images

Endnotes

INTRODUCTION

1. Alice Mapelsden Keys, Cadwallader Colden: A Representative Eighteenth Century Official (New York: self-published), 1906.

2. Alfred R. Hoermann, Cadwallader Colden: A Figure of the American Enlightenment (Westport, CT: Green Press, 2002).

CHAPTER 1: BEFORE TAKING ROOT: 1688–1718

a. This is in accordance with The New York Historical Papers. The American National Biography lists the date as February 7, 1689; the Dictionary of National Biography indicates the date to be February 17, 1688; the Genealogical Notes of the Colden Family in America by Edwin R. Purple, privately printed in New York in 1873, offers a date of February 7, 1687, O.S.

1. American National Biography Vol. 5 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 198–99.

2. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, Collections of The New York Historical Society for the Year 1918, New York, pp. 72–80.

3. Alfred R. Hoermann, Cadwallader Colden: A Figure of the American Enlightenment (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003), p. 76.

4. Alexander Grant, The Story of the University of Edinburgh, Vol. 1 (London: Longmans, Green, 1884), p. 220.

5. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1920, New York, p. 258.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., p. 259.

8. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. I, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1918, New York, p. 39.

9. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, pp. 126–27.

10. Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 4 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964), p. 716.

11. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. I, p. 34.

12. Ibid., pp. 41–42.

13. Ibid., pp. 37–39.

14. William Smith, Jr., The History of the Province of New-York…to the Year MDCCXXXII (London, 1757), Vol. I, Michael Kammen, ed., (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1972), p. 212.

15. Joseph M. Toner, Contributions to the Annals of Medical Progress and medical education in the United States before and during the war of independence (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1874), p. 106.

16. William Douglass, A Summary, Historical and Political, of the…British Settlements in North-America, 2 vols. (London: R. and J. Dodsley, 1760), p. 106.

17. Richard Harrison Shryock, Medicine and Society in America 1660-1680 (New York: New York University Press, 1972), p. 9.

18. S. Griffin to Levi Bartlett [April 4, 1794], Miller Collection, Richmond, VA. Academy of Medicine.

19. Francis R. Packard, History of Medicine in the United States, Vol. 1, (New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1931), p. 286.

20. Frederick B. Tolles, James Logan and the Culture of Provincial America (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1957), p. 6.

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid.

CHAPTER 2: THE NEW NEW YORKER: 1718–1728

a. It was customary to designate two years, one representing the old style and the other the new style calendar. In 1750, an Act of Parliament changed the calendar so that the new year began on January 1 rather than March 25 and would run according to the Gregorian calendar. The new calendar took effect on January 1, 1752.

1. Seymour I. Schwartz and Ralph E. Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1980), pp. 75–79.

2. Michael Kammen, Colonial New York-A History (New York: Charles Scriber's Sons, 1975), p. 180.

3. Edwin R. Purple, Genealogical Notes on the Colden Family (Private printing, 1873).

4. Ibid.

5. Alice Mapelsden Keys, Cadwallader Colden: A Representative Eighteenth Century Official (New York: n.p., 1906), p. 27.

6. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1917, New York, p. 100–101.

7. Keys, Cadwallader Colden, p. 108.

8. William Smith, Jr., The History of the Province of New-York…to the Year MDCCXXXII, London, 1757, Vol. I, Michael Kammen, ed. (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1972), p. 16.

9. Francis R. Packard, History of Medicine in the United States, Vol. I (New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1931), p. 297.

10. Cadwallader Colden, “To His Excellency Brigadier Hunter Governor of New York, January 16, 1719/20,” Copy Book of Letters on Subjects of Philosophy, Medicine, Friendship, 1716-1721, Colden MS., New York Historical Society, unpaginated.

11. Ibid.

12. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. I, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1917, New York, pp. 114–23.

13. Ibid., pp. 141–45.

14. Ibid., p. 164.

15. Ibid., pp. 165–67.

16. Ibid., pp. 234–37, 244, 246, 247.

17. Ibid., pp. 238–39, 244–45.

18. Ibid., pp. 244, 245, 247, 250–51.

19. Charles J. Bullock, “Introduction: Life and Writings of William Douglass,” in “A Discourse Concerning the Currencies of the British Plantations in America &c. by William Douglass,” ed. by Charles J. Bullock, Economic Studies (Journal of the American Economic Association), Vol. 2, No. 5, Google Books.

20. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. I, pp. 272–73.

21. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1918, New York, pp. 146–47.

22. Ibid., pp. 196–200.

23. Seymour I. Schwartz and Ralph E. Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1980), p. 157.

24. Keys, Cadwallader Colden, p. 29.

25. Ibid., p. 31.

26. Shelley Ross, Fall From Grace (New York: Random House, 1958), p. 4.

27. Keys, Cadwallader Colden p. 31.

28. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. I, pp. 104–105.

29. Alphonso T. Clearwater, ed., The History of Ulster County New York (Westminster, MD: Clearwater, Heritage Book Facsimile, 2007), p. 53.

30. Keys, Cadwallader Colden, p. 33.

31. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. I, pp. 128–34.

32. Schwartz and Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America, p. 150.

33. Baron de Lahontan, Nouveaux Voyages de Mr. Baron de Lahontan Dans L—Amerique Septentrionale (La Haye: Chez les Freres l Honore, 1702).

34. Ibid., p. 146.

35. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. I, 1919, p. 209.

36. Keys, Cadwallader Colden, p. 5.

37. John Huske, The Present State of North America (London: R. and J. Dodsley, 1755), pp. 41-42.

38. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York, Vol. I, p. lxiii.

39. Lawrence C. Wroth, An American Bookshelf 1755 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934).

40. Cadwallader Colden, The History of the Five Indian Nations (New York: William Bradford, 1727; Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1973), p. ix.

41. Histoire de L—Amerique septentrionale pr Mr. de Bacqueville de la Potherie (Paris: J. L. Nion et F. Didot, 1722).

42. Baron de Lahontan, Nouveaux Voyages de Mr.Baron de Lahontan Dans L—Amerique Septentrionale.

43. Colden, The History of the Five Indian Nations.

44. Keys, Cadwallader Colden, p. 112.

45. Edwin R. Purple, Genealogical Notes on the Colden Family (Private printing, 1873), p. 4.

46. Edmund B. O—Callaghan, ed., Documents Relative to the Colonial History of New York, Vol. V (Albany, 1856–87), pp. 685–88.

47. William Smith, Jr., The History of the Province of New-York, Vol. I, p. 172.

48. Edwin R. Purple, Genealogical Notes on the Colden Family, p. 8.

49. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York, Vol. I, p. 171.

50. Michael Kammen, Colonial New York-A History, pp. 184–85.

51. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IX, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1937, New York, p. 278.

52. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. I, pp. 191–92.

53. Jean O—Neill and Elizabeth P. McLean, Petyer Collinson and the Eighteenth-Century Natural History Exchange (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2008).

54. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York, Vol. I, p. 318.

55. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, p. 263.

56. Jacquetta M. Haley, “Farming on the Hudson Valley Frontier: Cadwallader Colden's Farm Journal, 1717–1736,” Hudson Valley Regional Review 6 (March 1989), p. 2.

57. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VIII, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1934, New York, p. 173.

58. Haley, “Farming on the Hudson Valley Frontier,” p. 6.

59. Ibid., pp. 1–34.

60. Paula Ivaska Robbins, Jane Colden: America's First Woman Botanist (New York: Purple Mountain Press, Fleischmanns, 2009), p. 22.

61. Ibid.

62. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. I, p. 274.

63. id., pp. 271–72.

CHAPTER 3: A COUNTRY GENTLEMAN REMAINS FOCUSED ON COLONIAL CONCERNS: 1729–1738

1. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1917, New York, p. 6.

2. Ibid., p. 84.

3. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VIII, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1934, New York, p. 202.

4. Jacquetta M. Haley, “Farming on the Hudson Valley Frontier: Cadwallader Colden's Farm Journal, 1717–1736,” Hudson Valley Regional Review 6 (March 1989), p. 6.

5. Paula Ivaska Robbins, Jane Colden: America's First Woman Botanist (New York: Purple Mountain Press, Fleischmanns, 2009), p. 24.

6. Haley, “Farming on the Hudson Valley Frontier,” p. 6.

7. Ibid., p. 4.

8. Ibid., pp. 1–34.

9. Joseph Devine, “Cadwallader Colden: Father of the American Canal System.” http://home.roadrunner.com/-montghistory/ (accessed 2012).

10. Cadwallader Colden, “Observations on the Situation, Soil, Climate, Water, Communications, Bounaries, etc. of the Province of New York, (1738)” in E. B. O—Callaghan, The Documentary History of the State of New York (Albany, NY: State of New York, 1849–1851), Vol. I, pp. 172–73.

11. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VIII, pp. 198 and 200.

12. Alice Colden Wadsworth, “Sketch of the Colden and Murray Families” (1819), Manuscript Division, New York Public Library, quoted in Alfred R. Hoermann, Cadwallader Colden; A Figure of the American Enlightmenment (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002), p. 17.

13. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, p. 180.

14. Ibid., pp. 146–47.

15. William Smith, Jr., The History of the Province of New-York…to the Year MDCCXXXII (London, 1757, Vol. I), Michael Kammen, ed., (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1972) p. 187.

16. Ibid., p. 188.

17. Alice Mapelsden Keys, Cadwallader Colden: A Representative Eighteenth Century Official (New York: 1906), p. 51.

18. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, pp. 124–28.

19. Keys, Cadwallader Colden, p. 39.

20. Ibid., p. 41.

21. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, pp. 172–75.

22. Ibid., p. 205.

23. Ibid., p. 102.

24. Ibid., p. 115.

25. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York…to the Year MDCCXXXII, p. 15.

26. Ibid., p. 21.

27. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, p. 141.

28. Michael Kammen, Colonial New York-A History (New York: Charles Scriber's Sons, 1975), pp. 203–205.

29. Ibid., p. 28.

30. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, pp. 158–60.

31. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York…to the Year MDCCXXXII, pp. 33–35.

32. Ibid., p. lxxi.

33. Ibid., p. 195.

34. Ibid., p. lxx.

CHAPTER 4: CONCENTRATED CORRESPONDENCE AND EVOLVING ENLIGHTENMENT: 1739–1748

1. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, Collections of the Historical Society for the Year 1917, New York, p. 210.

2. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VIII, Collections of the Historical Society for the Year 1937, New York, p. 355.

3. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, p. 205.

4. Ibid., pp. 206–209.

5. Ibid., p. 208.

6. Whitfield J. Bell, Jr., Patriot Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 1, (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1997), p. 111.

7. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, p. 281.

8. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol., V, Collections of the New-York Historical Society for the Year 1921, New York, p. 216.

9. Ibid., p. 31–33.

10. Edmund Berkeley and Doris Smith Berkeley, The Correspondence of John Bartram, 1734-1777 (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1992), p. 202.

11. Ibid., pp. 86 and 87.

12. “Plantae Coldenghamiae in provincial Novaboracnesi Americes sponte crescents, quas ad Methodem Cl. Linnaei sexulem. Anno 1742 etc. Observavit et descripsit Cadwallader Colden,” Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Upsalinsis for 1743, 1749, pp. 47–82.

13. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1919, New York, p. 275.

14. Ibid., p. 38.

15. Ibid. pp. 92–94.

16. Ibid., p. 410.

17. Ibid., p. 34.

18. Ibid., pp. 58–59.

19. Ibid., p. 77.

20. Ibid., pp. 139–43.

21. Ibid., pp. 184 and 185.

22. Ibid., p. 187.

23. Ibid., p. 275.

24. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1920, New York, p. 6.

25. “Plantae Coldenghamiae in provincial Novaboracnesi Americes sponte crescents, quas ad Methodem Cl. Linnaei sexulem. Anno 1742 etc. Observavit et descripsit Cadwallader Colden,” p. 114.

26. Ibid., p. 34.

27. Brooke Hindle, The Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1956), p. 68.

28. Bell, Patriot Improvers, pp. 4–6.

29. Hindle, The Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789, p. 70.

30. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, p. 143.

31. Ibid., p. 93.

32. Bell, Patriot Improvers, p. 111.

33. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, p. 46.

34. Cadwallader Colden, “Observations on the Fever which prevailed in the City of New-York in 1741 and 2, written in 1743,” American Medical and Philosophical Reporter, 1 (1811), p. 311.

35. Ibid., p. 589.

36. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, pp. 65 and 66.

37. Ibid., p. 96.

38. Ibid., p. 102.

39. Ibid., pp. 77 and 78.

40. Ibid., pp. 314–28.

41. Saul Jarcho, “John Mitchell, Benjamin Rush and Yellow Fever,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, XXXI (1957), pp. 132–36.

42. Ibid., pp. 328–37.

43. Ibid., p. 236.

44. Bell, Patriot Improvers, pp. 138 and 139.

45. Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Smith Berkeley, Dr. John Mitchell (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1974), p. 24.

46. Herbert Thatcher, “Dr. Mitchell, M.D., F.R.S. of Virginia,” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 40 (1932), p. 101.

47. D. D. Jo. Mitchell, “Dissertatio Brevis de Principiis Botanicorum et Zoologorum desque novo stabilende naturae rerum congruo cum Appendice Aliquot Generum plantarum recens conditorum…” Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesarae…Ephemerides VIII, 1748.

48. Berkeley and Berkeley, Dr. John Mitchell, p. 36.

49. Ibid., p. 44.

50. John Mitchell, “An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in Different Climates,” Philosophical Transactions, XLIII (1744), pp. 102–150.

51. Berkeley and Berkeley, Dr. John Mitchell, p. 73.

52. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, p. 369.

53. Colden to Mitchell, July 6, 1749, Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IX, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1937, New York, pp. 18–36.

54. Berkeley and Berkeley, Dr. John Mitchell, 1974.

55. Referred to in an inscription on the Mitchell map by John Pownall, secretary to the Board of Trade and Plantations.

56. Seymour I. Schwartz and Ralph E. Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1979), p. 162.

57. Berkeley and Berkeley, Dr. John Mitchell, pp. 216–18.

58. Ibid., p. 224.

59. Bell, Patriot Improvers, p. 147.

60. Alfred R. Hoermann, Cadwallader Colden: A Figure of the American Enlightenment (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002), p. 77.

61. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, p. 118.

62. Ibid., p. 212.

63. Sir Isaac Newton, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, ed. by Florian Cajori from the 1737 edition (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1946), p. 547.

64. Raymond Phineas Stearns, Science in the British Colonies of America (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970), pp. 568 and 569.

65. Brooke Hindle, “Cadwallader Colden's Extension of the Newtonian Principles,” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 13, no. 4 (1956), p. 459.

66. Cadwallader Colden, Manuscript Revision of the Principles of Action, Library, University of Edinburgh, ch. 3, p. 37.

67. Ibid., p. 40.

68. Brooke Hindle, “Cadwallader Colden's Extension of the Newtonian Principles,” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 13, no. 4 (1956), pp. 464 and 465.

69. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, p. 6.

70. Ibid., p. 61.

71. Ibid., p. 77.

72. Ibid., p. 1.

73. Ibid., pp. 6–9.

74. I. Woodbridge Riley, American Philosophy: The Early Schools (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1907), pp. 323–72.

75. Ibid., pp. 194–96.

76. Ibid., pp. 196 and 224.

77. Ibid., p. 368.

78. Ibid., p. 371.

79. Ibid., p. 331.

80. Ibid., p. 412.

81. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, pp. 39 and 40.

82. Ibid., p. 127.

83. Ibid., p. 142.

84. Ibid., pp. 282 and 283.

85. Ibid., pp. 207 and 208.

86. Ibid., p. 373.

87. Riley, American Philosophy: The Early Schools, p. 338.

88. Max Sevelle, Seeds of Liberty: The Genesis of the American Mind (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1948), p. 172.

89. Louis L. Gitlin, “Cadwallader Colden as Scientist and Philosopher,” New York History, 16 (1935), p. 175.

90. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, p. 147.

91. Riley, American Philosophy: The Early Schools, p. 338.

92. Ibid., p. 341.

93. Hoermann, Cadwallader Colden: A Figure of the American Enlightenment, p. 115.

94. Ibid., p. 120.

95. Ibid., p. 117.

96. Ibid., p. 125.

97. Cadwallader Colden, “Of the First Principles of Morality or the Actions of Intelligent Beings,” Manuscript I, Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia.

98. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York…. to the Year MDCCXXXII, p. 44.

99. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, p. 23.

100. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York…. to the Year MDCCXXXII, pp. 72 and 73.

101. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, p. 261.

102. Ibid., p. 73.

103. Ibid., p. 353.

104. Ibid., p. 254.

105. Ibid., pp. 284–90.

106. Keys, Cadwallader Colden: A Representative Eighteenth Century Official, pp. 155–57.

107. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, pp. 294–305.

108. Ibid., pp. 339–57.

109. Keys, Cadwallader Colden: A Representative Eighteenth Century Official, p. 267.

110. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, New York, p. 382.

111. Ibid., p. 392.

112. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IX, Collections of the Historical Society for the Year 1937, New York, pp. 359–434.

113. Ibid.

114. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, Collections of the Historical Society for the Year 1920, New York, p. 10.

115. Ibid., pp. 24–26.

116. Ibid., pp. 43 and 44.

117. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York…to the Year MDCCXXXII, p. 113.

118. Keys, Cadwallader Colden: A Representative Eighteenth Century Official, pp. 294–96.

119. Martin Kerkhonen, Peter Kalm's North American Journey: Its Ideological Background and Results (Helsinki: The Finnish Historical Society, 1959), p. 96.

120. Ibid., pp. 50–60.

121. Ibid., pp. 78 and 79.

CHAPTER 5: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE: 1749–1758

1. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, Collections of the Historical Society for the Year 1920, New York, p. 88.

2. Ibid., p. 94.

3. Ibid., p. 109.

4. Ibid. pp. 119–29.

5. Ibid., pp. 159–65.

6. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IX, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1937, New York, p. 77.

7. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, p. 244.

8. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. V, Collections of the New-York Historical Society for the Year 1921, New York, p. 13.

9. Ibid., pp. 206 and 207.

10. Ibid., pp. 305 and 306.

11. William Smith, Jr., The History of the Province of New-York…to the Year MDCCXXXII, London, 1757, Vol. 2, Michael Kammen, ed., (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1972), p. 123.

12. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IX, pp. 122–24.

13. Ibid., p. 117.

14. Ibid., pp. 95–98.

15. Ibid., p. 101.

16. Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Smith Berkeley, Dr. John Mitchell (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1974), p. 167.

17. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, p. 287.

18. Ibid., pp. 389–91.

19. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York…to the Year MDCCXXXII, pp. 132–41.

20. Ibid., pp. 142–46.

21. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. V, pp. 74, 77, 98, 105–107, 110–11.

22. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York…. to the Year MDCCXXXII, London, 1757, Vol. 2, pp. 201 and 202.

23. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, pp. 271–87.

24. Seymour I. Schwartz, The French and Indian War 1754-1763 (New York, Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 24.

25. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden. Vol. IV, pp. 449–51.

26. Ibid., pp. 452–57.

27. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York…. to the Year MDCCXXXII, p. 160.

28. Schwartz, The French and Indian War 1754-1763, p. 46.

29. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. V, p. 18.

30. Schwartz, The French and Indian War 1754-1763, p. 81.

31. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. V, p. 102.

32. Ibid., pp. 157–67.

33. Ibid., pp. 171–80.

34. Ibid., p. 183.

35. Ibid., pp. 209–211.

36. Ibid., p. 212.

37. Ibid., pp. 249–55.

38. Raymond Phineas Stearns, Science in the British Colonies of America (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970), p. 562.

39. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, p. 317.

40. Ibid., p. 354.

41. Stearns, Science in the British Colonies of America, p. 563.

42. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1919, New York, p. 44.

43. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, p. 64.

44. Ibid., pp. 270–71.

45. Lawrence C. Wroth, An American Bookshelf 1755, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934), p. 178.

46. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, pp. 206–207.

47. Ibid., pp. 384 and 413.

48. Alfred R. Hoermann, Cadwallader Colden: A Figure of the American Enlightenment (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002), pp. 82–83.

49. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, pp. 355–57.

50. Ibid. p. 414.

51. Brooke Hindle, The Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America 1735-1789 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1956), p. 46.

52. “Criticism of The Principles of the Action in Matter,” unpublished translation of Kastner's remarks, Colden MSS, New York Historical Society.

53. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, p. 473.

54. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IX, pp. 144–48.

55. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. V, pp. 22–24.

56. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VI, pp. 197–98.

57. Ibid., p. 273.

58. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, pp. 156–58.

59. Ibid., pp. 217 and 218.

60. Ibid., pp. 314–16.

61. Ibid., p. 321.

62. Ibid., pp. 325–27, 337–39.

63. Ibid., p. 353.

64. Ibid., p. 383.

65. Ibid., pp. 421–30.

66. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. V, p. 207.

67. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, p. 417.

68. Ibid., p. 439.

69. Stearns, Science in the British Colonies of America, p. 630.

70. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, p. 98.

71. Ibid., p. 251.

72. Ibid., p. 207.

73. Ibid., pp. 258–61.

74. Ibid., p. 471–73.

75. Marcus B. Simpson, Jr., in American National Biography (New York and Oxford, University of Oxford Press, 1999), pp. 691–92.

76. Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Smith Berkeley, Dr. Alexander Garden of Charles Town (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969), p. 42.

77. Stearns, Science in the British Colonies of America, p. 601

78. Ibid., pp. 43 and 74.

79. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. V, pp. 1–2.

80. Brooke Hindle, The Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America 1735-1789 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1956), p. 53.

81. Margaret Denny, “Linnaeus and His Disciple in Carolina: Alexander Garden,” Isis, 38 (1948), p. 173.

82. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VII, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1923, New York, p. 141.

83. Berkeley and Berkeley, Dr. Alexander Garden of Charles Town, p. 216.

84. Garden to Ellis, December 16, 1765, James Edward Smith, ed., A Selection of the Correspondence of Linnaeus and Other Naturalists, Vol. I (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1821), pp. 543–44.

85. James Britten, “Biographical Notes, VIII—Jan Colden and the Flora of New York,” Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, 33 (1895), pp. 12–15.

86. Berkeley and Berkeley, Dr. Alexander Garden of Charles Town, p. 48.

87. The Aberdeen Magazine for the Year XDCCLXI, Aberdeen Scotland, 1761.

88. Berkeley and Berkeley, Dr. Alexander Garden of Charles Town, p. 43.

89. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, p. 158.

90. Ann Murray Vail, “Jane Colden, An Early New York Botanist,” Torreya, 7 (1907), p. 32.

91. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. V, pp. 29–30.

92. Ibid., p. 37.

93. Ibid., p. 139.

94. W. Darlington, Memorials of John Bartram and Humphry Marhsall (Philadelphia, 1849), p. 195.

95. Ibid., p. 202.

96. Ibid., p. 400.

97. John McVickar, A Domestic Narrative of the Life of Samuel Bard, M.D., LL.D, Late President of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the University of the State of New York (New York, 1822), p. 19.

98. Bryon Polk Stookey, A History of Colonial Medical Education in the Province of New York with Its Subsequent Development (Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1961), pp. 40 and 41.

99.. Rickett and E.C. Hall, eds., Botanic Manuscript of Jane Colden (New York: Garden Club of Orange and Dutchess Counties, 1963), p. 53.

100. Britten, “Bibliographical Notes, VIII—Jane Colden and the Flora of New York,” p. 15.

101. Rickett and Hall, eds., Botanic Manuscript of Jane Colden, p. 23.

102. Ibid., p. 20.

103. Britten, “Bibliographical Notes, VIII—Jane Colden and the Flora of New York,” pp. 15–16.

104. Ibid., p. 14.

105. Rickett and Hall, eds., Botanic Manuscript of Jane Colden, p. 20.

106. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. V, pp. 55–63.

107. Vail, “Jane Colden, An Early New York Botanist,” p. 32.

CHAPTER 6: POLITICAL PEAK AND REPUTATIONAL NADIR: 1759–1768

1. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. V, Collections of the New-York Historical Society for the Year 1921, New York, 1923, pp. 283–86.

2. Ibid., pp. 289–93.

3. Ibid., pp. 293–95.

4. Ibid., pp. 310–19.

5. Joseph L. Blaue, Men and Movements in American Philosophy (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1952), p. 211.

6. William Smith, Jr., The History of the Province of New-York, Volume Two, A Continuation, 1732–1762, Michael Kammen, ed., (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 1972), p. 243.

7. Bryon Polk Stookey, A History of Colonial Medical Education in the Province of New York with Its Subsequent Development (Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1961), pp. 8 and 9.

8. Ibid., p. 247.

9. Ibid., pp. 328 and 329.

10. Ibid., p. 346.

11. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York, Volume Two, A Continuation, 1732-1762, p. 251.

12. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. V, p. 368.

13. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York, Volume Two, A Continuation, 1732-1762, p. 252.

14. Alice Mapelsden Keys, Cadwallader Colden: A Representative Eighteenth Century Official (New York, 1906), p. 267.

15. Ibid., p. 269.

16. Ibid., p, 272.

17. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York, Volume Two, A Continuation, 1732-1762, p. 254.

18. Michael Kammen, Colonial New York–A History (New York: Charles Scriber's Sons, 1975), p. 346.

19. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VI, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1922, New York, pp. 26 and 27.

20. Edwin R. Purple, Genealogical Notes on the Colden Family in America (New York: Privately Printed, 1873), pp. 8 and 9.

21. Keys, Cadwallader Colden, p. 279.

22. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VI, p. 88.

23. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IX, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1937, New York, p. 229.

24. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VI, p. 89.

25. Keys, Cadwallader Colden, p. 283.

26. Smith, The History of the Province of New-York, Volume Two, A Continuation, 1732-1762, p. 263.

27. Ibid., p. 266.

28. “The Colden Family of Early America,” http://coldenpreservation.org/ (accessed 2012).

29. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VI, pp. 213–16.

30. Ibid., p. 236.

31. Ibid., pp. 368–71.

32. Ibid., p. 381.

33. Kammen, Colonial New York–A History, p. 346.

34. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VI, pp. 344–47.

35. Ibid., pp. 356–64.

36. Ibid., pp. 306 and 307.

37. Keys, Cadwallader Colden, p. 298.

38. Ibid., p. 338.

39. Kammen, Colonial New York–A History, p. 349.

40. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VII, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1923, New York, pp. 1–7.

41. Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis (New York: Collier Books, 1967), pp. 314 and 315.

42. Gary B. Nash, The Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America (New York: Viking, 2005), pp. 45–47.

43. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VII, p. 56.

44. Ibid., pp. 59–62.

45. Ibid., p. 77.

46. Ibid., p. 80.

47. Ibid., p. 64.

48. Ibid., pp. 84 and 85.

49. Ibid., pp. 64 and 65.

50. Ibid., p. 67.

51. A. J. Wall, “Cadwallader Colden and His Homestead at Spring Hill, Flushing, Long Island,” Quarterly Bulletin, VIII (1924–25), p. 12.

52. Keys, Cadwallader Colden, p. 325.

53. Francis R. Packard, History of Medicine in the United States (New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1931), p. 505.

54. Ibid., p. 328.

55. Ibid., p. 331.

56. Ibid., pp. 333 and 334.

57. Kammen, Colonial New York–A History, p. 357.

58. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VII, p. 144.

59. Ibid., p. 146.

CHAPTER 7: AN OCTOGENARIAN: 1769–1776

1. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VII, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1923, New York, p. 158.

2. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IX, New York Historical Society for the Year 1937, New York, p. 218.

3. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VII, pp. 218–21.

4. Ibid., p. 348.

5. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IX, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1937, New York, p. 224.

6. Ibid., pp. 225–32.

7. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VII, pp. 173–82.

8. Alice Mapelsden Keys, Cadwallader Colden: A Representative Eighteenth Century Official (New York, 1906), p. 353.

9. Brooke Hindle, The Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America 1735-1789 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1956), p. 118.

10. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VII, p. 183.

11. Ibid., p. 186.

12. Ibid., pp. 220–22.

13. Robert Lettice Hooper to Reuben Haines, August 10, 1774, Wyck Papers, Correspondence (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society).

14. Michael Kammen, Colonial New York–A History (New York: Charles Scriber's Sons, 1975), p. 363.

15. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VII, pp. 283–87.

16. Ibid., p, 273.

17. Ibid., pp. 287–90.

18. Wall, “Cadwallader Colden and His Homestead at Spring Hill, Flushing, Long Island,” Quarterly Bulletin, VIII (1924–25), pp. 11–20.

19. Edwin R. Purple, Genealogical Notes on the Colden Family in America (New York: Privately Printed, 1873), p. 8.

CHAPTER 8: EPILOGUE AND LEGACY

1. Edwin R. Purple, Genealogical Notes on the Colden Family in America (New York: Privately Printed, 1873), pp. 110–12.

2. Ibid., p. 9.

3. Ibid.

4. A. J. Wall, “Cadwallader Colden and His Homestead at Spring Hill, Flushing, Long Island,” p. 11.

5. Ibid., pp. 18 and 19. After over forty years of intermittent engagement in acquiring and studying material related to the life of Cadwallader Colden, I was surprised to learn that the location of his burial place is but two miles, as the crow flies, from the Mt. Lebanon cemetery where my parents are buried.

6. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1920, New York, p. 244.

7. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. VII, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1923, New York, p. 186.

8. Ibid., pp. 305–308.

9. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. V, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1921, New York, p. 13.

10. Ibid., p. 376.

11. Ibid., p. 301.

12. Cadwallader Colden, Memoir, prepared at the request of a committee of the Common Council of the City of New York, and presented to the mayor of the city, at the celebration of the completion of the New York canals (Printed by the order of the Corporation of New York by W. A. Davis, New York, 1825).

13. Anne MacVicar Grant, Memoirs of an America Lady: with Sketches of Manners and Scenery in America, as They Existed Previous to the Revolution (New York: Printed for Samuel Campbell by D. and G. Bruce, 1809), p. 6.

14. Ibid.

15. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. II, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1918, New York, p. 206.

16. Lawrencec Wroth, An America Bookshelf 1755 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934).

17. I. Woodbridge Riley, American Philosophy: The Early Schools (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1907), p. 329.

18. Louis I. Tucker, Puritan Protagonist: President Thomas Clap of Yale College (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1961), p. 99.

19. Max Savelle, Seeds of Liberty: The Genesis of the American Mind (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965), p. 99.

20. Adam Leroy Jones, Early American Philosophers (New York: Macmillan, 1898), pp. 17 and 18.

21. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. I, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1917, New York, p. vii.

22. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. III, p. 143.

23. The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, Vol. IV, Collections of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1920, New York, p. 356.

24. William Smith, Jr., The History of the Province of New-York, Michael Kammen, ed., (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1972), “Introduction,” p. lxx.

25. Michael Kammen, Colonial New York: A History (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975), p. 346.

26. V. “Biographical Memoir of Cadwallader Colden, M.D. F.R.S.,” The Monthly Recorder for June, 1813, pp. 150 and 153.

27. V., “Biographical Memoir of Cadwallader Colden, M.D., F.R.S.,” Analectic Magazine, IV (1814), pp. 307–312.

28. Alice Mapelsden Keys, Cadwallader Colden: A Representative Eighteenth-Century Official (New York, 1906), p. 365.

29. Alfred Hoermann, Cadwallader Colden: A Figure of the American Enlightenment (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002), p. 185.

If you find an error or have any questions, please email us at admin@erenow.org. Thank you!