Notes

1. Mist’s Journal. 27 May 1721.

2. Melusine’s brother, Johann Matthias von der Schulenberg, enjoyed a highly distinguished military career well into his fifties.

3. Christian Louis died without issue whilst George William and John Frederick fathered only daughters. Girls were not able to inherit the duchy.

4. Sophia’s remarkable life story can be read in my own book, Sophia – Mother of Kings (Pen & Sword, 2019).

5. Intriguingly, Frederick’s remains were disinterred from their resting place in Frankenthal by loyal friends when Spanish forces invaded. His body was taken to safety in the Sedan by Ludwig Philipp of Pfalz-Simmern-Kaiserslautern, but at this point it disappeared from the historical record. Today, Frederick’s resting place remains a mystery.

6. Ward, Sean (trans.) (2014). Memoirs (1630–1680). Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies and ITER.

7. As King Charles II.

8. Ward, Sean (trans.) (2014). Memoirs (1630–1680). Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies and ITER.

9. Ibid.

10. Present State of Europe or the Historical and Political Mercury. 1 May, 1692.

11. Hanover was officially recognised as an electorate in 1692 and Ernest Augustus received his longed-for electoral cap the following year in a characteristically showy ceremony.

12. Frederick and Sophia Charlotte later became the first king and queen in Prussia.

13. The murderous tale of Sophia Dorothea, Count von Königsmarck, and Clara von Platen can be found in my book, The Imprisoned Princess (Pen & Sword, 2020).

14. Stanhope, Philip Dormer, Earl of Chesterfield (1777). Characters of Eminent Personages of His Own Time. London: William Flexney, p.10.

15. Christian of Schleswig Holstein (1887). Memoirs of Wilhelmine, Margravine of Baireuth. New York: Scribner & Welford, p.40.

16. Walpole, Horace (1798). The Works of Horatio Walpole, Earl of Orford: Vol IV. London: GG and J Robinson, p.285.

17. Christian of Schleswig Holstein (1887). Memoirs of Wilhelmine, Margravine of Baireuth. New York: Scribner & Welford, p.40.

18. Stepney to Cresset, Dresden Despatch, 24 July–3 August 1694.

19. Coxe, William (1798). Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Robert Walpole: Vol I. London: T Cadell, Jun, and W Davies, p.469.

20. Following the death of Königsmarck, Clara von Platen swiftly discovered that she had brought about her own disgrace too. Once the most powerful woman at court, she was swept up in gossip about the missing nobleman and had to endure Ernest Augustus’ fury at her blatant disregard for his instructions. Clara became ever more isolated and eventually succumbed to syphilis, which left her blind and disfigured. William Makepeace Thackeray fancifully claimed that Königsmarck’s ghost tormented the agonised countess as she lay on her deathbed, sending her mad before she took her final breath on 30 January 1700.

21. Croker, John Wilson (ed.) (1848). Memoirs of the Reign of George II from his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline by John, Lord Hervey: Vol II. London: John Murray, p.126.

22. Ibid., p.100.

23. Daily Courant. 5 June, 1714; issue 3936.

24. Daily Courant. 7 August, 1714; issue 3990.

25. Coxe, William (1816). Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Sir Robert Walpole: Vol I. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, p.151.

26. Wortley Montagu, Lady Mary (1817). The Works of the Right Honourable Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Vol III. London: R Bentley, pp.164–165.

27. Thackeray, William Makepeace (1816). The Four Georges. London: Smith, Elder and Co., pp.39–40.

28. Cowper, Mary (1865). Diary of Mary Countess Cowper, Lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess of Wales, 1714 -1720. London: John Murray, p.102.

29. Wortley Montagu, Lady Mary (1837). The Letters and Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Vol I. London: R Bentley, p.93.

30. Post Man and the Historical Account. 3 July 1716–5 July 1716; issue 11250.

31. Wilkins, WH (1901). Caroline, The Illustrious: Vol I. London: Longmans, Green, and Co., p.177.

32. Croker, John Wilson (ed.) (1848). Memoirs of the Reign of George the Second: Vol I Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, p.135.

33. Coxe, William (1798). Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Sir Robert Walpole, Early of Orford: Vol II. London: T Cadell, Jun. and W. Davies, p.161.

34. John Robethon was secretary to George Louis. He was close to Sunderland and disliked Robert Walpole.

35. Coxe, William (1798). Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Sir Robert Walpole, Early of Orford: Vol II. London: T Cadell, Jun. and W. Davies, p.162.

36. Weekly Journal or British Gazetteer. 9 May 1719.

37. Luise received her title thanks to a piece of property that was owned by the von der Schulenberg family. Their second daughter, Young Melusine, was made Baroness Aldborough and Countess of Walsingham in 1722.

38. She was made Countess of Darlington in 1722.

39. Melville, Lewis (1908). The First George in Hanover and England: Vol II. London: Sir Isaac Pitman Random and Sons, Ltd, pp.37–38.

40. Coxe, William (1798). Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Robert Walpole, Vol II. London: T Cadell, Jun, and W Davies, p.301.

41. Melville, Lewis (1908). The First George in Hanover and England: Vol II. London: Sir Isaac Pitman Random and Sons, Ltd, pp.38–39.

42. He matched the sum with a similar donation to Sophia Charlotte von Kielmansegg.

43. Original Weekly Journal. 23 April 1720.

44. Swift, Jonathan (1767). Letters, Written by Jonathan Swift, DD, and Several of his Friends: Vol II. London: T Davies, p.157.

45. Georgian Papers Online (http://gpp.rct.uk, November 2020) RA GEO/ MAIN/52844-52845 Letter from the Duchess of Kendal to John Aislabie, 27 September 1720.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Walpole, Horace (1798). The Works of Horatio Walpole, Earl of Orford: Vol IV. London: GG and J Robinson, pp.285–286.

49. Knight never returned to England and instead enjoyed a lucrative financial career on the continent. His son, by contrast, had a long and successful parliamentary career, eventually being given the title Earl of Catherlough.

50. Pearce, Edward (2011). The Great Man: Sir Robert Walpole, Scoundrel, Genius and Britain’s First Prime Minister. London: Random House, p.144.

51. The Order of the Knight of the Garter was suspended by a blue ribbon. Since honours could be purchased from Walpole via favours, obedience and influence, after he was awarded the Order of the Garter, he earned himself the nickname Sir Blue-String.

52. Pearce, Edward. The Great Man: Sir Robert Walpole: Scoundrel, Genius and Britain’s First Prime Minister (2011). London: Random House, p.132.

53. When Townshend retired from politics he threw himself wholeheartedly into cultivating the agricultural land at his Raynham Hall home. He had a particular passion for growing turnips and by the time he died was widely known by his nickname of Turnip Townshend.

54. Cowper, Mary (1865). Diary of Mary Countess Cowper, Lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess of Wales, 1714–1720. London: John Murray, p.114.

55. Coxe, William (1798). Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Robert Walpole, Vol II. sLondon: T Cadell, Jun, and W Davies, p.301.

56. Original Weekly Journal. 28 May 1720.

57. Scott, Walter (ed.) (1814). The Works of Jonathan Swift: Vol VII. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable and Co, pp.128–129.

58. Ewald, Charles Alex (1878). Sir Robert Walpole: A Political Biography. London: Chapman and Hall, p.174.

59. Ballantyne, Archibald (1887). Lord Carteret: A Political Biography. London: Richard Bentley & Son, p.82.

60. Ibid., pp.111–112.

61. He died in 1730.

62. Christian of Schleswig Holstein (1887). Memoirs of Wilhelmine, Margravine of Baireuth. New York: Scribner & Welford, p.43.

63. Ibid., p.45.

64. Wilhelmine eventually married Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, in 1731. Frederick had been betrothed to Wilhelmine’s sister but her father decided that Wilhelmine would be the better candidate, despite not involving the groom-tobe in his decision. Wilhelmine resisted the marriage at first but eventually capitulated and though the couple were initially happy, they became estranged when Frederick took a mistress.

65. London Gazette. 29 March 1715–2 April 1715; issue 5316.

66. Bolingbroke was known for his wild living and orgiastic tendencies. Marriage did nothing to soften them.

67. A morganatic marriage is one in which one spouse is of a significantly lower rank than the other. That spouse is denied the right to inherit privileges and rank should their partner die.

68. Post Boy. 12 January 1723–15 January 1723; issue 5224.

69. Cowper, Mary (1865). Diary of Mary Countess Cowper, Lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess of Wales, 1714-1720. London: John Murray, p.15.

70. Coxe, William (1798). Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Robert Walpole: Vol II. London: T Cadell, Jun, and W Davies, p.345.

71. Daily Journal. 31 May 1723; issue 735.

72. Coxe, William (1798). Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Robert Walpole: Vol II. London: T Cadell, Jun, and W Davies, p.311.

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid., p.312.

75. Ibid.

76. No sooner did Bolingbroke recover than his wife fell dangerously ill. She too recovered and lived until 1750. Her husband died the following year.

77. London Gazette. 29 May 1725–1 June 1725; issue 6377.

78. British Journal. 5 June 1725; issue 142.

79. Coxe, William (1798). Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Robert Walpole: Vol II. London: T Cadell, Jun, and W Davies, p.345.

80. Swift, Jonathan (1767). Letters, Written by Jonathan Swift, DD, and Several of his Friends: Vol II. London: T Davies, p.257.

81. British Journal. 16 February 1723; issue 22.

82. Daily Journal. 18 May 1722; issue CCCCXII

83. Van Muyden, Madame (ed.) (1902). A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of George I and George II. New York: E P Dutton and Company, p.45.

84. Molloy, J Fitzgerald (1897). Court Life Below Stairs. London: Downey & Co, Limited, p.52.

85. Weekly Journal or Saturday’s Post. 12 August 1721; issue 141.

86. Walpole, Horace (1842). The Letters Of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford: Vol I. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, p.69.

87. Ibid.

88. Anne Brett, Countess of Macclesfield, gave birth to her second illegitimate child by Earl Rivers whilst wearing a mask to conceal her identity and going by the name of Madame Smith. Her husband divorced her but his own bad behaviour was blamed for her decision to take a lover. He was forced to pay back her dowry of £12,000, making Anne a very wealthy woman.

89. Anne contented herself with marriage to William Leman, 3rd Baronet. It was something of a comedown.

90. Daily Post. 15 June 1727; issue 2411.

91. When Allied bombs destroyed the Leineschloss during the Second World War, the remains of George I were moved to Herrenhausen, where they rest to this day.

92. Walpole, Horace (1818). Lord Orford’s Reminiscences. London: John Sharpe, p.4.

93. British Journal. 24 June 1727; issue 248.

94. Weekly Journal or British Gazetteer. 30 December 1727; issue 138.

95. Daily Journal. 24 April 1730; issue 2901.

96. London Evening Post. 10 May 1743–12 May 1743; issue 2419.

97. Blickling Hall was believed to have been the birthplace of Queen Anne Boleyn and according to legend, her restless spirit walks there still.

98. Luttrell, Narcissus (1857). A Brief Historical Relation of State Affaires from September 1678 to April 1714: Vol IV. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.418.

99. Vernon, James (1841). Letters Illustrative of the Reign of William III from 1696 to 1708: Vol II. London: Henry Colburn, p.158.

100. Post Boy. 21 March 1700–23 March 1700; issue 773.

101. Vernon, James (1841). Letters Illustrative of the Reign of William III from 1696 to 1708: Vol II. London: Henry Colburn, p.158.

102. Mary had a habit of making good marriages. She started with Sir Charles Vermuyden, moved onto Sir John Maynard – Henrietta’s great-grandfather – and finally plumped for the Earl of Suffolk.

103. Henry, Edward, and Charles were respectively the 6th, 8th and 9th Earls of Suffolk. Edward succeeded to the title on the death of Henry’s only son and heir, Charles, who died in 1722 having been 7th Earl of Suffolk for less than four years. He was 29 years old.

104. Mahon, Lord (ed.) (1845). The Letters of Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield: Vol II. London: Richard Bentley, p.440.

105. Croker, John Wilson (ed.) (1848). Memoirs of the Reign of George II from his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline by John, Lord Hervey: Vol I. London: John Murray, p.54.

106. Mahon, Lord (ed.) (1845). The Letters of Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield: Vol II. London: Richard Bentley, p.440.

107. 107. Walpole, Horace (1842). The Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford: Vol I. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, p.95.

108. British Mercury. 28 July 1714–4 August 1714; issue 474.

109. Cowper, Mary (1865). Diary of Mary Countess Cowper, Lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess of Wales, 1714 -1720. London: John Murray, p.26.

110. Corr., I, 427.

111. Cowper, Mary (1865). Diary of Mary Countess Cowper, Lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess of Wales, 1714-1720. London: John Murray, p.13.

112. Ibid.

113. Margaret Bradshaw to Henrietta Howard, 21 August 1720, BL, Add. MS 22627, fol. 114.

114. Walpole, Horace (184

115. Henrietta Howard, personal memorandum, 29 August 1716, BL, Add. MS 22627, fol. 13.

116. Charles Howard to Henrietta Howard, 22 February 1727/28, BL, Add. MS 22627, fol. 21.

117. Henrietta Howard to Charles Howard, 1727, BL, Add. MS 22627, fol. 24, 31.

118. Henrietta Howard to Charles Howard, c.1717, BL, Add. MS 22627, fol. 16.

119. Walpole, Horace and Cunningham, Peter (ed.) (1877). The Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford: Vol I. London: Richard Bentley, p.124.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid.

122. Ibid.

123. Ibid., pp.CXXV.

124. Ibid.

125. Ibid., pp.CXXVII–CXXVIII.

126. Hobart followed the family tradition and entered politics in 1715. He became Treasurer of the Chamber in 1727 and Baron Hobart in 1728. In 1746 he was created 1st Earl of Buckinghamshire.

127. Howard, Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk (1824). Letters to and from Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, Vol I. London: John Murray, p.xxxix.

128. Ibid., p.xli.

129. Ibid., p.xxxix.

130. Croker, John Wilson (ed.) (1848). Memoirs of the Reign of George II from his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline by John, Lord Hervey: Vol I. London: John Murray, p.96.

131. Mahon, Lord (ed.) (1845). The Letters of Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield: Vol II. London: Richard Bentley, p.441.

132. Croker, John Wilson (ed.) (1848). Memoirs of the Reign of George II from his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline by John, Lord Hervey: Vol II. London: John Murray, pp.16–17.

133. Mary Campbell to Henrietta Howard, 1720, BL, Add. MS 22627, fol. 89.

134. Lady Hervey to Henrietta Howard, 7 June 1725, BL, Add. MS 22628, fol. 13.

135. The Earl of Peterborough to Henrietta Howard, c.1723, BL, Add. MS 22625, fol. 40.

136. Henrietta Howard to the Earl of Peterborough, c.1723, BL, Add. MS 22625, fol. 54.

137. Henrietta Howard to the Earl of Peterborough, c.1723, BL, Add. MS 22625, fol. 82.

138. Wortley Montagu, Lady Mary (1837). The Letters and Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Vol I. London: R Bentley, pp.164–165.

139. Charles Howard to the Princess of Wales, 21 April 1727, BL, Add. MS 22627, fol. 27.

140. Charles Howard to Henrietta Howard, 2 May 1727, BL, Add. MS 22627, fol. 30.

141. Henrietta Howard to Charles Howard, 2 May 1727, BL, Add. MS 22627, fol. 28.

142. Daily Journal. 20 September 1727; issue 2086.

143. Hervey, John and Croker, John Wilson (ed.) (1848). Memoirs of the Reign of George the Second: From his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline: Vol II. London: John Murray, pp.13–15.

144. Ibid., p.15.

145. London Evening Post. 29 May 1729–31 May 1729; issue 231.

146. Grub Street Journal. 7 January 1731; issue 53.

147. Henrietta Howard to Lady Hervey, 1728, BL, Add. MS 22626, fol. 94.

148. Daily Post. 1 August 1728.

149. London Evening Post. 22 June 1731–24 June 1731; issue 557.

150. Henrietta Howard to John Gay, 29 June 1731, BL, Add. MS 22626, fol. 53.

151. Melville, Lewis (1921). Life and Letters of John Gay. London: Daniel O’Connor, p.131.

152. Wrexham Weekly Advertiser. 2 June 1888; volume 40.

153. George Berkeley to anonymous, August 1734, BL, Add. MS 22628, fol. 100.

154. St James’s Evening Post. 29 September 1733–2 October 1733; issue 2859.

155. Henrietta Howard to George Berkeley, 22 June 1734, BL, Add. MS 22629, fol. 34.

156. Henrietta Howard to George Berkeley, 25 June 1734, BL, Add. MS 22629, fol. 36.

157. Ibid.

158. Henrietta Howard to George II, November 1734, BL, Add. MS 22627, fol. 6.

159. Croker, John Wilson (ed.) (1848). Memoirs of the Reign of George II from his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline by John, Lord Hervey: Vol II. London: John Murray, p.179.

160. Henrietta Howard to George II, November 1734, BL, Add. MS 22627, fol. 6.

161. Croker, John Wilson (ed.) (1848). Memoirs of the Reign of George II from his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline by John, Lord Hervey: Vol II. London: John Murray, p.12.

162. Howard, Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk (1824). Letters to and from Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, Vol I. London: John Murray, p.262.

163. Wilkes, Thomas (ed.) (1767). The Works of the Reverend Dr Jonathan Swift: Vol XVI. Dublin: George Faulkner, p.89.

164. London Evening Post. 12 July 1735–15 July 1735; issue 1194.

165. Croker, John Wilson (ed.) (1848). Memoirs of the Reign of George II from his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline by John, Lord Hervey: Vol II. London: John Murray, pp.10–11.

166. Wilkes, Thomas (ed.) (1767). The Works of the Reverend Dr Jonathan Swift: Vol XVI. Dublin: George Faulkner, pp.111–112.

167. Warner, Rebecca (ed.) (1817). Original Letters. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, p.52.

168. Henrietta Howard to George Berkeley, 18 April 1741, BL, Add. MS 22629, fol. 52.

169. Ibid.

170. Daily Gazetteer. 24 April 1745; issue 5017.

171. General London Evening Mercury. 1 November 1746; issue 549.

172. Walpole, Horace (1837). Correspondence of Horace Walpole with George Montagu Esq: Vol II. London: Henry Colburn, p.46.

173. Howard, Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk (1824). Letters to and from Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, Vol II. London: John Murray, pp.262–264.

174. The Earl of Buckinghamshire to Henrietta Howard, 18 November 1763, BL, Add. MS 22629, fol. 95.

175. Walpole, Horace (1837). Correspondence of Horace Walpole with George Montagu Esq: Vol II. London: Henry Colburn, p.231.

176. Ibid., pp.341–343.

177. London Evening Post. 28 July 1767–30 July 1767; issue 4473.

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1. Ehrengard Melusina von der Schulenberg, Duchess of Kendal.

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2. Mrs Howard, Countess of Suffolk, after Charles Jervas.

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3. Lady Henrietta Howard, after Thomas Gibson, 1720.

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4. King George I, John Faber, after D Stevens, 1722.

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5. George Augustus, Prince of Wales, later George II, by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1724.

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6. Sophia Dorothea of Celle, wife of George I.

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7. Caroline of Ansbach, wife of George II, by Alexander van Haecken, after Jacopo Amigoni, 1736.

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8. Electress Sophia, mother of George I, by Petrus Schenck.

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9. Countess Clara von Platen.

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10. Count Philip Christoph von Königsmarck, lover of Sophia Dorothea of Celle.

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11. The murder of Count von Königsmarck.

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12. Sophia Charlotte von Kielmansegg, Countess of Darlington, half-sister and falsely rumoured to be the mistress of George I, after Sir Godfrey Kneller.

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13. George II Augustus, by Alexander van Haecken, after Sandie, 1736.

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14. Tea Party at Lord Harrington’s House, St. James’s, by Charles Philips, 1730. George Berkeley leans on the left of the mantelpiece, with Henrietta Howard seated beside him to his right.

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15. Horace Walpole, by Henry Hoppner Meyer, after Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1795.

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16. William Cheselden, by Jonathan Richardson.

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17. Alexander Pope, after Sir Godfrey Kneller.

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18. Lord John Hervey.

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19. Mary Lepell, Lady Hervey, by James Heath, 1798.

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20. Robert Walpole, by Jacob Houbraken, after Arthur Pond, 1746.

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21. Jonathan Swift, by Pierre Fourdrinier, after Charles Jervas.

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22. John Gay, after Sir Godfrey Kneller.

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23. Baroness von Kielmansegg, Countess of Darlington, after Sir Godfrey Kneller.

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24. Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield, son-in-law of Melusine von der Schulenberg, after William Hoare.

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25. The South Sea Scheme, by William Hogarth, 1721.

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26. Robin’s Reign, mocking corruption in the government of Robert Walpole, by Caleb D’Anvers, 1731.

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27. St James’s Palace and the Mall.

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28. Kensington Palace, photographed by George Tsiagalakis.

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29. Leicester House, 1748.

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30. Marble Hill House, North Side, photographed by Jim Linwood.

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