The Oxford World’s Classics and the Penguin Classics series are indispensable, and both a joy and an adornment. I have used many of the translations over the years but the following were crucial in the research for this book.

Herodotus, The Histories, trans. Robin Waterfield, Oxford University Press, 1998

Pliny the Younger, Complete Letters, trans. P.G. Walsh, Oxford University Press, 2006

Plutarch, Roman Lives, trans. Robin Waterfield, Oxford Paperbacks, 1998

Lives of the Later Caesars, trans. A.R. Birley, Penguin Classics, 1976

Suetonius, Lives of the Caesars, trans. Catherine Edwards, Oxford Paperbacks, 2000

Tacitus, Agricola, and Germany, trans. A.R. Birley, Oxford Paperbacks, 1999

Tacitus, Annals of Imperial Rome, trans. Michael Grant, Penguin Classics, 1956

Secondary sources for a study of Hadrian’s Wall are excellent; here are those which were most useful to me:

Bedoyere, de la, G., Hadrian’s Wall, NPI Media Group, 1998

Birley, A.R., Garrison Life at Vindolanda, History Press, 2002

Birley, A.R., Hadrian, the Restless Emperor, Routledge, 1997

Bowman, A.K., Life and Letters on the Roman Frontier, British Museum Press, 1976

Breeze, D.J. and Dobson, B., Hadrian’s Wall, Penguin, 1976

Breeze, D.J., The Antonine Wall, John Donald, 2006

Burton, A., Hadrian’s Wall Path, Aurum Press, 2003

Crow, J., Housesteads, History Press, 1995

Davies, J., A History of Wales, Penguin, 1990

Davies, N., Europe: A History, Pimlico, 1996

Fraser, A.F., The Native Horses of Scotland, John Donald, 1987

Frere, S.S., Britannia, Pimlico, 1967

Goldsworthy, A., Caesar, Phoenix, 2000

Hill, P., The Construction of Hadrian’s Wall, History Press, 2000

Johnson, S., Hadrian’s Wall, Batsford, 1989

Moffat, A., The Borders: A History from Earliest Times, Birlinn, 2002

Morris, J., The Age of Arthur, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1973

Salway, P., The Oxford Illustrated History of Roman Britain, Oxford University Press, 1993

Scarre, C, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome, Penguin, 1995

Thomas, A.C., Celtic Britain, Thames & Hudson, 1986

Towill, S., Carlisle, Phillimore, 1991

Watson, W.J., The Celtic Place-Names of Scotland, Birlinn, 1993

Wilmott, A., Birdoswald Roman Fort, Heritage Services, 1995

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