismatic Evidence’, in L. de Blois (ed.), The Representation and Perception of Roman Imperial Power: Proceedings of the Third Workshop of the International Network, Impact of Empire, Rome 2002, Amsterdam 2003.

6. Discussed with a listing of the extensive discussions, by Christian Settipani, Continuite Gentilice et Continuite Familiale dans les Familles Senatoriales Romaines a l’Epoque Imperiale, Oxford 2000, 135–138; three possible lines of descent are noted.

7. HA Gordians 7.2.

8. Herodian 7.7.2; HA Gordians 11.1–10 (including clearly invented speeches).

9. HA Maximinus 17.1–18.4 (ignoring the clearly fictional account of Maximinus’ reaction); Herodian 7.8.1–2 (more convincing).

10. HA Gordians 10.1–2; Zosimus 1.14.2; HA Maximinus 32.8.

11. Townend, ‘Revolution of 238’; X. Loriot, ‘Les prèmiers années de la grande crise du IIIe siècle: De l’avenement de Maximin le Thrace a la Mort de Gordien III’, in Aufsteig und Niedergang das Romische Welt, II, 2, Berlin 1975, 699–700.

12. HA Maximinus 19.1–3; HA Gordians 15.1–16.4; Herodian 7.9.1–11.

13. HA Maximus and Balbinus 1.1–3.1; HA Maximinus 20.1–2; Herodian 7.10.2–5.

14. HA Maximinus 20.7–22.7; HA Maximus and Balbinus 10.1 and 11.1–3; Herodian 7.12.8 and 8.2.3–5.7.

15. HA Maximus and Balbinus 9.1–5 and 10.4–8; Herodian 7.11.1–12.7.

16. Herodian 8.8–9; HA Maximinus 23.1–7.

17. HA Gordians 32.1–3; Herodian 7.10.6–10; HA Maximus and Balbinus 3.3–5.

18. HA Maximus and Balbinus 14.2–8; Herodian 8.8.2–7.

Chapter 10

1. Zosimus 1.19.1; Zonaras 12.18; Eutropius 9.2.3.

2. Zosimus 1.20.2–21; Zonaras 12.19.

3. Epitome de Caesaribus 28.2; Eutropius 9.3.

4. Aurelius Victor 29; HA Thirty Tyrants 20 (but implying that Valens operated in Illyricum).

5. Aurelius Victor 30: Zosimus 1.25.2–3.

6. Zosimus 1.2 8.1–3; Aurelius Victor 31.1; Eutropius 9.5.1.

7. Aurelius Victor 33.34; L. de Blois, The Policy of the Emperor Gallienus, London 1976, 57–83.

8. Zosimus 1.14; HA Gallienus 14; Aurelius Victor 33.

9. HA Thirty Tyrants 3–8 and 24–25: J.E. Drinkwater, The Gallic Empire, Historia Einszelschriften 52, Stuttgart 1987.

10. HA Thirty Tyrants 11.

11. Aurelius Victor 34; Zosimus 1.40.2; HA Claudius 4.2.

12. Eutropius 9.12; Zosimus 1.47; HA Claudius 12.3–6.

13. HA Aurelian 40.2–4 and Tacitus 2.5–6: Zonaras 12.28; Aurelius Victor 35.10–12.

14. HA Tacitus 14.1 and Probus 10.1.8; Aurelius Victor 6.2; Zonaras 12.29; Zosimus 1.64.1.

15. Zosimus 1.64.1.

16. HA Probus 10.9; this is not necessarily convincing in itself, but progress has a good reputation among the historians, which generally means he was in good odour with the Senate.

17. Eutropius 9.17; Aurelius Victor 37; HA Probus 20.

18. Aurelius Victor 38; HA Carus 5.1–2 and 7.1.

19. Aurelius Victor 39; HA Carus 13.1–5; Eutropius 9.20.1.

20. Aurelius Victor 39; HA Carus 13.1–5; Eutropius 9.20.1.

Chapter 11

1. HA Thirty Tyrants 24.

2. Sybilline Oracles 13.119–129; he is also called ‘Syriades’.

3. HA Aurelian 38.2–3.

4. HA Thirty Tyrants 29–33; David S. Potter, The Roman Empire at Bay, London 2004, 248–252.

5. HA Gordians 23.4; Zosimus 1.17.1; Barbieri, Albo, no 1717.

6. Zosimus 1.20.2; Aurelius Victor 29.2; Barbieri, Albo, App 1, 17.

7. Zosimus 1.20.2; Zonaras 12.19; Barbieri, Albo, no 1522.

8. Aurelius Victor 29.2; Barbieri, Albo, no. 1706 (and see 1610).

9. Aurelius Victor 29.3; Barbieri, Albo, App 1, no 19; HA Thirty Tyrants 20, locates him in Illyricum.

10. Oracula Sibyllina 13.147–154; John Malalas 296; H.R. Baldus, Uranius Antoninus, Bonn 1971.

11. Potter, Roman Empire at Bay, 250.

12. HA Thirty Tyrants 9.1; Aurelius Victor 33.2.

13. Zonaras 12.24; Eusebius, Historia Ecclesia I 7.10.8; HA Thirty Tyrants 12.1.10–12 and 13.1; HA Gallienus 1.2–5.

14. HA Thirty Tyrants 10.1–2; Aurelius Victor 30.2.

15. Eutropius 9.9.1; HA Thirty Tyrants 5.8; Aurelius Victor 33.8.

16. HA Thirty Tyrants 22 and Gallienus 4.1, 5.6 and 9.1; Barbieri Albo, App 1, 22. All

17. HA Thirty Tyrants 19 (Valens), 21 (Piso) and 20 (the other Valens); Ammianus Marcellinus 21.16.10: Barbieri, Albo 1735.

18. HA Thirty Tyrants 5 (‘Lolianus’ = Laelianus); others are named in 4 (Victorinus); Zosimus 1.49.2 (Domitianus).

19. HA Thirty Tyrants 11 and Gallienus 14.6–7; Barbieri, Albo, App 1, 7.

20. HA Thirty Tyrants 15 (Odaenathus), 16 (Herodes), 17 (Maeonius), 30 (Zenobia); this regime, thanks to Zenobia’s involvement, has been the subject of plenty of studies.

21. HA Aurelian 32.2.3; Zosimus 1.61.1 (Firmus); 31.2–3 (Achilleus and Antiochus).

22. Zosimus 1.49.2.

23. Zosimus 1.66.1; Barbieri, Albo 1613.

24. Zosimus 1.66.2 and 1.68.3; Zonaras 12.29; A.R. Birley, The Fasti of Roman Britain, Oxford 1981, 180–181.

25. HA Firmus, etc. 12–13 (Proculus); 14–15 (Bonosus).

26. Aurelius Victor 39.10; Zosimus 1.73.

Chapter 12

1. HA Numerian 12.1–2; Eutropius 9.18; Aurelius Victor 38–39.

2. HA Numerian 13.2–4; Eutropius 9.20.1; Aurelius Victor 39.1.

3. HA Carinus 17.2 (claiming ‘many battles’); Eutropius 9.20.1–2; Aurelius Victor 39.3.

4. Aurelius Victor 39.17–19; Eutropius 20.

5. P.J. Casey, Carausius and Allectus: The British Usurpers, London 1994.

6. T.D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine, Cambridge MA 1982, 4, note 6.

7. Barnes, New Empire, 37–38.

8. Casey, Carausius, ch. 10.

9. Eutropius 9.22–23; Aurelius Victor 39; Barnes, New Empire, 12.

10. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6.8.

Chapter 13

1. Barnes, New Empire, 69; Zosimus 2.9.1; Lactantius 25.3–5.

2. Zosimus 2.9.2.

3. Lactantius 26.7; Zosimus 2.10.2.

4. Lactantius 7.1; Zosimus 2.10.6–7.

5. Lactantius 28; Eutropius 10.3.

6. Zosimus 2.10.4–5; Lactantius 32.1.

7. Lactantius 35.3; Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 8.17.

8. Zosimus 2.14–17; Prolegomena Latina 12.5.1; 16.2; 19.1; Lactantius 44; Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 9.9.

Chapter 14

1. For Constantine’s progress, see the biographies by J. Holland Smith, Constantine the Great, New York 1971, chs 6 and 7; Ramsay MacMullen, Constantine, Beckenham Kent, 1969, chs 4, 5 and 7; T.D. Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, Cambridge MA 1981.

2. Panegyricus Latinus 6.2.1–3; R. Syme, ‘The Ancestry of Constantine’, Bonner Historia Augusta Colloquium 1971, Bonn 1974, 237–253.

3. Ammianus 14.11.20.

4. Aurelius Victor 41.11–12; Jerome, Chronicle 233; Theophanes, ann. 5825, p.29.

5. Zosimus 2.40; Eutropius 10.9.

6. Eutropius 10.9; Zosimus 11.42–44.

7. Zosimus 2.42.2–4.

8. Chronicon Paschale, p. 529.

9. Aurelius Victor, de Caesaribus 42.6–9; Eutropius 10.11; Zosimus 2.43.3–4.

10. Mursa: Zosimus 13.8; death of Magnentius: Eutropius 10.11.

11. Ammianus 15.5.2–11.

12. Ammianus 15.5.31.

13. Ammianus 14.7.9–11.

14. Ammianus 23.3.6 and 6.6.

15. Ammianus 25.5.2–4.

16. Ammianus 25.10.12–13; 26.26; 4.3; Zosimus 3.36.1 and 3.

17. Ammianus 26.6.1–10; cf also N.J.E. Austin, ‘A Usurper’s Claim to Legitimacy: Procopius in AD 365/6’, Rivista storia dell’Antiquita 2, 1972, 187–194.

18. Ammianus 29.5.

19. A.E. Wardman, ‘Usurpers and Internal Conflicts in the 4th Century AD’, Historia 33, 1984, 220–237.

Chapter 15

1. Ammianus 30.10.4.

2. Ammianus 30.10.4; Zosimus 4.19.1; Philologus, Ecclesiastical History 9.16.

3. Ammianus 30.10.4.

4. A. Demandt, ‘Der Tod des alteren Theodosius’, Historia 18, 1969, 598–626.

5. Ammianus 29.6.15 and 31.11.1; R.M. Errington, ‘The accession of Theodosius’, Klio, 78, 1976, 438–453, and H. Sivan, ‘Was Theodosius a Usurper?’, Klio 78, 1996, 198–211.

6. J.F. Matthews, Western Aristocracies and the Imperial Court, AD 364–425, Oxford 1975, 91–92; also S. Williams and G. Friel, Theodosius: The Empire at Bay, London 1994.

Chapter 16

1. J. Matthews, Western Aristocracies and the Imperial Court, AD 364–425, Oxford 1975, ch. 7, is a good account of Maximus, with full references.

2. Matthews, Western Aristocracies, 95–96.

3. Ibid.

4. Zosimus 4.47.1.

5. Zosimus 4.54; Philostorgus 11.1; Socrates 5.11; B. Croke, ‘Arbogast and the death of Valentinian II’, Historia 25, 1976, 235–244.

6. Matthews, Western Aristocracies, ch. 9, part 2.

7. De Orbitu Theodosium 5.

8. The British emperor/usurpers are noted in A.R. Birley, The Fasti of Roman Britain, Oxford 1981, and discussed by C.E. Stevens, ‘Marcus, Gratian, Constantine’, Athenaeum 35, 1957, 316–347, which is further discussed by E.A. Thompson, ‘Britain AD 406–410’, Britannia 8, 1977, 303–318.

9. Zosimus 6.7.2; Sozomen 9.8.2.

10. Orosius 7.42.1–5.

11. Olympiordorus frags 17, 19; Orosius 7.42.6.

12. Olympiodorus, frag 24.

13. Paulinus, Eucharistion 293–294; Olympiodorus, frag 26; Philostorgus 12.5.

14. Gallic Chronicle of 452, 89; Marcellus, ann 422, 2.

15. Gallic Chronicle, anno 423; Philostorgus 12.14.

16. Olympiodorus frag 46; Philostorgus 12.13; Socrates 7.32.1–10.

17. Olympiodorus, frag 46; Socrates 7.24.4–5; Philostorgus 12.13–13a; Marcellinus anno 425, 2; Chronicon Paschale 1.580; Stewart Irvin Oost, Galla Placidia Augusta: A Biographical Essay, Chicago 1968.

18. Fergus Millar, A Greek Roman Empire: Power and Belief under Theodosius II, 408–450, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2006.

19. Chronicon Paschale ann 450 and 457; Procopius, Vandal War 1.4.7; Theophanes s.a. 5943; Evagrius 2.1; K.G. Holum, Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity, Berkeley and Los Angeles 1982, 208–209.

Chapter 17

1. John of Antioch 201.

2. John of Antioch 202, Sidonius Apollinaris, 2.13: Evagrius 2.7.

3. John of Antioch 203; Prosper of Aquitaine s.a. 455.

4. Sidonius Apollinaris, Epistles 11.13.5.

5. Priscus, Frag 24; Procopius, Vandal War 1.5.

6. Sidonius Apollinarius, Epistles 7.517.

7. T.S. Mommaerts and D.H. Kelley, ‘The Anicii of Gaul and Rome’, in John Drinkwater and Hugh Elton (eds), Fifth Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity?, Cambridge 1992, 111–121.

8. John of Antioch 202; see P. MacGeorge, Late Roman Warlords, Oxford 2002, 191–196.

9. Sidonius Apollinaris Ep. 1.2.6; R.W. Mathiesen, ‘Resistance and Reconstruction, Majorian and the Gallic Aristocracy after the Fall of Avitus’, Francia 7, 1979, 697–627, and ‘Avitus, Italy and the East in AD 455–456’, Byzantium 51, 1981, 232–247; G.E. Max, ‘Political Intrigue during the Reigns of the Western Roman Emperors Avitus and Majorian’, Historia 28, 1979, 225–237.

10. Fasti Vindobonenis Prior s.a. 457; Sidonius Apollinaris Panegyricus 5.387–388.

11. Hommaerts and Kelley (note 7) suggest that Olybrius was another son of Petronius Maximus.

12. Constantine Porphyrogenitus, de Caeremonios 1, ch. 91.

Chapter 18

1. Fasti Vindobonensis Prior s.a. 466; Gallic Chronicle of 511, 635; Jordanes, Getica, 236; John of Antioch 203; Hydatius 205, s.a. 461.

2. Fasti Vindobonensis Prior s.a. 46i; Gallic Chronicle of 511, 636; Marcellinus s.s. 461; Theophanes 5955.

3. Hydatius 206.

4. Cassiodorus, Chronicle 1283, s.a. 467.

5. Hydatius 231, s.a. 467; Fasti Vindobonensis Prior s.a. 467; and others.

6. Gallic Chronicle of 511, 649; Jordanes, Getica 237.

7. John of Antioch 209; Paul the Deacon, History of Rome, 15.3.

8. John of Antioch 209; John Malalas 373–375; F.M. Clover, ‘The Family and Career of Anicius Olybrius’, Historia 27, 1978, 169–196.

9. Paschale Chronicon 306; John of Antioch 209; Fasti Vindobonensis Prior s.a. 473.

10. Theophanes 5964; Marcellinus s.a. 471.

11. John of Antioch 209; Cassiodorus, Chronicon 1295, s.a. 473; Fasti Vindobonensis Prior s.a. 473; Marcellinus s.a. 473.

Chapter 19

1. Candidus 136; John Malalas 14, 376: Theophanes 5966–5967.

2. Candidus 136; John of Antioch 207.

3. Evagrius 3.24.

4. John of Antioch 209.

5. Jordanes, Getica 240–241; Prosper of Aquitaine s.a. 475; J.P.C. Kent, ‘Julius Nepos and the Fall of the Western Empire’, in Corolla Memoriae Erich Svoboda Dedicata, Graz and Cologne, 1966, 146–150.

6. Prosper of Aquitaine s.a. 475; Jordanes, Getica 241; Fasti Vindobonensis Prior s.a. 475.

7. Marcellinus s.a. 476; Jordanes, Getica 247.

8. King: Fasti Vindobonensis Prior s.a. 476; Paschale Chronicon 476; Patrician: Marcellinus, frag 14; cf MacGeorge, Late Roman Warlords, 291–292 and A.H.M. Jones, ‘The Constitutional Position of Odoacer and Theoderic’, Journal of Roman Studies 52, 1962, 126–131.

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