Sources of Information


(a) Literary

Since this book is designed for the general reader, I have wherever possible listed the appropriate parallel-translation Loeb edition for each author: it should not be supposed that I invariably regard this as the best edition available, or indeed the best translation. If a better translation is known to me, and easily available, I list it. Minor writers not listed can be found in Jacoby or Robinson (see below s.v. MISCELLANEOUS). L = Loeb.

AELIAN Claudius Aelianus (c.A.D. 170—235). Roman-domiciled epitomist. Varia Historia, ed. R. Hercher (Teubner), 1864. No English translation available.

AESCHINES (c. 397—c. 322 B.C.). Athenian orator and politician. Works, ed. and tr. C. D. Adams, London, 1919 (L).

ARISTOTLE (384—322 B.C.). Philosopher and scientist. Politics, ed. and tr. H. Rackham, London, 1932 (L). Eudemian Ethics, ed. and tr. E. Rackham, London, 1935 (L).

ARRIAN Flavius Arrianus (second century A.D.). A Greek from Bithynia, who governed Cappadocia under Hadrian, saw military action during the Alan invasion of 134, and studied under Epictetus. His History of Alexander, based largely on Ptolemy and Aristobulus, is still the soundest study of Alexander (though by no means so sound as romantic enthusiasts sometimes like to pretend: he is a master of artful omission). History of Alexander and Indica, ed. and tr. E. I. Robson (L), 2 vols., London, 1929—33 (both text and translation are highly erratic). Arrian's Campaign of Alexander, tr. Aubrey de Selincourt, London (Penguin Classics), revised edition with introduction and notes by J. R. Hamilton, 1972.

ATHENAEUS of Naucratis in Egypt (flor. c.A.D. 200). His one surviving work, The Deipnosophists, ed. and tr. C. B. Gulick, 7 vols., London, 1927—41 (L), is chiefly valuable for the innumerable fragments it preserves from fifth and fourth century B.C. authors (playwrights in particular) whose work is otherwise lost. Relevant fragments collected by Jacoby and Robinson (see below s.v. MISCELLANEOUS).

CTESIAS of Cnidos (late fifth century B.C.). Greek physician at the Achaemenid court in Persia: wrote works on Persia and India. J. Gilmore, Fragments of the Persika of Ctesias, London, 1888; R. Henry, Ctesias: La Perse, L'Inde, les Sommaires de Photius, Brussels, Office de Publicité S. C., 1947.

DEMADES, DEINARCHUS, HYPEREIDES, LYCURGUS. Statesmen and orators in Athens in the time of Philip and Alexander. Their surviving speeches and fragments are collected in Minor Attic Orators, vol. II, ed. and tr. J. O. Burtt, London, 1954 (L).

DEMOSTHENES (384—322 B.C.) of Paeania in Attica. Athenian orator and politician. Olynthiacs, Philippics, & c., ed. and tr. J. H. Vince, London, 1930. De Corona and De Falsa Legatione, ed. and tr. C. A. and J. H. Vince, London, 1926 (L).

DIODORUS SICULUS (first century B.C.). A Sicilian from Agyrium, who wrote a Universal History, much of it preserved, in forty books. This is the earliest connected account of Alexander's reign which we possess: Diodorus devotes the whole of Book 17 to the period 336—323. The sources he uses are still a matter of fierce scholarly debate; despite his chronological confusion and scissors-and-paste methods he often presents extremely valuable material. Books 17 and 18 form vols. VIII and IX of the Loeb edition, edited respectively by C. B. Welles (vol. VIII, 1963: a brilliant piece of scholarship) and R. M. Geer (vol. IX, 1947).

DIOGENES LAERTIUS (? early third century A.D.). Biographical epitomist. Lives of Eminent Philosophers, ed. and tr. R. D. Hicks, London, 1925 (L).

HERODOTUS (c. 485—c. 425 B.C.) of Halicarnassus. The Histories, ed. and tr. A. D. Godley, 4 vols., London, 1920—25 (L); tr. A. de Selincourt, London (Penguin Classics), 1954.

HESYCHIUS (? fifth century A.D.) of Alexandria, lexicographer. Ed. M. Schmidt, Jena 1858—68. Kurt Latte's superb edition (Hauniae, Munksgaard: vol. I, 1953; vol. II, 1966) had reached the letter O at the time of his death.

ISOCRATES (436—338 B.C.). Athenian pamphleteer, rhetorician and orator. Works, ed. and tr. G. Norlin and LaRue Van Hook, London, 1928—45 (L).

JULIUS VALERIUS (? Third—fourth century A.D.). Wrote a Latin version of the Alexander-Romance by Pseudo-Callisthenes. Ed. B. Kuebler, Leipzig, 1888. No English translation available.

JUSTIN (? third century A.D.). Marcus Junianus Justinus, epitomizer; made a digest of Trogus Pompeius' Historiae Philippicae, written during the reign of Augustus. Abrégé des Histoires Philippiques de Trogue Pompée, ed. and tr. E. and L. T. Chambry, 2 vols., Paris, 1936. No English translation available.

MISCELLANEOUS. W. W. Boer (ed.), Epistola Alexandri ad Aristotelem, The Hague, 1953. F. Jacoby (ed.), Die Fragmente der grieschischen Historiker (FGrHist), Pt II (Zeitgeschichte) B, pp. 618—828 (Alexandergeschichte) with Commentary (pp. 403—502, nos. 117—53), Berlin, 1929.
C. A. Robinson (ed.), The History of Alexander the Great, vol. I (Brown University Studies XVI), Providence R.I. (1953) translates all the fragments in Jacoby, including those of Callisthenes, Nearchus, Chares of Mytilene, Ptolemy, Cleitarchus, and others.

PAUSANIAS (second century A.D.). Travel-writer and geographer, best known for his Description of Greece: tr. and ed. W. H. S. Jones, H. A. Ormerod, R. E. Wycherley, 5 vols., London, 1918—35 (L). Now also available in a new translation by Father Peter Levi,S.J., Penguin Classics, 2 vols., London, 1971.

PLINY Gaius Plinius Secundus (A.D. 23/4—79). Military officer and polymath, whose scientific curiosity led to his death during the eruption of Vesuvius which destroyed Pompeii. Natural History, ed. and tr. H. Rackham, W. H. S. Jones, 10 vols., London, 1938—62 (L).

PLUTARCH of Chaeronea (c.A.D. 46—120). Biographer, dilettante scholar, Delphic priest; procurator of Achaea under Hadrian. His Life of Alexander is based on a number of authors now known only from fragments, including Callisthenes, Aristobulus, Chares and Onesicritus: tr. and ed. B. Perrin, Plutarch's Lives, vol. VII, London, 1919 (L). See also his Lives of Demosthenes (ibid.) and Phocion and Eumenes (vol. VIII). Plutarch wrote two early essays on Alexander, On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, Moral. 326D—345B (Loeb Moralia, vol. IV, tr. and ed. F. C. Babbitt, London, 1936), and there are numerous other references scattered through the Moralia (see specially 179D—181F, 219E, 221A9, 522A, 557B, 781A—B, 804B, 970D, 1043D). For a first-class discussion and commentary see J. R. Hamilton's edition of the Alexander Life (Oxford, 1968).

POLYAENUS (flor. c.A.D. 150). A Macedonian rhetorician and excerptor, now remembered only for his volume of tactical anecdotes, Strategemeta (ed. J. Melber, Leipzig, 1887). No English translation available.

POLYBIUS (?203—?120 B.C.). Greek statesman and historian; later moved to Rome under the patronage of the Scipionic circle. His main value for this period is his detailed criticism (20.17—22) of Callisthenes as a military historian, especially as regards Issus. The Histories, ed. and tr. W. R. Paton, London, 1925 (L).

PSEUDO-CALLISTHENES. Name given to the unknown author of the so-called ‘Alexander-Romance’, extant in many versions (including three Greek ones) of which the earliest is perhaps late second century A.D., though probably based on a romance in circulation not long after Alexander's death. Text: W. Kroll, Historia Alexandri Magni, second edition, Berlin, 1958; tr. E. H. Haight, The Life of Alexander of Macedon, New York, 1955. See also P. H. Thomas, Incerti Auctoris Epitoma rerum gestarum Alexandri Magni cum libro de morte testamentoque Alexandri, Leipzig (Teubner), 1960.

QUINTUS CURTIUS (? first century A.D.). His History of Alexander (ed. and tr. J. C. Rolfe, 2 vols., London, 1946 (L)) lacks Books 1 and 2, and has gaps between Books 5 and 6 and in Book 10. As a source Curtius' stock has risen somewhat in the last few years: he is frequently uncritical and given to overblown rhetoric, but careful analysis reveals highly valuable material (e.g. in relation to geography).

STRABO (64/3 B.C.—A.D. 21 +). A Greek from Amaseia in Pontus, who spent long periods of his life at Rome and in Egypt. His Geography, ed. and tr. H. L. Jones, 8 vols., London, 1917—32 (L), is a vast storehouse of useful facts and anecdotes, historical as well as geographical, concerning every area through which Alexander passed.

SUDA. Not a personal name, but the title of a lexicon (‘The Suda’ = ‘Fortress’ or ‘Stronghold’) compiled in its present form about the tenth century A.D., mostly based on other digests and epitomes. Yet much material in it derives, ultimately, from first-class sources now lost.

VALERIUS MAXIMUS (first century A.D.). Rhetorician and excerptor: his Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX (ed. C. Kempf, Leipzig, Teubner, 1888) was dedicated to Tiberius, and, though entirely uncritical, contains one or two illuminating anecdotes.

(b) Epigraphic

Inscriptions from Philip's and Alexander's reign of historical significance are collected, with a full commentary, by M. N. Tod in Greek Historical Inscriptions, vol. II, from 403 to 323 B.C., Oxford, 1948.

(c) Numismatic

AULOCK, H. von. ‘Die Prägung des Balakros in Kilikien’, JNG 14 (1964), 79—82.

BABELON, J. Le Portrait dans l'antiquité d'après les monnaies, Paris, 1942.

BELLINGER, A. R. Essays on the Coinage of Alexander the Great (Numismatic Studies II), New York, 1963.

HILL, G. F. ‘Alexander the Great and the Persian lion-gryphon’, JHS 43 (1923), 156—61.

KLEINER, G. Alexanders Reichsmünzen (Abhandlungen der deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Klasse für Sprachen, Literatur und Kunst, Akademie-Verlag, no. 5), Berlin, 1949.

KRAAY, C. M. Greek Coins, London, 1967.

NEWELL, E. T. The dated Alexander coinage of Sidon and Ake, Oxford University Press, 1916. Myriandros kat'Isson, New York, 1920. Tarsos under Alexander, New York, 1919.

NOE, S. P. ‘The Corinth Hoard of 1938’, ANSMusN 10 (1962), 9—41.

SELTMAN, C. Greek Coins, second edition, London, 1955.

(d) Iconographic and miscellaneous

ANDREAE, B. Das Alexandermosaik (Opus nobile XIV), Bremen, 1959.

BANDINELLI, G. ‘Cassandro di Macedonia nella Vita plutarchea di Alessandro Magno’, RFIC 93 (1965), 150—64. ‘Un ignorato gruppo statuario di Alessandro e Bucefalo’, SE 18 (1944), 29—43, with plates V—VII.

BERNOULLI, J. J. Die erhaltenen Darstellungen Alexanders des Grossen; Ein Nachtrag zur griechischen Ikonographie, Munich, 1905.

BIEBER, M. Alexander the Great in Greek and Roman Art, Chicago, 1964.

BIJVANCK, A. W. ‘La bataille d'Alexandre’, BVAB 30 (1955), 28—34.

DAUX, G. ‘Chroniques des Fouilles en 1961’, BCH 86 (1962), 805—13. ‘Chroniques des Fouilles en 1957’, BCH 82 (1958), 761—5 with figs. 14—16.

DELLA CORTE, M. ‘L'educazione di Alessandro Magno nell'enciclopedia Aristotelica in un trittico megalografico di Pompei del II stile’, MDAI(R) 57 (1942), 31—77.

DEL MEDICO, H. E. ‘A propos du trésor de Panaguriste: un portrait d'Alexandre par Lysippe’, Persica 3 (1967/8), 37—67, plates II—IV, figs. 8—15.

GEBAUER, K. Alexanderbildnis und Alexandertypus. MDAI(R) (1938/9), 1—106.

JOHNSON, F. P. Lysippos, Durham, N. Carolina, 1927.

JONGKEES, J. H. ‘A portrait of Alexander the Great’, BVAB 29 (1954), 32—3.

LUNSINGH-SCHEURLEER, R. A. ‘Alexander in faience’, ibid. 40 (1965), 80—83.

MINGAZZINI, P. ‘Una copia dell'Alex. Keraunophoros di Apelle’, JBerlM 3(1961), 7—17.

NEWELL, E. T. Royal Greek Portrait Coins, New York, 1937.

PFISTER, F. ‘Alexander der Grosse in der bildenden Kunst’, F und F 35 (1961), 330—34, 375—9.

PICARD, C. ‘Le mosaïste grec Gnôsis et les nouvelles chasses de Pella’, RA 1 (1963), 205—9.

RICHTER, G. M. A. The Portraits of the Greeks, 3 vols., London, Phaidon, 1965.

ROBERTSON, M. ‘The Boscoreale figure-paintings’, JHS 45 (1955), 58—67, plates XI—XIII.

RUMPF, A. ‘Zum Alexander-Mosaik’, MDAI(A) 77 (1962), 229—41.

SCHREIBER, T. Studien über das Bildniss Alexanders des Grossen, Leipzig, 1903.

SJÖQVIST, E. ‘Alexander-Heracles. A preliminary note’, BMusB (Boston) 51 (1953), 30—33, figs. 1—5.

SUHR, E. G. Sculptured Portraits of Greek Statesmen, with a special study of Alexander the Great, Baltimore, 1931.

UJFALVŸ, C. de. Le Type Physique d'Alexandre le Grand, Paris, 1902.


This bibliography does not claim to be exhaustive (the literature on Alexander is so vast that to list it all would fill a fair-sized volume); I only include here items I have found of special use or interest — often through differing radically from the views which they express. For further study the following guide may be profitably consulted:

BADIAN, E. ‘Alexander the Great, 1948—67’, CW 65 (1971), 37—56, 77—83.

ABEL, F. M. ‘Alexandre le Grand en Syrie et en Palestine’, Rev. Bibl. 43 (1934), 528—45; 44 (1935), 42—61.

ADCOCK, F. E. The Greek and Macedonian Art of War, Berkeley, 1962. ‘Greek and Macedonian Kingship’, Proc. Brit. Acad. 39 (1954), 163—80.

ALTHEIM, F. Alexander und Asien: Geschichte eines geistiges Erbes, Tübingen, 1953.
Zarathustra und Alexander, Frankfurt a.M., 1960.

ANDERSON, A. R. ‘Alexander's Horns’, TAPhA 58 (1927), 100—122. ‘Bucephalas and his legend’, AJPh (1930), 1—21.

ANDREOTTI, R. ‘Die Weltmonarchie Alexanders des Grossen’, Saeculum 8 (1957), 120—66.
‘Per un critica dell'ideologia di Alessandro Magno’, Historia 5 (1956), 257—302.
‘Il problema di Alessandro Magno nella storiografia dell'ultimo decennio’, Historia 1 (1950), 583 ff.
Il problema politico di Alessandro Magno, Parma, 1933.

ATKINSON, J. E. ‘Primary sources and the Alexanderreich’, Act. Class. (Cape Town), 6 (1963), 125—37.

AYMARD, A. ‘Le protocole royal grec et son évolution’, REA (1948), 232—63.
‘Sur quelques vers d'Euripide qui poussèrent Alexandre au meurtre’, Ann. Inst. Phil. Hist. Or. (Brussels) 9 (1949), 43—74 (= Mélanges Grégoire I).
‘Un ordre d'Alexandre’, REA (1937), 5—28.

BADIAN, E. ‘Agis III’, Hermes 95 (1967), 170—92.
‘The Administration of the Empire’, GR 12 (1965), 166—82.
‘Alexander the Great and the Creation of an Empire’, Hist. Today 8 (1958), 369—76, 494—502.
‘Alexander the Great and the Greeks of Asia’, Ancient Societies and Institutions: Studies presented to Victor Ehrenberg on his 75th birthday (Oxford, 1966), 37—69.
‘Alexander the Great and the Loneliness of Power’, Journ. Austral. Univ. Lang. Assoc. 17 (1962), 80—91; repr. in Studies in Greek and Roman History (Oxford, 1964), 192—205.
‘Alexander the Great and the Unity of Mankind’, Historia 7 (1958), 425—44; repr. in Griffith, Main Problems (MP), q.v., pp. 287—306.
‘Ancient Alexandria’, Stud. Gr. Rom. Hist., pp. 179—191.
‘The death of Parmenio’, TAPhA 91 (1960), 324—38.
‘The death of Philip II’, Phoenix 17 (1963), 244—50.
‘The Eunuch Bagoas’, CQ ns8 (1958), 144—57.
‘The first flight of Harpalus’, Historia 9 (1960), 245—6.
‘Harpalus’, JHS 81 (1961), 16—43.
‘A King's Notebooks’, Harv. Stud. Class. Phil. 72 (1967), 183—204.
‘Orientals in Alexander's army’, JHS 85 (1965), 160—61.

BALDRY, H. C. The Unity of Mankind in Greek Thought, Cambridge, 1965.

BALSDON, J. P. V. D. ‘The "Divinity" of Alexander the Great’, Historia 1 (1950), 383—8.

BELOCH, K. J. Griechische Geschichte, 2nd edn, vols. III, i—ii; IV, i, Leipzig-Berlin, 1922—5.

BERVE, H. Das Alexanderreich auf prosopographischer Grundlage, 2 vols., Munich, 1926.
‘Die Verschmelzungspolitik Alexanders des Grossen’, Klio 31 (1938), 135—68. Repr. Griffith, MP pp. 103—36.

BEVAN, E. R. Chapter XV of The Cambridge History of India (ed. E. J. Rapson), vol. I (1922), pp. 345—86.

BICKERMANN, E. ‘Alexandre le Grand et les villes d'Asie’, REG 47 (1934), 346—74.
‘La Lettre d'Alexandre le Grand aux bannis grecs’, REA 53 (1940), 25—35.
‘A propos d'un passage de Chares de Mytilène’, Parola del Passato 18 (1963), 241—55.

BIDEZ, J. ‘Hermias d'Atarnée’, Bull. Class. Lett. Sc. Mor. Pol. Acad. R. Belg. 29 (1943), 133—46.

BORZA, E. N. ‘Alexander and the return from Siwah’, Historia 16 (1967), 369.
‘Cleitarchus and Diodorus' account of Alexander’, Proc. Afr. Class. Assoc. 2 (1968), 25—45.
‘The End of Agis's Revolt’, CPh 66 (1971), 230—35.
‘Fire from Heaven: Alexander at Persepolis’, CPh 67 (1972), 233—45.
‘Some notes on Arrian's name’, Athens Annals of Archaeology 5 (1972), 99—192.
See also s.v. WILCKEN, U.

BOSWORTH, A. B. ‘Philip II and Upper Macedonia’, CQ, 21ns (1971), 93—105.
‘The Death of Alexander the Great: Rumour and Propaganda’, ibid., 112—36.
‘Arrian's Literary Development’, CQ ns 22 (1972), 163—85.

BRELOAR, B. Alexanders Kampf gegen Poros, Stuttgart, 1933.

BROWN, T. S. ‘Alexander's Book Order (Plut. Alex. 8)’, Historia 16 (1967), 359—68.
‘Callisthenes and Alexander’, AJPh 70 (1949), 225—48; repr. Griffiths, MP, pp. 53—72.
Onesicritus, Berkeley/Los Angeles, 1949.

BRUNT, P. A. ‘The Aims of Alexander’, GR 12 (1965), 205—15.
‘Alexander's Macedonian Cavalry’, JHS 83 (1963), 27—46.
‘Persian accounts of Alexander's campaigns’, CQ 12 (1962), 141—55.

BUCHNER, E. ‘Zwei Gutachten für die Behandlung der Barbaren durch Alexander den Grossen?’, Hermes 82 (1954), 378—84.

BURN, A. R. Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic World, 2nd rev. edn, New York, 1962.
‘The generalship of Alexander’, GR 12 (1965), 140—54.
‘Notes on Alexander's campaigns, 332—330 B.C.’, JHS 72 (1952), 81—91.

CAROE, O. The Pathans, 550 B.C.—A.D. 1957, London, 1958.

CARY, G. The Mediaeval Alexander, Cambridge, 1956.

CASSON, L. ‘The grain trade of the Hellenistic world’, TAPhA 85 (1954), 168—87.

CASSON, S. Macedonia, Thrace and Illyria, Oxford, 1926.

CHROUST, A. H. ‘Aristotle and Callisthenes of Olynthus’, Classical Folia 20 (1966), 32—41.
‘Aristotle's sojourn in Assas’, Historia 21 (1972) 170—176.
‘Aristotle leaves the Academy’, GR 14 (1967) 39—44.

CLOCHE, P. Alexandre le Grand, Neuchatel, 1953.
Histoire de la Macédoine jusqu'à l'avènement d'Alexandre le Grand (336 av. J.—C.), Paris, 1960.
Un fondateur d'empire: Philippe II, Roi de Macédoine (382/2-336/5 avant J.C.), St-Etienne, 1955.

COLOMBINI, A. ‘Per una valutazione dei rapporti delfico-macedoni dalle origini del regno Argeade ad Alessandro Magno’, Stud. Class. e Orient. 12 (1963), 183—206.

CROSS, G. N. Epirus: A Study in Greek Constitutional Development, Cambridge, 1932.

CULICAN, W. The Medes and Persians, London, 1965.

DASKALAKIS, A. Alexander the Great and Hellenism, Thessaloniki, 1966. ‘L'origine de la maison royale de Macédoine et les légendes relatives de l'antiquité’, AM, pp. 155—61.

DAVIS, E. W. ‘The Persian battle plan at the Granicus’, Stud. Caldwell (Laudatores temporis acti, ed. M. F. Gyles and E. W. Davis), 34—44 (Univ. N. Carolina, 1964).

DELCOR, M. ‘Les allusions à Alexandre le Grand dans Zach. IX 1—8’, Vet. Test. 1 (1951), 110—24.

DELL, H. J. ‘The western frontier of the Macedonian monarchy’, AM, 115—26.

DERCHAIN, P. J., and HUBAUX, J. ‘Le fantôme de Babylone’, AC (1950), 367—82.

DE SANCTIS, G. ‘Gli ultimi messaggi di Alessandro ai Greci, I: La richiesta degli onori divini’, Riv. fil. (1940), 1—21.

DIHLE, A. ‘The conception of India in Hellenistic and Roman literature’, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 10 (1964), 15—23.

DILLER, A. Race Mixture among the Greeks before Alexander, Univ. Illinois, 1937.

DROYSEN, J. G. Geschichte Alexanders des Grossen, 1833; rev. edn (H. Berve), 1931.

EDDY, S. K. The King is Dead. Studies in the Near Eastern resistance to Hellenism, 334—331 B.C., Lincoln Univ., Nebraska, 1961.

EDMUNDS, L. ‘The religiosity of Alexander’, GRByS 12 (1971), 363—91.

EDSON, C. F. ‘Early Macedonia’, AM, 2—44.

EHRENBERG, V. Alexander and the Greeks, tr. R. Fraenkel van Velsen, Oxford, 1938: ch. II, ‘Pothos’, repr. in Griffith, MP, pp. 73—83. Alexander und Aegypten, Leipzig, 1926.

EHRHARDT, C. ‘Two notes on Philip of Macedon's first interventions in Thessaly’, CQ 17 (1967), 296.

ELLIGER, K. ‘Ein Zeugnis aus der jüdischen Gemeinde, 332 v. Chr.’, Zeitschr. f. Alttest. Wiss. 62 (1949/50), 63—115.

ELLIS, J. R. ‘The security of the Macedonian throne under Philip II’, AM, 68—75.
‘Amyntas Perdikka, Philip II and Alexander the Great’, JHS 91 (1971), 15—24.

ERRINGTON, R. M. ‘Bias in Ptolemy's History of Alexander’, CQ ns63 (1969), 233—42.

FAKHRY, A. ‘A temple of Alexander the Great at Bahria Oasis’, Ann. Serv. Ant. Egypt. 40 (1940/41), 823—8.

FERGUSON, W. S. Hellenistic Athens, New York, 1911.

FORTINA, M. Cassandro, re di Macedonia, Torino, 1965.

FOUCHER, A. ‘Les satrapies orientales de l'empire achéménide’, Compt. Rend. Acad. Inscr. (1938), 336—52.

FOUCHER, A., and E. B. ‘La vieille route de Bactre à Taxila’, MéM. Délég. française en Afghanistan II (1942).

FRASER, A. D. ‘The "breaking" of Bucephalas’, CW 47 (1953), 22—3.

FRASER, P. M. ‘Alexander and the Rhodian Constitution’, Parola del Passato 7 (1952), 192—206.
‘Current problems concerning the early history of the cult of Sarapis’, Opuscula Archaeologica 7 (1967), 23 ff.

FREDRICKSMEYER, E. A. ‘Alexander, Midas, and the oracle at Gordium’, CPh 56 (1961), 160—68.
‘The ancestral rites of Alexander the Great’, CPh 61 (1966), 179—81.
The Religion of Alexander the Great, Diss. Univ. Wisconsin, 1958, Résumé: Diss. Abstract. 19 (1959), 1747.

FRYE, R. N. The Heritage of Persia, London, 1962.

FULLER, J. F. C. The Generalship of Alexander the Great, London, 1958.

GALLET DE SANTERRE, H. ‘Alexandre le Grand et Kymé d'Eolide’, Bull. Corr. Hell. 71.2 (1947/8), 302—6.

GEYER, F. ‘Philippos’ (7) in Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll (PWK) Real. Enc. (RE), vol. XIX, cols. 2266—303.
‘Makedonien bis zur Thronbesteigung Philipps II’ (Beiheft 19, Hist. Zeitschrift), München/Berlin, 1930.

GHIRSHMAN, R. Iran: Parthians and Sassanians, London, 1962.
Perse: Proto-iraniens, Mèdes, Achéménides, Paris, 1963. (English tr. by S. Gilbert and J. Emmons, London, 1964.)

GITTI, A. Alessandro Magno all' Oasi di Siwah. Il problema delle fonti, Bari, 1951.
‘Alessandro Magno e il responso di Ammone’, Riv. stor. ital. 64 (1952), 531—47.
‘L'unitarietà della tradizione su Alessandro Magno nella ricerca moderna’, Athenaeum 34 (1956), 39—57.

GLOTZ, G., ROUSSEL, P., and COHEN, R. Histoire grecque, vol. IV: Alexandre et l'Hellénisation du monde antique, pt i, ‘Alexandre et le démembrement de son empire’, Paris, 1938.

GRIFFITH, G. T. ‘Alexander and Antipater in 323 B.C.’, Proc. Afric. Class. Assoc. 8 (1965), 12—17.
‘Alexander's generalship at Gaugamela’, JHS 67 (1947), 77—89.
‘Alexander the Great and an experiment in government’, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 10 (1964), 23—39.
‘The letter of Darius at Arrian 2.14’, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 14 (1968), 33—48.
‘The Macedonian Background’, GR 12 (1965), 125—39.
Makedonika. Notes on the Macedonians of Philip and Alexander’, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 4 (1956/7), 3—10.
The Mercenaries of the Hellenistic World, Cambridge, 1935.
‘A note on the Hipparchies of Alexander’, JHS 83 (1963), 68—74.
‘Philip of Macedon's early interventions in Thessaly (358—352 B.C.)’, CQ ns20 (1970), 67—80.
(ed.) Alexander the Great: The Main Problems, Cambridge, 1966.

GROTE, G. A History of Greece; rev. ed. 12 vols., London, 1888.

GUNDERSON, L. L. ‘Early elements in the Alexander Romance’, AM 353—75.

HADAS, M. Hellenistic Culture: Fusion and Diffusion, New York, 1959.

HADLEY, R. A. ‘Deified Kingship and propaganda coinage in the early Hellenistic Age’, Diss. Univ. Pennsylvania, 1964. Résumé in Diss. Abstracts 25 (1965), 5881—2.

HAMILTON, J. R. ‘Alexander’s early life’, GR 12 (1965), 117—24. ‘Alexander and his so-called father’, CQ ns3 (1953), 151—7; repr. in Griffith, MP, pp. 235—42.
‘Alexander and the Aral’, CQ ns21 (1971), 106—11.
‘The cavalry battle at the Hydaspes’, JHS 76 (1956), 26—31.
‘Cleitarchus and Aristobulus’, Historia 10 (1961), 448—58.
Plutarch: Alexander. A Commentary, Oxford, 1968.
‘Three passages in Arrian’, CQ ns5 (1955), 217—21.

HAMMOND, N. G. L. ‘The archaeological background to the Macedonian Kingdom’, AM 53—67.
A History of Greece, 2nd edn, Oxford, 1967.
Epirus: The geography, the ancient remains, the history and topography of Epirus and adjacent areas. Oxford, 1967.
‘The two battles of Chaeronea (338 B.C. and 86 B.C.)’, Klio 31 (1938), 186—218.

HAMPL, F. Alexander der Grosse, Göttingen, 1958.
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Note: This seems an appropriate place to express my deep gratitude to all those scholars who have so generously sent me copies of their books or offprints of their articles concerning Alexander, as well as corresponding with me on various related topics. Since the present study is very far from exhausting either my concern with, or my investigations into, fourth-century Greek history in general, and Philip and Alexander in particular, I would take it as an especial favour if students in this field would continue to keep me abreast of their researches and future projects. (There are, too, many titles in my bibliography to which access remains difficult, and where, again, I would be more than grateful for an offprint if any remain available.) As Professor W. K. C. Guthrie said when making a similar plea apropos a far more ambitious undertaking,a ‘I cannot promise any adequate quid pro quo; I can only say that I shall be sincerely grateful.’

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