Biographies & Memoirs


The following abbreviations have been used throughout these notes:


All family correspondence cited is from the Theodore Roosevelt Collection unless otherwise indicated.



Recollections of life in the house on East 20th Street and heartfelt, often effusive descriptions of Theodore Senior are to be found in the later-day writings of all the Roosevelt children but Elliott: Bamie in a series of unpublished reminiscences (TRC); Theodore in his Autobiography; and Corinne in My Brother Theodore Roosevelt (referred to here as Robinson). Of the many family letters dealing with domestic details perhaps the most revealing are those written by Martha Stewart Bulloch (Grandmamma) to her daughter Susan West (also TRC). Among secondary sources Nathan Millers The Roosevelt Chronicles provides a good general account of family roots and branches.


22 “gloomy respectability”: TR, Autobiography, 8.

22 Goelet garden: B reminiscences.

23 Robert Roosevelt on family origins: It was RBR, in 1903, with his nephew in the White House, who clarified for the public (in a letter to the N.Y. Sun, May 25) how the name Roosevelt was to be pronounced. “In English when we try to distinguish the long from the short ‘o’ we get into trouble. In Dutch they do not. The double V is simply the long ‘o’. The word ‘Roos’ means rose and is pronounced in identically the same way under all circumstances and in all combinations. So the first syllable of the President’s name is ‘Rose’ pure and simple.”

25 Aunt Lizzie Ellis and her misadventures: B reminiscences.

24 Robert an Elizabethan: N. Roosevelt, Front Row Seat, 15.

24 Robert and the green gloves: interview with Mrs. Philip J. Roosevelt.

24 Robert and Minnie O’Shea: interview with Roosevelt genealogist Timothy Beard.

24 “never put himself forward,” “sunshine of his affection”: Theodore Roosevelt (Sr.). Memorial Meeting, 42, 15.

25 TR Sr. on Roberts attire: TR Sr. to MBR, June 29, 1873.

25 TR Sr. the perfect gentleman: Riis, 11.

25 Mittie passes on the wine: Robinson, 18.

25 “My personal impression”: W. Emlen Roosevelt to Hagedorn, Hagedorn files (TRC).

25 TR Sr.’s feelings for his mother: TR Sr. to B, July 22, 1870.

26 Margaret Barnhill Roosevelt and the spirit of noblesse oblige: N.Y. World, Feb. 11, 1878.

26 Bamie’s description of the Union Square house: B reminiscences.

26 “Economy is my doctrine”: quoted in Churchill, 104.

26 CVS rules out college: N.Y. World, Feb. 11, 1878.

27 “I’m afraid, Theodore”: RBR to TR Sr., Aug. 1, 1851 (WSCC).

27 “I have it in mind”: RBR to TR Sr., Aug. 30,1851 (WSCC).

27 “Firstly, Advice”: RBR to TR Sr., Feb. 20, 1852 (WSCC).

28 “I scarce know terms”: TR Sr. to his mother, Aug. 13, 1851 (WSCC).

28 “He was dressed”: TR Sr., Russian journal, Aug. 24, 1851 (WSCC).

28 The gilt Russian and sledge on the square of malachite is one of the numerous original pieces to be seen in the restoration of the 20th Street house. Its value in the eyes of the children is described by TR in his Autobiography (page 8).

29 James Alfred’s marriage to an Emlen does the family fortune “no harm”: P. James Roosevelt to the author.

29 Chemical Bank meets obligations in gold: Cobb, 46. See also, History of the Chemical Bank, 111.

29 Broadway Improvement Association: Cobb, 46.

29 Weir Roosevelt responds to Gallaxy article: N.Y. Times, Apr. 25, 1868.

29 “where such a thing as sentiment”: TR Sr. to MBR, Aug. 18, 1853.

29 Bookkeepers views: TR Sr. to MBR, Aug. 2, 1853.

30 TR Sr. scales the Treasury Building: TR Sr. to MBR, Feb. 2, 1860.

30 “Whatever he had to do”: Theodore Roosevelt (Sr.). Memorial Meeting, 25.

30 “maniacal benevolence”: John Hay to TR Sr., Feb. 4, 1862 (WSCC).

30 “as much as I enjoy loafing”: TR Sr. to MBR, June 29, 1873.

30 Twenty thousand homeless children: Brace, 31.

30 Clean bed for five cents: Lynch, 269-70.

30 Brace sees society threatened: First Report of the Children’s Aid Society (1854), quoted in the N.Y. Times, Feb. 21, 1869.

31 Approach taken by the Children’s Aid Society: 16th Annual Report of the Children’s Aid Society (1869), quoted in the N.Y. Times, Feb. 21, 1869.

31 “troublesome conscience”: Theodore Roosevelt (Sr.). Memorial Meeting, 26.

31 “He knew them by name”: ibid., 24.

31 Friends take out checkbooks: Riis, 447. One foresees saving a thousand dollars: Nation, Feb. 14, 1878.

31 TR Sr.’s feelings for New York: TR Sr. to MBR, Sept. 28, 1873.

32 Original charter for the American Museum of Natural History approved in 20th Street parlor: Bickmore, 12.

32 “Professor, New York wants a museum”: ibid., 17.

32 TR Sr.’s “rich power of enjoyment”: Brace, 325.

32 TR Sr. on horseback: Rev. Henry C. Potter, quoted in the N.Y. Tribune, Feb. 18, 1878.

32 “I amused myself”: quoted in Putnam, 41.

32 TR Sr.’s fondness for yellow roses: Robinson, 207.

32 “The city is deserted”: TR Sr. to MBR, July 10, 1873.

33 “just my ideal”: E to TR Sr., Mar. 6, 1875 (FDRL).

33 Morning prayers on the sofa: TR, Autobiography, 13-14.

33 Lessons on climbing trees: Robinson, 8.

33 Preachment on accepting the love of others: ibid., 88.

33 “I always believe in showing affection”: TR Sr. to B, July 31, 1868.

33 TR Sr. on unselfishness: Robinson, 88.

34 Hatred of idleness: TR, Autobiography, 11-12.

34 “never . . . become an oyster”: TR Sr. to Mrs. J. A. Roosevelt, Dec. 25, 1851 (WSCC).

34 “I think I did it”: quoted in Putnam, 31.

34 “singular compound”: Theodore Roosevelt (Sr.). Memorial Meeting, 47.

34 Fear of father: TR to Edward Sanford Martin, Nov. 26, 1900, Letters, II, 1443.

34 “Come now, and follow me”: Bunyan, 269.

34 “never was anyone so wonderful”: B reminiscences.

35 “uneasy about her back”: MSB to Susan West, Apr. 29,1858(?).

35 Care for Bamie: In a letter to Susan West dated Dec. 1858, Grandmamma Bulloch writes: “We get up and have breakfast. At ten, or half past ten, Dr. Davis comes to adjust the apparatus. Then stories must be told or stories read all of the time during the operation to keep her from crying. Under her arms, her back and chest are bathed first with water, and then alum and water to prevent chafing. Then the abscess has to be washed with castile soap and water and greased. . . . Then the Dr. puts on the apparatus again. She then has her lunch and is put to bed to take a little nap. Sometimes she sleeps, sometimes she does not. At one she is taken up and changed, takes her dinner at two, then goes out a little while if the weather is good. When she comes in again it requires constant effort to amuse her and keep her quiet. In the evening about half past seven she goes through the same process with the apparatus as in the morning except Thee fixes her instead of the Dr. Then she is put to bed and I rub her little legs until she goes to sleep.”

35 TR Sr. and Bamie: B reminiscences.

36 Charles Fayette Taylor and the “movement cure”: article in The Stethoscope (published by the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center), Dec. 1956; MSB to Susan West, Aug. 22, 1859. See also, DAB.

36 Ram’s wool for back: interview with W. Sheffield Cowles, Jr.

36 Bamie’s appearance: E. Roosevelt, This Is My Story, 57.

36 “Poor little thing”: TR Sr. to MBR, May 31 [n.d.].

36 Abraham Lincoln’s lap: interview with W. Sheffield Cowles, Jr.

36 TR Sr. and Bamie’s photograph: TR Sr. to B, Sept. 10, 1873.

37 “Try to cultivate”: TR Sr. to B, undated.

37 Teedie punished: TR, Autobiography, 10.

37 “When I put ’We 3’”: TR, Diaries of Boyhood, 11.

37 Ellie gives away his coat: E. Roosevelt, Hunting Big Game, IX.

37 “ardent” blue eyes: Parsons, 18.

37 “great little home-boy”: Robinson, 45.

37 “quiet patrician air”: MBR to Anna Gracie, June 14, 1869.

38 “My mouth opened wide”: TR to MBR, Apr. 28,1868, Letters, I, 3. This is the earliest known letter by TR.

38 TR’s natural history collection: TR, “Record of the Roosevelt Museum” (TRC).

38 TR Sr. walks the floor with TR: TR, Autobiography, 15; TR to Edward Sanford Martin, Nov. 26, 1900, Letters, II, 1443.

39 Influence of Hilborne West: Robinson, 54.

40 CVS goes to the kitchen: TR Sr. to MBR, Aug. 28, 1853.

40 “careful . . . in chance acquaintances”: TR Sr. to E, Jan. 6, 1877 (FDRL).


With few exceptions almost everything published about Mittie Bulloch Roosevelt has been superficial and misleading. It is mainly in her own unpublished correspondence—letters numbering in the many hundreds to her husband, children, and sister Anna—that she emerges as a person of vivid personality and great interest. Of her children’s published recollections the most sympathetic and admiring are those of Corinne in My Brother Theodore Roosevelt.

For background details on the Conscription Act and the entire substitute system during the Civil War, the author is indebted to the late Bruce Catton.


41 Roosevelts “cling to the fixed”: N.Y. World, Feb. 11, 1878.

41 CVS sees move uptown as final: ibid.

42 James Alfred’s fondness for waffles: reminiscences of his son Emlen, private collection of Mrs. Philip J. Roosevelt.

42 Claes Martenszen known as Shorty: Cobb, 9.

42 Rev. Archibald Stobo arrives at Charleston: Pringle, 8; also Wallace, 57.

43 “even a French strain of blood”: B reminiscences.

43 Mystery surrounding Archibald Bulloch’s grave: Harden, 55.

43 Bulloch family history can be found in The Colonial Records of the State of Georgia, XV, 1907; J. G. B. Bulloch, A History and Genealogy of the Families of Bulloch and Stobo and of Irvine of Cults; B reminiscences; and in the biographical notes provided by Robert Manson Myers in his monumental The Children of Pride.

44 “The relationships in Savannah”: Anna Gracie to MBR, Apr. 8, 1858.

44 Background on Roswell has been drawn from Leckie, Georgia; Martin, Roswell; and Temple,First Hundred Years.

45 “Exposure to cold and rain”: quoted in Temple, 109.

45 Barrington Hall: Like Bulloch Hall, indeed like most of the old Roswell mansions, Barrington Hall still stands, looks very much as it did in Mittie’s day.

46 Corinne Elliott Hutchison lost on the Pulaski: Myers, Children of Pride, 1559.

46 Story of Bear Bob: TR, Autobiography, 7.

46 “It was all so picturesque”: B reminiscences.

46 Bulloch slaves: Seventh Census of U.S., 1850, Georgia Slave Schedule.

47 Daddy Luke, Mom Charlotte, Toy, and Bess: B reminiscences.

47 Daniel Stuart Elliott kills his “little shadow”: ibid.

47 Battle between the slave and the cougar: TR, Hunting Trips, 22-23.

47 Duel with Tom Daniell: Gamble, 249-56.

48 Gilbert Moxley Sorrel “the best staff officer”: quoted in Myers, Children of Pride, 1682.

48 “In the roomy old home”: Robinson, 10.

48 “none . . . had any particular education”: B reminiscences.

49 “more moonlight-white”: Robinson, 18.

49 Friends’ descriptions of Mittie: condolence letters to B, Feb. 1884 (TRC).

49 Margaret Mitchell’s visit to Roswell: Atlanta Journal, June 10, 1923.

50 TR Sr.’s first visit to Roswell: B reminiscences.

50 “Does it not seem strange”: MBR to TR Sr., June 9, 1853.

51 “I have never interfered”: MSB to TR Sr., May 21, 1853.

51 “I promised to tell you”: MBR to TR Sr.; also quoted in Robinson, 13-14.

51 “promised to ride back with Henry Stiles”: MBR to TR Sr., July 27, 1853; also quoted in Robinson, 14.

52 Dancing past midnight, world “without kisses”: MBR to TR Sr., Sept. 22, 1853.

52 “it is a southern young lady”: quoted in Putnam, 16.

52 “Capricious”: MBR to TR Sr., Sept. 27, 1853.

52 “It may be a southern idea”: MBR to TR Sr., Oct. 12, 1853.

52 “how are you going to behave”: MBR to TR Sr., Nov. 13, 1853.

53 “how to do the thing”: MBR to TR Sr., Oct. 12, 1853.

53 Baker recollections: Mitchell interview, Atlanta Journal, June 10, 1923.

53 “much else . . . unfortunate”: B reminiscences.

54 “I do not think she will get strong”: MSB to TR Sr., 1855.

54 “Darling, it would be impossible”: MBR to TR Sr., May 1, 1855.

54 “You have proved that you love me”: MBR to TR Sr., May 2, 1855.

54 “dreariness reigning everywhere”: TR Sr. to MBR, May 1, 1855.

54 “bed does not offer”: TR Sr. to MBR, May 6, 1855.

55 Sister Anna laments separation: July 1, 1854; Sept. 1854.

56 Grandmamma’s account of TR’s birth: MSB to Susan West, Oct. 28, 1858; also partly quoted in Putnam, 22-23.

56 Baby doing splendidly: MSB to Susan West, Nov. 1 and Nov. 3, 1858.

57 “Are me a soldier laddie?”: Anna Gracie to MBR, Sept. 9, 1861.

57 Mittie hangs a Confederate flag: TR denied any truth to the story in a letter to Rev. J. L. Underwood. See Underwood, 216.

57 Grandmamma wishes to be buried in a common grave: MSB to Susan West, Nov. 16, 1861.

57 Mittie and Anna send packages: B reminiscences; also MSB to Susan West, Dec. 18, 1862.

58 Letter from Irvine: quoted, MSB to Susan West, Feb. 10, 1863.

58 Mittie breaks with traditional Saturday dinners: Dec. 15, 1861, she writes to TR Sr.: “I went down [to his fathers house] yesterday to dinner but, Thee, something occurred there which has made me determine not to dine there again . . . I felt my blood boil . . . I could not touch another mouthful. . . Thee, I wish I could see you tonight.”

58 “I should hate to have married into them”: Abbott, Letters of Archie Butt, 278-79.

58 “You know he does not feel as we do”: MSB to Susan West, Nov. 29, 1862.

59 TR Sr. helps with anti-war rally: Churchill, 126.

60 TR Sr. “felt that he had done a very wrong thing”: B reminiscences.

60 Corinne sees influence on TR: interview, W. Sheffield Cowles, Jr.

60 War game in Central Park: B reminiscences.

60 Prays for Almighty to “grind . . . troops to powder”: Robinson, 17.

60 “poor mechanics” oppose draft: MSB to Susan West, July 14, 1863.

60 “I would never have felt satisfied”: TR Sr. to MBR, Jan. 1, 1862.

60 “Teedie was afraid” of a bear: MBR to TR Sr., Nov. 13, 1861.

61 “You must not. . . get sick”: TR Sr. to MBR, Dec. 6, 1861.

61 Mittie has “hands full”: MSB to Susan West, Nov. 18, 1861.

61 Up “six or seven times”: MBR to TR Sr., Dec. 9, 1861.

61 “children deserted by their papa”: MBR to TR Sr., Nov. 13, 1861.

62 TR Sr. goes to the White House: TR Sr. to MBR, Nov. 7, 1861.

62 Mistaken for Lincoln at church: TR Sr. to MBR, Nov. 10, 1861.

62 Shops for Mrs. Lincoln’s hat: Robinson, 26.

62 TR Sr.’s account of the White House ball is contained in two letters to Mittie, Feb. 5 and Feb. 6, 1862.

63 Gaining political experience: TR Sr. to MBR, Dec. 6,1861.

63 “utter inability of congressmen”: Theodore Roosevelt (Sr.). Memorial Meeting, 19.

63 “The delays were so great”: TR Sr. to MBR, Jan. 1,1862; also quoted in Robinson, 22-23.

63 Forty-eight-hour adventure in Virginia: TR Sr. to MBR, Oct. 14, 1862; also quoted in Robinson, 30-31.

64 “hope you will take a good long nap”: TR Sr. to MBR, Dec. 19, 1861.

64 TR Sr. arranges for Grandmamma to get through the lines: TR Sr. to MBR, Feb. 14 and Mar. 1, 1862.

64 Wishes he had kept a diary: TR Sr. to MBR, Feb. 27, 1862.

65 “Tell Bamie”: TR Sr. to MBR, Nov. 10, 1861.

65 Death of Willie Lincoln: TR Sr. to MBR, Feb. 21, 1862.

65 “I wish we sympathized together”: TR Sr. to MBR, Mar. 2, 1862.

65 “Thee is a good young man”: MSB to Susan West, Nov. 15, 1862.

65 Mittie risking life or reason: MSB to Susan West, June 23, 1863.

66 Grandmamma on the Russian Ball: MSB to Susan West, Nov. 9, 1863.

66 “too much gaiety”; downstairs, carriages at the door: MSB to Susan West, Dec. 30, 1863.

67 Mrs. Burton Harrison’s views on Mittie: Harrison, 278-79.

68 Mittie’s exchange with Hay: B reminiscences.

68 “nothing more like a Roosevelt than a Roosevelt wife”: interview with Mrs. Philip J. Roosevelt.

68 “If she was only a Christian”: MSB to Susan West, Dec. 15, 1863.

69 TR Sr. preferred Mittie in white: letter dated Dec. 27, 1861.

69 Bursts of housekeeping: MSB to Susan West, Jan. 9, 1863.

69 Mittie more economical: TR Sr. to MBR, Jan. 23, 1862.

70 Thinks of her as “one of my little babies”: TR Sr. to MBR, June 16, 1873.

70 “loving tyrant”: MBR to Anna Gracie, Jan. 12, 1873.

70 “just received your letter”: TR to MBR, Apr. 28, 1868, Letters, I, 3.

70 Mittie amused by prayer: TR, Autobiography, 13.

70 Takes Bamie to theater: MSB to Susan West, Feb. 8, 1864.

70 “devotion wrapped us round”: Robinson, 18.


Unless otherwise indicated this chapter has been drawn from TR’s boyhood diaries for the years 1869 and 1870, the originals of which are in the Theodore Roosevelt Collection. Background on James D. Bulloch and the building of the Alabama has come from Rush and Woods, Official Records; Kell, Recollections; Meriwether, Semmes; and from Bulloch’s own Secret Service.


71 Scotia fastest ship to Europe: N.Y. Times, July 25, 1866.

71 Fellow passengers: ibid., May 13, 1869.

71 Sillerton Jackson: Wharton, Age of Innocence, 10.

72 “I basked in the happiness”: Kaplan, 42.

72 “vulgar, vulgar, vulgar”: Edel, 304.

72 Rhyme by CVS: (TRB).

73 Mittie meets Mr. St. John: Robinson, 42.

73 “It was one wild scene of commotion”: MBR to Anna Gracie, May 1869.

74 “Strange child!”: ibid.

74 Irvine’s secret return: Robinson, 36-37.

74 “You have no idea of my enthusiasm”: MBR to Anna Gracie, undated.

75 Richard Henry Dana’s impression of James D. Bulloch: To Dana it seemed a great shame that men of the caliber of Captain Bulloch had to give up careers in the Navy in order to make a better living. “By night, I walk deck for a couple of hours with the young captain,” Dana wrote. “After due inquiries about his family in Georgia, and due remembrance of those of his mother’s line whom we loved, and the public honored... the fascinating topic of the navy, the frigates and the line-of-battle ships and little sloops, the storms, the wrecks, and the sea fights, fill up the time. He loves the navy still, and has left it with regret; but the navy does not love her sons as they love her. On the quarter-deck at fifteen, the first in rank of his year, favored by his commanders, with service in the best vessels, making the great fleet cruise under Morris, taking part in the actions of the Naval Brigade on shore in California, serving on the Coast Survey, a man of science as well as a sailor—yet what is there before him, or those like him, in our navy?”(To Cuba and Back, 13-14.)

75 Bulloch like Thackeray’s Colonel Newcome: TR, Autobiography, 14.

75 “When civilization . . . fighting a last battle”: Donald, 374.

75 Response in British press: London Times, May 25, June 11, 14, and 17, 1869.

76 “Father, did Texas . . . annex itself’: MBR to Anna Gracie, June 11, 1869.

76 Heroes in books and among southern kinsfolk: TR, Autobiography, 30.

76 Talks of Irvine in speech at Roswell: N.Y. Times, Oct. 21, 1905.

78 “as valiant... a soul as ever lived”: TR, Autobiography, 14-15.

78 TR’s influence on James D. Bulloch: TR to MBR, Sept. 14, 1881, Letters, I, 52. “I have persuaded him to publish a work which only he possesses the materials to write,” TR reported proudly to his mother.

78 Furness Abbey: background from Lefebure, English Lake District; details of the Roosevelt visit from MBR’s long letter to Anna Gracie dated June 3, 1869.

80 “on magic ground”: MBR to Anna Gracie, June 11, 1869.

80 TR Sr. reads from Lady of the Lake: ibid.

80 Excursion on Loch Lomond: ibid.

81 “I want to learn about things, too”: ibid.

81 Sights seen at the British Museum: MBR to Anna Gracie, July 15,1869.

82 “I wore my pale-green silk”: ibid.

83 Asthma in London: TR to Edith Carow, July 10,1869, private collection of Sarah Alden Gannett.

84 TR douses candle in tumbler: MBR to Anna Gracie, July 15, 1869.

84 Teedie “decidedly better”: ibid.

85 “A course of travel of this sort”: Forbes, 12-13.

85 “a token of some future potency”: Edel, 296.

86 “lovely times when . . . not obliged to think of sculpture or painting”: Robinson, 49.

86 Long-distance hikes: The figures quoted, from TR’s diaries, are substantiated by other references. Aug. 16, 1869, TR Sr. writes to Anna Gracie, “Teedie and Ellie have walked today thirteen miles each and are very proud of their performance, although Teedie has been farther several times.” (Quoted in Putnam, 63.)

87 Details on the Rigi-Kulm: Baedeker, Switzerland (1869).

87 “Rose immediately”: MBR diary, Sept. 4, 1869.

88 “He takes a great deal of interest now”: MBR to Anna Gracie, June 11, 1869.

91 “Now, darling, this is one of the greatest works of art”: Robinson, 48.

91 “We are going to commence vigorously”: MBR to Anna Gracie, [n.d.] 1869.


In addition to material from the Roosevelt papers this chapter is based on extensive interviews with asthmatics, the parents of asthmatics, and physicians specializing in the treatment of asthma. Those technical writings that have been most helpful include Kemp,Understanding Bronchitis and Asthma; Travis, Chronic Illness in Children; Knapp, “The Asthmatic Child and the Psychosomatic Problem of Asthma”; Knapp, “The Asthmatic and His Environment”; and Knapp, Mathé, and Vachon, “Psychosomatic Aspects of Bronchial Asthma.”


93 Asthma as a family affliction: see essay by Miriam Pachacki in Travis, 189-94; Liebman, Minuchin, and Baker, “The Use of Structural Family Therapy in the Treatment of Intractable Asthma.”

94 “genetic predisposition” already noted: Rosenblatt, “History of Bronchial Asthma,” in Weiss and Segal, 11.

95 “neurotic character of the complaint”: Thorowgood, 35.

95 Work by Laënnec: Rosenblatt, in Weiss and Segal, 9.

95 Findings of Joshua Bicknell Chapin: Chapin, 13-14.

96 Findings of Henry Hyde Salter: Salter, 33-34.

96 “Organs are made for action”: ibid., 102.

97 Ways to avert an attack: Chapin, 16; Rosenblatt, in Weiss and Segal, 10.

97 Salter on the use of tobacco: Salter, 120-21.

97 Agony of an asthmatic attack: interviews with Cort Sutton and Edward T. Hall. Of published accounts of the anxieties experienced, the finest by far is still that written by Salter more than a century ago, On Asthma, 61.

98 “If I were drowning”: interview with Edward T. Hall.

98 “wretched,” “suffered much”: TR to Edward Sanford Martin, Nov. 26, 1900, Letters, II, 1443; Autobiography, 15.

98 “nobody seemed to think I would live”: TR quoted in N.Y. World, Nov. 16, 1902.

98 Smokes a cigar: this treatment also described in MBR’s Oct. 3,1869, letter to Anna Gracie.

98 “Poor little Teedie is sick again”: quoted in Putnam, 64.

99 Bronchial tubes in spasm: see Weiss, Bronchial Asthma.

99 “everything under . . . turned to lead”: interview with Mrs. John Curtiss.

101 Interplay of emotions and the asthmatic “habit”: see especially Pachacki, in Travis, 189-94; Kemp, 28.

101 “It isn’t that the emotions . . . are different”: Kemp, 33.

102 Experiment with house dust: Knapp, Mathé, and Vachon, in Weiss and Segal.

102 “We tend to use what is available”: Pachacki, in Travis, 190.

103 “suppressed cry for the mother”: Travis, 168-71; Knapp, in Schneer, 245.

103 TR Sr.’s absence during the Civil War: “the syndrome of the absent father” is described by Pachacki, in Travis, 191.

104 Hurried departure from Berlin: Robinson, 45.

105 Grandmamma’s description of the departure for Saratoga and the first known mention of the word “asthma” in the Roosevelt papers are contained in her letter to Susan West, June 22, 1863.

105 “periodicity”: Salter, 35.

105 Sunday a day “we children did not enjoy”: TR, Autobiography, 8.

105 The story of TR and the “zeal” is from Hagedorn, Boys’ Life, 19-21, and was written in cooperation with TR. Yet, curiously, in one of his own essays, “The Bible and the People” (Works, XIII, 647-48), TR tells the story as though it had happened to another little boy.

109 “let them that are most afraid”: Bunyan, 294.

109 Asthma lends a kind of power: see Liebman, Minuchin, and Baker, “The Use of Structural Family Therapy in the Treatment of Intractable Asthma.”

109 “A hanging—how long does that take?”: interview with Cort Sutton.

110 Life as a battle: Travis, 174-75.

110 “We enjoy fine music”: quoted in Miller, Nostalgia, 189.

110 Proust’s case: see especially Knapp, “The Asthmatic and His Environment.”

111 Salter on the asthmatics future life: Salter, 18.

111 Making the child “a participant, not a spectator”: Travis, 183.

111 Horseback riding as therapy: Thorowgood, 64.



112 Red Cloud on Fifth Avenue, eight-hour day, East River Bridge: N.Y. Times for June 1870.

113 “without imminent danger of losing caste”: Nevins and Thomas, 246.

113 Heat wave: N.Y. Times, July 1870. Thirty-five people died of heat prostration in the city in one day (July 19).

113 French troops singing: Longworth, 20.

113 CVS anxious about Bamie’s safety: TR Sr. to B, [n.d.] 1870.

113 TR “peculiarly well”: TR Sr. to B, July 20, 1870.

114 “I am away with Teedie again”: TR Sr. to B, undated.

114 “Do not let them spoil you”: TR Sr. to B, Aug. 15, 1870.

114 “Your mother came back”: TR Sr. to B, Sept. 1, 1870.

114 “The spasm yielded”: MBR to B, Sept. 5, 1870.

114 “bad news from your mother”: TR Sr. to B, Sept. 6, 1870.

115 “You must make your body”: Robinson, 50.

115 Sessions at Woods gymnasium: interview with John Wood, N.Y. World, Jan. 24, 1904.

115 “widening his chest”: Robinson, 50.

115 Impact of “The Flight of the Duchess”: Hagedorn, Boys’ Life, 39-40.

116 Humiliated by boys in Maine: TR, Autobiography, 30-31.

116 “he did not think a sugar diet was good for me”: TR to Quentin Roosevelt, Nov. 4, 1914, Letters, VIII, 829.

116 Bamie’s Saturdays with TR Sr.: B reminiscences.

117 “Menu as usual”: July 11, 1872.

117 Fox the face of God: Robinson, 23.

118 Incident of the dead seal: TR, Autobiography, 16.

118 Favorite reading: ibid., 17-19.

118 “Unroll the world’s map”: Reid, Scalp Hunters, 7.

119 “What with the wild gallops”: ibid., 19.

119 “chain of destruction”: Reid, Boy Hunters, 105.

119 “About noon”: ibid., 333.

119 Uncle Hilborne introduces TR to Darwin: Hagedorn, Boys’ Life, 38.

119 At the Academy “every spare moment”: TR to TR Sr., Sept. 18, 1872, Letters, I, 6.

119 Hilborne “talked science”: quoted in Putnam, 78-79.

120 Studying English, French, German, and Latin: TR to Anna Gracie, July 7, 1872, Letters, I, 6.

120 Summers “the special delight”: Robinson, 51.

120 Teedie lives “a life apart”: ibid., 36.

120 Newborn squirrels and tree frog: TR, “Notes on Natural History,” Aug. 1872 (TRC).

120 “the loss to science”: Thayer, Roosevelt, 8.

120 Expedition to Paul Smiths: TR, diary, Aug. 1871 (TRC).

121 TR’s contributions to the museum: Third and Fourth Annual Reports of the American Museum of Natural History.

121 “stuffer” John G. Bell: Herrick, 253; Adams, Audubon, 461; TR, “My Life as a Naturalist,” Works, V, 385-86.

121 First gun: TR, Autobiography, 20-21.

121 Spectacles open “an entirely new world”: ibid.

122 Sees birds on the Nile: TR, diary, Dec. 3, 1872; Jan. 8, 1873 (TRC).

122 Kills first bird, Dec. 13: TR, diary (TRC).

123 TR Sr. rescues yellow jacket: MBR, diary, Aug. 27, 1869 (TRC).

123 “Father and I” shoot eighteen birds: TR, diary, Dec. 31, 1872 (TRC).

123 “eyes sparkling with delight”: MBR to Anna Gracie, Feb. 3, 1873.

123 The look of the Great Prairies: TR, diary, Dec. 3, 1872 (TRC).

123 “serious work” the “chief zest”: TR, Autobiography, 22.

123 Comic figure on a donkey: Robinson, 57; B reminiscences.

124 TR Sr. has trouble keeping up: Robinson, 57.

124 “The sporting is injurious to my trousers”: Robinson, 60.

124 Skinning procedure was the same then as now. See Labrie, Amateur Taxidermist.

125 “traveler is a perfect king”: quoted in Bull and Lorimer, 44.

125 TR Sr. reads Egyptian history: Robinson, 58.

125 “back to old Bible times”: quoted in Putnam, 91.

125 Circassian lady and TR Sr.: TR, diary, Dec. 7, 1872 (TRC).

126 Mittie relishes weather and privacy: MBR to Anna Gracie, Jan. 12,1873.

126 “In such a climate”: MBR to Anna Gracie, Feb. 3, 1873.

126 Henry Adams on the Nile: Ford, Letters of Henry Adams.

126 “The children have gone to bed”: MBR to Anna Gracie, Jan. 12, 1873

126 Aboard the Aboul Irdan: copy of the original contract between TR Sr. and Antonio Sapienza, dragoman, Dec. 10, 1872 (WSCC).

126 “nicest, coziest, pleasantest little place”: TR, diary, Dec. 12, 1872 (TRC).

126 Harvard men and Clift family: B reminiscences.

126 “Sometimes we sail head foremost”: Robinson, 57.

127 “as we go for the entirely different life”: quoted in Putnam, 82.

127 “Our life on board”: E to Archibald Gracie, Dec. 15,1872 (FDRL).

127 Moonlight expedition to Philae: TR, diary, Jan. 18, 1873 (TRC).

127 Bamie and Mittie: B reminiscences; interview with W. Sheffield Cowles, Jr.

128 There was an old fellow named Teedie”: E to Archibald Gracie, Sept. 5, 1873 (FDRL).

128 Visit with Emerson: Robinson, 63.

128 Ellen Emerson’s impression: quoted in Rusk, Emerson, 470.

128 New Year’s party: ibid., 59; also C to Edith Carow, Feb. 1, 1873.

129 Flying the Stars and Stripes: E to Archibald Gracie, Dec. 15, 1872 (FDRL).

129 CVS Roosevelt estate as high as $7 million: W. Sheffield Cowles, Jr., and Corinne Robinson Alsop to Hermann Hagedorn, Dec. 1954 (TRB); as low as $3 million: P. James Roosevelt to the author.

130 Cost of Nile winter: original contract previously cited (WSCC).

130 Union Square house demolished: Nevins and Thomas, 422.

130 “If one allowed himself to dwell”: quoted in Putnam, 91.

131 Total birds killed: TR to Anna Gracie, Feb. 9, 1873.




135 Fighting loneliness: TR Sr. to B, Sept. 24, 1873.

135 Business from Chicago: Cobb, 51.

135 Weekend activities: TR Sr. to B, July 17 and Aug. 9, 1873.

136 “Fritz goes beautifully”: TR Sr. to B, Oct. 9, 1873.

136 Tears down plaster beams: TR Sr. to MBR, July 20,1873.

136 “can see all who pass”: TR Sr. to B, June 29, 1873.

136 Windows and showcases: Hellman, 27.

136 “I think without egotism”: TR Sr. to MBR, July 20, 1873.

136 Annual contributions: Fifth and Sixth Annual Reports of the American Museum of Natural History.

137 Letter misdated: TR Sr. to B, July 17, ’63 [1873].

137 “so anxious to see you home”: TR Sr. to MBR, June 6, 1873.

137 Pleased with “self-denial”: TR Sr. to MBR, June 16, 1873.

137 Return of asthma: TR, diary, Feb. 22, 1873 (TRC).

137 TR Sr. pressed into service at Vienna: newspaper clippings, Robert B. Roosevelt Papers, New York Historical Society.

137 TR in the doldrums: Putnam, 101.

137 “hand tremble awfully”: TR to TR Sr., June 29, 1873, Letters, I, 11.

138 Switzerland works wonders: MBR to TR Sr., Aug. 17, 1873.

138 Panic of 1873: Nevins, Emergence of Modern America, 290-304.

138 “poor Mr. Clews”: TR Sr. to B, Sept. 24, 1873.

138 Mittie “anxious”: MBR to TR Sr., Sept. 21, 1873.

138 Mittie on shopping spree: B reminiscences.

138 New furnace going: TR Sr. to MBR, Sept. 21, 1873.

138 Carpet in port: TR Sr. to B, Sept. 24, 1873.

139 Billiard room: ibid.

139 Trouble with staircase: B reminiscences.

139 Return on Russia: N.Y. Times, Nov. 6, 1873.

139 Mittie and the family fortune: B reminiscences.

139 Interiors at 57th Street: photographs (TRB).

140 Top-floor gymnasium: Hagedorn, Boys’ Life, 50.

140 “boxing lessons”: E to Archibald Gracie, Nov. 16, 1873 (FDRL).

140 Teedie’s Nile specimens: Several of these, with their original cards, are at the American Museum of Natural History.

141 “All that gives me most pleasure”: TR Sr. to TR, Oct. 6, 1874.

141 The “power of being . . . focused”: Robinson, 3.

141 Schuyler on “power of concentration”: Theodore Roosevelt (Sr.). Memorial Meeting, 10-11.

142 Work with Bureau of Charities, remarks to reporters: miscellaneous clippings, scrapbook (TRC).

142 Incident of the silver trowel: Hellman, 23-24.

142 “no ascetic”: Theodore Roosevelt (Sr.). Memorial Meeting, 11.

142 “I can see him now”: ibid.

143 Crippled children on the dining-room table: Robinson, 5.

143 “neither spoiled by good fortune”: Theodore Roosevelt (Sr.). Memorial Meeting, 52.

143 Interested in “every good thing”: ibid., 10.

143 “control the strongest affections”: ibid., 33.

143 “wish you were not so good”: MBR to TR Sr., June 2, 1873.

143 “love you and wish to please”: MBR to TR Sr., Oct. 15, 1873.

143 “mingled feelings”: B reminiscences.

144 Dancing class for forty: MBR to B, Nov. 11, 1874.

144 Sara Delano friendship: letters to B, 1876, 1877 (FDRL).

144 Mittie’s portrait: it now hangs at TRB.

144 Mittie in her finery: B reminiscences.

144 Chemical Bank weathers the panic: According to History of the Chemical Bank, the old institution remained “a veritable beacon light of returning confidence” in 1873 when it declared a dividend of 100 percent.

145 Roosevelt venture in Montana mining: an undated clipping from a publication called Copper (TRC).

145 TR Sr. and Alexander Graham Bell: Mrs. TR, Jr., Day Before Yesterday, 37-38.

145 TR Sr.’s various activities: TR Sr. to B, June 6, 1875.

145 “What business I shall enter”: TR to Anna Fisher (Dresden, Germany), Feb. 5, 1876, Letters, I, 14.

146 “I had a very delightful visit”: quoted in Martin, Choate, 329.

146 Times of “every special delight”: Robinson, 89.

146 Mornings on horseback, Father in the lead: ibid., 8.

147 “But, Uncle”: Parsons, 32.

147 Fanny Smith’s recollections: ibid., 18-26.

147 “How I will enjoy”: TR Sr. to B, June 6, 1875.

147 “He will be with us now”: TR to B, July 25, 1876, Letters, I, 15.

148 Ellie at times “very ill”: TR to Anna Fisher, Feb. 5, 1876, Letters, I, 14.

148 Illness thought to be epilepsy: ARL, interview with Hermann Hagedorn (TRB).

148 “congestion of the brain”: TR Sr. to MBR, Nov. 9, 1874.

148 “What will I become”: E to TR Sr., Sept. 19, 1873 (FDRL).

149 “The attack . . . decidedly the worst”: TR Sr. to MBR, Nov. 9, 1874.

149 “fear . . . alone at night”: TR Sr. to MBR, Nov. 14, 1874.

149 “pleasure to receive your letters”: TR Sr. to TR, Nov. 23, 1874.

150 “It is so funny, my illness”: E to TR, Nov. 22, 1874.

150 “scarce know how”: TR Sr. to MBR, Nov. 27, 1874.

150 “not had a respectable suit”: quoted in E. Roosevelt, Hunting Big Game, 6.

150 “Dear Old Governor”: E to TR Sr., Mar. 6, 1875 (FDRL); also quoted in Lash, 31-32.

151 “Yesterday, during my Latin lesson”: E to TR Sr., Oct. 1,1875 (FDRL); also quoted in E. Roosevelt, Hunting Big Game, 6.

151 “Poor Ellie Roosevelt”: quoted in Lash, 33.

152 “just a sell my being down here”: Jan. 14,1876, quoted in E. Roosevelt, Hunting Big Game, 26.

152 “have not taken a drink”: ibid.

152 Enjoying Texas; dog for a pillow: E to TR Sr., Jan. 9 and 12, 1876 (FDRL); latter also quoted in Lash, 33-34.


None of the Roosevelt children, for all they wrote about their father, mentioned a thing about his political activities. Nor have any of TR’s biographers touched on this side of the family story; rather, the impression given is of a wholly apolitical patriarch. Only Jacob Riis, in his Theodore Roosevelt the Citizen, even mentions, in a sentence, the fact that TR Sr. attended the Cincinnati convention. So it has been primarily from contemporary newspapers and TR Sr.’s own correspondence that this account has been drawn.

For material on Roscoe Conkling, the author has relied on David M. Jordan’s Roscoe Conkling of New York, Donald Barr Chidsey’s The Gentleman from New York, and Gentleman Boss, the superb biography of Chester A. Arthur by Thomas C. Reeves.


154 Robert Roosevelt’s activities: miscellaneous clippings, letters, notebooks in the Robert B. Roosevelt Papers, New York Historical Society; also DAB.

155 “Let us try some plan”: N.Y. Tribune, Aug. 28, 1877.

155 “Absolutely the only protection”: ibid.

156 TR Sr.’s fondness for The Potiphar Papers: letter to MBR, May 31,1853.

156 “While good men sit at home”: Norton, Orations, 269.

156 “the image and figure”: Theodore Roosevelt (Sr.). Memorial Meeting, 51-53.

156 Grant scandals: White, Republican Era, 365-74.

156 Charles Francis Adams warns: ibid., 366.

156 Fifth Avenue Conference: N.Y. Times, May 16, 1876. See also, Garraty, Lodge, 44-47.

156 “weighty and reliable of our friends”: Ford, 273.

157 “Oh, they reenacted the moral law”: Garraty, Lodge, 47.

157 The “saving element”: N.Y. Tribune, May 17, 1876.

157 “Men whose names ring”: Boston Evening Transcript, May 16,1876.

157 “fight Conkling at all events”: quoted in Jordan, 239.

157 Ideal candidate according to Adams: Ford, 279.

158 “When Dr. Johnson defined patriotism”: quoted in Jordan, 279.

158 “grandiloquent swell”: quoted in Muzzey, 61.

158 Conkling’s appearance: from a reporters account, N.Y. Commercial Gazette, June 18, 1883, quoted in Reeves, 42-43.

158 Too good-looking to be pure: Chidsey, 116-17.

159 A mind approaching genius: see Depew, 77-79.

160 Conkling thought his hour had arrived: Chidsey, 203.

160 “bail for all those fellows”: quoted in Reeves, 93.

160 Convention excitement, activities: N.Y. Sun, N.Y. Times, N.Y. Tribune, N.Y. Herald, Cincinnati Daily Gazette.

160 “You would never recognize your father”: TR Sr. to B, June 13, 1876.

161 “Carl, you won’t oppose me”: Fuess, 220.

161 TR Sr.’s attack on Conkling: Cincinnati Daily Gazette, June 13, 1876. See also, Shores, 247-48.

162 Headlines: Cincinnati Daily Gazette, June 14, 1876.

162 Curtis on Conkling: quoted in Muzzey, 104.

162 “How is New York?”: quoted in Reeves, 96.



165 An “ungreased squeak”: quoted in Putnam, 78.

166 “At times he could hardly get them out”: Thayer, Roosevelt, 20.

166 Likes his ears: Fraser, “Sculpting TR.”

166 Richard Welling’s first impression: Welling, “My Classmate Theodore Roosevelt.”

166 “Sporting Calendar” entries: Aug. 21, 1875 (TRC).

166 Time lost “through sickness”: TR to MBR, Mar. 4, 1876, Letters, I, 15.

166 Bamie picks his rooms: “Theodore would prefer you decide upon and take his rooms,” TR Sr. writes B, May 22, 1876.

167 “As I saw the last of the train”: TR Sr. to TR, Sept. 28, 1876.

167 Never knew “what idleness was”: Cutler, unpublished memoir dated Sept. 18, 1901 (TRC).

167 “rather smelly room”: TR to B, June 20, 1875, Letters, I, 13.

168 TR’s description of the shrew: quoted in Cutright, 36-37.

168 Theatrically superior: Parsons, 28.

168 “If I were writing to Theodore”: quoted in Robinson, 96.

168 King Olaf, Song of Roland, Nibelungenlied: TR, Autobiography, 19, 326, 23.

168 “somewhat supercilious”: McDougall, 129-30.

168 “such fun, the most original”: Parsons, 34.

169 “and don’t frizzle her hair”: TR to C, Feb. 5, 1877, Letters, I, 23.

169 Dancing class “very orderly”: quoted in Putnam, 121.

169 “Little Pet Pussie”: Mar. 27, 1877, quoted in Robinson, 98.

169 First letter to Mittie: TR to MBR, Sept. 29, 1876, Letters, I, 16.

170 “opponents played very foul”: TR to MBR, Nov. 19, 1876, ibid., 20.

170 The “gentleman sort”: TR to B, Oct. 15, 1876, ibid., 17.

170 “antecedents”: TR to C, Nov. 26, 1876.

170 Lamson there only to enjoy himself: TR to B, Nov. 12, 1876.

170 “Take care of your morals”: quoted by TR in a letter to MBR, Mar. 24, 1878, Letters, I, 33.

170 “Sundays I have all to myself’: TR to B, Oct. 15, 1876, Letters, I, 17.

170 “never spent an unhappy day”: TR to MBR, Oct. 29, 1876, ibid., 19.

170 “not... a fellow in college”: TR to TR Sr., Oct. 22, 1876, ibid., 18.

171 “in beautiful health”: TR to MBR, Nov. 19, 1876, ibid., 20.

171 “rug, which will curl”: TR to B, Nov. 26, 1876.

172 In touch with Dr. Wyman: TR to MBR, Jan. 18, 1877, Letters, I, 22.

172 “a little asthma in November”: TR to TR Sr. and MBR, Feb. 11, 1877, ibid., 26.

172 Asthmatic children removed from home lives: see Purcell, “The Effect on Asthma in Children of Experimental Separation from the Family.”

172 “We all like his friends”: Anna Gracie to E, Jan. 5, 1877 (FDRL).

172 “He went off most cheerfully”: TR Sr. to E, Jan. 6, 1877 (FDRL).

173 Sleighing party: TR to C, Feb. 5, 1877, Letters, I, 23.

173 Cost of a year at Harvard: King, 18; also, Grant, “Harvard College in the Seventies.”

173 “send on my gun”: TR to TR Sr. and MBR, Feb. 11,1877, Letters, 1,26.

173 TR in Hayes parade: Hagedorn, Boys’ Life, 51-52.

174 “He talked very pleasantly”: TR Sr. to TR, Oct. 27, 1876.

174 Hayes shot at: Russell, 99.

175 Evarts proposes TR Sr. for Customhouse: Barrows, 327.

175 Evarts’ past work with TR Sr.: ibid., 469.

176 Above crass temptations: Nation, Nov. 1, 1877.

176 Collectorship and the Customhouse: see Reeves, 62-63, 67-68.

177 Melville a customs inspector at $4 a day: Howard, 284.

177 Phelps, Dodge case: see Reeves, 82-83; also Lowitt, 276-81.

178 “We look back . . . we were fools”: quoted in Reeves, 82.

178 Delmonico’s banquet: N.Y. Times, May 15,1877.

179 TR Sr. escorts Hayes on museum tour: ibid., May 16, 1877.

179 TR Sr. rides with Hayes entourage: ibid., May 17, 1877.

180 Conkling at Rochester convention: Jordan, 278-79.

180 “all excited here about politics”: quoted in Martin, Choate, 329.

180 TR Sr.’s interest in Cleopatra’s Needle: interview with W. Sheffield Cowles, Jr.

180 TR Sr. leads group for Harvard visit: TR to C, June 3, 1877, Letters, I, 28.

180 Butterfly reduced to a grub: TR Sr. to B, Aug. 15, 1877.

180 Saratoga charities meeting: N.Y. Times, Sept. 8, 1877.

181 “I am clear”: Williams, Hayes, Diary.

181 “even up there they lift their skirts”: N.Y. Herald, Nov. 9, 1877.

181 TERRIBLE CHARGES: N.Y. Herald, Oct. 31, 1877.

181 Denounces management of city’s asylums: N.Y. Times, Oct. 31, 1877.

182 “he seemed to me another man”: Theodore Roosevelt (Sr.). Memorial Meeting, 34.

182 “in the prime of vigorous manhood”: N.Y. Tribune, Oct. 30, 1877.

182 “Tell Father I am watching”: TR to B, Oct. 14, 1877, Letters, I, 29.

183 Republicans caucus in secrecy: N.Y. Times, Nov. 11, 1877.

183 Compromise reported: ibid., Dec. 5, 1877.

183 Nominees called “good men”: ibid., Dec. 7, 1877.

183 Afraid Conkling has “won the day”: TR to TR Sr., Dec. 8,1877, Letters, 1,30.

183 Conkling’s speech of Dec. 12: N.Y. Times, N.Y. Tribune, N.Y. Evening Post, Dec. 13,1877.

184 Calls TR Sr. his “bitter personal enemy”: N.Y. Tribune, Dec. 13, 1877.

184 “the end is not yet”: Williams, Hayes, Diary.

185 “uneasy about Father”: TR to B, Dec. 16, 1877, Letters, I, 31.

186 “brilliant daylight assemblages”: N.Y. Times, Dec. 23, 1877.

186 “couldn’t have your appendix out then”: Wister, 17.

186 Entries from Anna Gracies diary: (TRC).

187 Schuyler note: Dec. 22, 1877 (TRC).

187 New “Private Diary”: Dec. 25, 1877 (LC).

187 Sleigh upsets: TR to B, Jan. 19,1878.

187 “sat with him some seven hours”: quoted in Putnam, 147.

187 “I was with your dear father”: Anna Gracie to TR, Feb. 8 [1878].

188 Crowd gathered: Robinson, 105.

188 “young strength . . . poured out”: ibid., 104.

188 Elliott’s account of his father’s death: (TRC).

190 Newspaper tributes: scrapbook (TRC).

191 “What a glorious example!”: condolence note (TRC).

191 “something . . . inspiring”: Robinson, 105.

191 “hard to have parted”: MBR to TR, Mar. 8, 1878.

191 “work out our own salvation”: B reminiscences.

192 “best . . . sufferings should end”: TR to Henry Minot, Feb. 20, 1878, Letters, I, 31.

192 Private anguish: Private Diary (LC).

192 Marks 69th Psalm: TR’s personal Bible (WSCC).

193 “easier for me”: TR to B, Mar. 17, 1878, Letters, I, 32.

193 “My own sweet sister”: TR to B, Mar. 3, 1878.

193 “working away pretty hard”: May 7, 1878, Private Diary (LC).

193 “as if he were present”: TR to MBR, Feb. 28, 1878, Letters, I, 32.

193 Private feelings of remorse and inadequacy: all drawn from June entries, Private Diary (LC).

194 Swinburne on Cooper’s Bluff: Robinson, 100-101.

194 Not so sad as expected: TR to C, Mar. 3, 1878, Letters, I, 32.

195 “Theodore craved”: Robinson, 102.

195 “For ye shall go out with joy”: Isaiah 55:12.

195 “we both of us had . . . tempers”: TR to B, Sept. 20, 1886 (TRB); also quoted in Morris, Edith Kermit Roosevelt, 58.

195 “Look out for Theodore”: Sewall, “Bill Sewall Remembers TR,” clipping (TRC).

195 TR Sr. strained himself: B reminiscences; Robinson, 104.

196 “talismans against evil”: Robinson, 106.

196‘A rare and radiant maiden’”: TR was especially fond of Poe, so this undoubtedly refers to “The Raven” (“For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore—”).



Among the greatest of all pleasures in the research for this book has been the chance to work with material in the Harvard University Archives—photographs, scrapbooks, class records, class biographies, memorabilia of all kinds dating from the years when TR was an undergraduate. Of published works the most valuable has been the two-volume biography Charles W. Eliot, by Henry James.


201 “You belonged to Harvard”: Thayer, 15.

201 “crescent institution”: ibid., 16.

202 Science “the firm foundation”: quoted in N.Y. Times, Dec. 23, 1877.

202 Petty rules: see Morison, Three Centuries, 357-58.

202 Rule book reduced: Hawkins, 110.

202 “a deal of drudgery”: James, Eliot, II, 44.

202 “Do you think it is a wise parent”: ibid., 45.

202 Eliot and Hale motto: ibid., I, 317.

202 Looking neither left nor right: Harry Rand, Hagedorn interview (TRC).

202 Eliot was disliked: James, Eliot, I, 311.

202 “flagstaff in motion”: Wister, 20.

203 “that scoundrel King David”: Eliot, “Eliot of Harvard.”

203 Mental condition has physical origin: James, Eliot, II, 38.

203 Disapproves of baseball: ibid., 69.

203 Memorial Hall: The great building still stands, though in somewhat neglected condition. See also Whitehill, 12-14.

203 “The effect of the place”: James, The Bostonians, 208-09.

204 “Its occupant... is its master”: Martin, “Undergraduate Life.”

204 “to look at the new bookcase”: TR to B, Nov. 9, 1877, Letters, I, 30.

204 One in five thousand went to college: Putnam, 134.

205 Harvard said to offer diversity of student views and backgrounds: Thayer, Roosevelt, 15.

205 Records for the Class of 1880: Harvard Archives.

205 Three Roman Catholics: Class of 1880, Secretary’s Report, Number 1, Commencement 1880, Harvard Archives.

205 Humor anti-Irish, anti-Semitic, and mocking Negro aspirations: see Lampoon, Mar. 7, Oct. 24, and Dec. 19, 1879.

205 Scott on Harvard “temper”: Hagedorn interview (TRC).

206 Asthmatics excused from chapel: William Hooper, Hagedorn interview (TRC).

207 Younger faculty recruited by Eliot: James, Eliot, I, 254-55.

207 Students and professors a different species: Santayana, “The Academic Environment at Harvard.”

207 “Don’t take it upon yourself”: Crimson, Oct. 6, 1876.

207 “We ask but time to drift”: quoted in Pringle, 32.

207 “My system was simple”: Garraty, Lodge, 51-52.

208 “A boy could go completely to pieces”: Harold Fowler, Hagedorn interview (TRC).

208 “Students got drunk”: John Woodbury, Hagedorn interview (TRC).

208 Eliot on “intemperance”: Hagedorn interview (TRC).

208 “unwholesome experiment”: Martin, “Undergraduate Life.”

209 Rand’s recollections: Hagedorn interview (TRC).

209 “pleasant doors”: Wister, 19-20.

209 Crimson on “digs”: Sept. 28, 1876.

210 Class of 1880 known as Bacon’s class: John Woodbury, Hagedorn interview (TRC).

210 Thayer’s recollections: Hagedorn interview (TRC).

210 “Funnily enough”: TR to MBR, Oct. 8, 1878, Letters, I, 34.

210 “delighted” to be in the Porcellian: TR to B, Nov. 10, 1878, Letters, I, 35.

211 “send my silk hat”: TR to MBR, Jan. 11, 1880, Letters, I, 42.

211 Jackson on splendor at 57th Street: Hagedorn interview (TRC).

211 Few could afford a horse: Grant, “Harvard College in the Seventies.”

211 TR’s financial position and expenses for 1877,1878, 1879, and 1880 are all to be found in his private diaries (LC).

211 Eliot’s salary: Eliot, “Eliot of Harvard.”

212 “keep the fraction constant”: TR, Autobiography, 26.

213 “ready to join anything”: Richard Saltonstall, Hagedorn interview (TRC).

213 Academic achievement: for a complete account of TR’s grades at Harvard, see Letters, I, 25-26.

213 “sort of spluttered”: George H. Palmer, Hagedorn interview (TRC).

214 “See here, Roosevelt”: Wilhelm, 35.

214 Saltonstall remembered no caged animals, nothing unusual: Hagedorn interview (TRC).

214 TR chiefly “a joke”: Thayer, Hagedorn interview (TRC).

214‘whether he is the real thing’”: Thayer, Roosevelt, 21.

214 Foresees future professor of history: John Woodbury, Hagedorn interview (TRC).

214 Martha Cowdin (Bacon) recollections: Hagedorn interview (TRC).

215 Rose Lee on TR dancing: ibid.

215 “Old Dick . . . on par with the Roosevelts”: Diary, Oct. 1, 1879 (LC).

215 Welling’s account of the skating expedition: “My Classmate.”

216 Rage at drunken classmates imitation: William Hooper, Hagedorn interview (TRC).

216 Wister’s version of the boxing match: Wister, 4-5.

216 N.Y. Times account: Mar. 23, 1879.

217 Spalding’s denunciation of the story: letter to the editor in Time, Dec. 14, 1931 (TRC).

217 “As athletes we are about equal”: Diary, July 30, 1879 (LC).

217 “always thought that he could do things better”: quoted in Putnam, 100.

217 “Only one gentleman stands ahead of me”: TR to B, Oct. 13, 1879, Letters, I, 41-42.

218 Words under the ink blot: A laboratory examination of the diary page was made at the authors request by the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress, working with the Library’s Preservation Office.

218 “He is a disgrace”: Diary, Oct. 23, 1878.

218 “I told the clergyman”: TR to MBR, Jan. 11, 1880, Letters, I, 43.

218 “The first two or three days”: TR to MBR, Mar. 16, 1879, ibid., 37.

219 Prefers political economy to natural history: TR to MBR, Oct. 8, 1878, ibid., 33-34.

219 Blames Harvard for killing interest in natural history: TR, Autobiography, 26-27.

220 Shaler: Shaler’s inspirational powers are attested to again and again. “Students whose unimaginative lives had never carried them beyond home and prep school and Harvard Square sat in Shaler’s presence and saw the face of the earth becoming an endless wonderland,” writes Rollo Walter Brown in Harvard Yard, 106. See also William Roscoe Thayer’s memorial essay on Shaler in the Harvard Graduates’ Magazine.

220 TR’s dislike for A. S. Hill: John Woodbury, Hagedorn interview (TRC).

220 Saltonstall recollection: Hagedorn interview (TRC).

220 Eliot recollection: ibid.; also Pringle interview notes (TRC).

221 Claims to have held lightweight crown: biographical sketch prepared for an Albany newspaper editor, May 1, 1884, Letters, I, 67.

221 Claims to have been in top ten percent: TR, Autobiography, 25.

221 Note to the Kaiser: Morison, Three Centuries, 427.

221 Hagedorn observations: Hagedorn interviews (TRC).

221 “the golden years”: TR, Diary, Dec. 21 1878 (LC).

221 “can’t conceive . . . possibly enjoying himself: TR, Diary, May 8, 1879 (LC).

221 “ever enjoy myself so much again”: TR, Diary, June 28, 1879 (LC).

222 Letter of Oct. 20, 1879: Letters, I, 42.

222 “I have had just as much money”: Diary, May 5, 1880 (LC).



224 Lee and Saltonstall homesteads: Though greatly altered in appearance, the two houses still stand and amid surroundings that are very little different.

225 Leverett Saltonstall and George Cabot Lee: biographical sketches in (Harvard) Class of 1848 and Class of 1850, as well as miscellaneous clippings, Harvard Archives.

225 “safe as Lee’s vaults”: Amory, 66.

226 Atmosphere “so homelike”: TR, Diary, Oct. 18, 1878 (LC).

226 “Call me by my first name”: ibid., Nov. 28, 1878.

227 “Remember me”: TR to C, Nov. 10, 1878, Letters, I, 36.

227 “especially pretty Alice”: TR, Diary, Jan. 26, 1879 (LC).

227 “All the family . . . just lovely”: TR to B, Apr. 20, 1879, Letters, I, 38.

227 “I want you particularly”: TR to C, May 20, 1879, Letters, I, 40.

227 Summer activities at Oyster Bay: TR, Diary, entries for July 1879 (LC).

228 Class Day evening with Alice: ibid., June 20, 1879.

228 “made everything subordinate”: TR to Henry Minot, Feb. 13, 1880, Letters, I, 43.

228 “one all-absorbing object”: July 5, 1880, quoted in Putnam, 194.

228 “See that girl?” Mrs. Bacon quoted in Pringle notes (TRC).

229 Dueling pistols: Pringle interview with Mrs. Thomas Lee (a cousin of Alice’s), Pringle notes (TRC).

229 Cousin West sent for: C to Pringle, letter dated Sept. 22, 1930, Pringle notes (TRC).

230 “you mustn’t feel melancholy”: TR to MBR, Feb. 8,1880, Letters, I, 43.

230 “Alice . . . did not want to marry him”: Mrs. Bacon quoted in Pringle notes (TRC).

230 “it will be my aim . . . to endear myself”: ALR to MBR, Feb. 1880.

230 “wish I had you here”: TR to B, Mar. 1, 1880, Letters, I, 44.

231 “don’t think Mr. Lee”: TR to C, Mar. 8, 1880, ibid.

231 “invitations to all my friends”: TR to MBR, Mar. 11, 1880, ibid.

232 “brilliant prowess”: N.Y. Sun, Feb. 17, 1884.

232 Mittie’s activities: miscellaneous family correspondence; Anna Gracie’s diary for 1880 (TRC).

232 “He talked to her the whole time”: Kleeman, 101.

233 “If I had not come then”: Davis, 37.

233 “genuine intellectual power”: Parsons, 29.

233 “readiness to meet all situations”: Robinson, 18.

234 “As soon as we got here”: TR to C, Sept. 12, 1880, Letters, I, 46.

234 “Last Sunday night”: quoted in Putnam, 203.

235 “I am so glad”: E to B, Aug. 29 [1880] (FDRL).

235 Warning of heart trouble: Hagedorn, Boys’ Life, 63-64.

235 Asthma and colic: Putnam, 207.

235 “brown and well”: E to B, Aug. 29 [1880] (FDRL).

236 “Thee is well able”: ibid.

236 Wants no best man if not Elliott: TR to B, May 11, 1880.

236 Fanny Smith’s diary entry: Parsons, 43.

236 “Theodorelike tones”: ibid.

237 “cannot take my eyes off her”: quoted in Putnam, 209.

237 Law school urged by Uncle Rob: Hagedorn, Boys’ Life, 69.

237 “perfect dream of delight”: TR to MBR, Oct. 31, 1880, Letters, I, 47.

238 TR turning purple: C to Douglas Robinson, Feb. 10, 1881.

238 “going to Republican meetings”: ibid.

239 Law work “very interesting”: TR, Diary, Nov. 24, 1880 (LC).

239 Likes law school “very much”: ibid., Dec. 4, 1880.

239 Loves to take Alice sleighing: ibid., Dec. 22, 1880.

239 “She enjoyed it like a child”: TR Sr. to B, Feb. 18, 1871.

239 “the little inner group of people”: Wharton, Age of Innocence, 48.

240 Alice “greatly admired”: TR, Diary, Dec. 11, 1880 (LC).

241 Douglas Robinson on being married to a Roosevelt: quoted in Butt, I, 175.

241 Alice’s playing heard through the wall: Emlen Roosevelt to B, Feb. 21, 1881.

241 Mittie finds Alice “so companionable”: MBR to E, Dec. 25 [1880] (FDRL).

241 Wister vignette: Wister, 24.

241 “Oh, Energy, thy name is Bamie!”: TR to B, Apr. 1, 1877.

241 “Do you always have to run”: C to E, Dec. 6, 1880 (FDRL).

241 “Sometimes we succeed”: ibid.

242 “Such a lovely long talk”: C to Douglas Robinson, Mar. 17, 1881.

242 Alice’s feelings about Bamie: ALR to B, Sept. 8, 1881.

242 Talk in Mittie’s room: C to Douglas Robinson, Mar. 19, 1881.

243 Alice shares TR: C to Pringle (TRC); also Pringle, 49-50.


Unless shown, the details of Elliott’s adventures in India and Ceylon, as well as quotations from his letters home, are from Hunting Big Game in the Eighties, a collection of his letters and journal entries from this period that was compiled and edited by his daughter, Eleanor. The observations of John S. Wise are from his Recollections of Thirteen Presidents.


245 “Is Bamie showing any signs”: E to TR, Mar. 23, 1881.

245 “have tried to make Corinne understand”: MBR to E, Aug. 7, 1881 (FDRL).

245 “Teddy brought out from London”: MBR to E, Dec. 4,1881 (FDRL).

245 Edith Carow’s party: ibid.

245 “Has not our dear Thee”: quoted in Lash, 37.

246 Letter from Evarts: original (FDRL).

247 “Three hours after the blood had been running”: E to TR, Mar. 6,1881.

248 “brave, old Heart of Oak Brother”: E to TR, Apr. 24,1881.

248 “It is the life”: ibid.

248 Alice worried: B to E, Dec. 7, 1880 (FDRL).

248 “Poor dear Teddy”: MBR to E, Dec. 7, 1880 (FDRL).

248 “This is your last hunt”: TR to E, Dec. 6, 1880 (FDRL).

248 Servants pleased to be remembered: MBR to E, Aug. 7, 1881 (FDRL).

248 Upset by wretchedness: quoted in Lash, 38.

248 Speculates on Age of Chivalry: TR to B, Aug. 21, 1881, Letters, I, 50.

248 “We will all live there happily”: E to TR, Mar. 23, 1881.

248 “It delights me beyond bounds”: ibid.

249 “How proud of you”: E to TR, Aug. 8, 1881.

249 “Do take care of yourself”: E to TR, Apr. 24, 1881.

249 Not “‘our way’”: quoted in Lash, 39.

249 Letter from Aunt Ella Bulloch: Jan. 8, 1882 (FDRL).

250 Anna Gracie worries over Elliott: Anna Gracie diary, Mar. 30, Apr. 5, 1882 (TRC).

250 “dear mother . . . persuaded”: quoted in Davis, 54.

250 “My little heart”: E to C, Nov. 29, 1881 (FDRL).

251 “Why if you don’t take him”: E to C, June [n.d.] 1881 (FDRL).

251 “such a loving, tender brother”: C to Douglas Robinson, Mar. 19, 1881.

251 “If you were my brother”: C to Douglas Robinson, Mar. 31, 1881.

251 “The respectable . . . young men”: N.Y. Tribune, Oct. 13, 1882.

251 “comfort child”: MBR to E, undated note (FDRL).

252 Mittie’s “slight unevenness”: E to Douglas Robinson, May 9,1881 (FDRL).

252 Remarks about Mittie by Mrs. Alsop and W. Sheffield Cowles, Jr.: interview transcript, Oral History Collection, Columbia University.

253 “I was very proud”: Kleeman, 129-30.

253 “I am very jealous”: MBR to E, Dec. 4, 1881 (FDRL).

253 “My darling son”: MBR to E, undated (FDRL).

254 “they mistook me for you”: TR to E, Nov. 21, 1880 (FDRL).

254 Hunt’s impression: Harvard Club Transcript (TRC).

254 “If he noticed me at all”: Parsons, 29.

254 “drank like a fish”: from notes made by Mrs. Philip J. Roosevelt after a conversation with Edith Carow Roosevelt, Jan. 1941, courtesy of P. James Roosevelt.

255 “can’t get it into words”: TR to B, Aug. 21, 1881, Letters, I, 50.

255 Indebtedness to Uncle Jimmie Bulloch: see Introduction, Naval War (Works, VI).

255 “that foolish grit”: quoted in Lash, 37.

255 Elliott’s unpublished short story: typescript (FDRL).

256 Anna Hall admired by Browning: Lash, 50.

256 “I am honestly delighted”: TR to C, July 1, 1883, Letters, I, 61.

256 “to marry and settle down”: TR to MBR, July 8, 1883, Letters, I, 62.

257 “You must be very pure”: Anna Gracie to E, July 1, 1883 (FDRL).

257 “old Indian trouble”: quoted in Lash, 46.

257 “I know I am blue”: ibid.

257 $10,000 in Wyoming ranch: Putnam, 334.

257 $20,000 in G. P. Putnam’s Sons: Pringle, 54.

258 “one of the most brilliant social events”: quoted in Lash, 47.


The remembrances and observations of George Spinney and Isaac Hunt quoted in this chapter are from an interview conducted by Hermann Hagedorn at the Harvard Club, New York City, in 1923, and are referred to below as Harvard Club Transcripts (TRC). For background on Jay Gould and his conquests, Matthew Josephson’s The Robber Barons has been especially useful.


260 “capable of conduct and utterances”: DAB.

260 “intended to be one of the governing class”: TR, Autobiography, 59.

260 “full of purpose to live”: James, Bostonians, 137.

260 “could join only the Republican Party”: TR, Autobiography, 58.

260 “one thing I like particularly”: C to Douglas Robinson, Mar. 14, 1881.

260 “saloon keepers, horsecar conductors”: TR, Autobiography, 59.

261 “I feel that I owe”: TR to Joseph Choate, Nov. 10, 1881, Letters, I, 55.

261 Depew at Delmonico’s: Depew, 158-60.

261 Uncle Rob and Michael Murphy: Pringle, 69-70.

261 “We hailed him as the dawn”: Bigelow, 276.

261 “All my friends”: TR, Diary, Oct. 22, 1881 (LC).

261 Emlen Roosevelt to Hagedorn (TRC); also quoted in Pringle, 57.

261 “It is very plain”: Emlen Roosevelt to B, July 13, 1876.

261 “did not relish the personnel”: Emlen Roosevelt to Hagedorn (TRC); also Pringle, 57.

261 Jake Hess, Joe Murray, the decor at Morton Hall: see TR, Autobiography, 59-60.

262 “Not to insist on the spoils”: TR quoted in Shannon, 15.

262 “They rather liked the idea”: ibid.

262 TR’s views of other assemblymen: from TR’s Legislative Diary, Appendix I, Letters, II.

263 Views on Curtis, Kruse, Kelly, Hunt, O’Neil: TR, Autobiography, 67-69.

264 “What on earth”: Nevins, Cleveland, 139.

264 “came in as if he had been ejected by a catapult”: Harvard Club Transcripts (TRC).

264 N.Y. Sun on TR: Jan. 25, 1882.

265 N.Y. World on TR: Apr. 15, 1883

265 “he got right in with people”: Sewall, 6.

265 “He threw each paper”: Hudson, 144-45.

267 “As a matter of fact”: TR, Autobiography, 82-83.

267 Gompers: DAB; Putnam, 301.

268 “I have always remembered”: TR, Autobiography, 83.

268 “aggressiveness”: quoted in Harbaugh, 40.

269 Gould spreads his stocks on the desk: Myers, Great American Fortunes, 491.

269 Gould unacceptable socially: Josephson, 205.

269 James Alfred Roosevelt and Gould: Cobb, 55.

269 Gould and the Manhattan Elevated: Josephson, 209-12; Putnam, 261-72.

270 Hunt puts TR on to Westbrook: Harvard Club Transcripts (TRC).

270 TR sees Loewenthal: ibid.

270 “willing to go to the very verge”: TR, Autobiography, 79.

271 N.Y. World view: Oct. 18, 1881.

271 Advice from family friend: TR, Autobiography, 80.

272 “I am, aware”: N.Y. Times, Apr. 7, 1882; also, Works, XIV, 7-11.

272 Clerk’s tally: Putnam, 266.

273 Bribes: Harvard Club Transcripts (TRC).

273 “He may have been”: TR, Autobiography, 79.

273 Gould and Cyrus Field: Josephson, 211.

274 “The Governor would sit large”: Hudson, 146-47.

275 “like wild geese without a gander”: Hunt, Harvard Club Transcripts (TRC).

276 “a pulpit concealed on his person”: unidentified clipping, Scrapbook (TRC).

276 “I have to say with shame”: N.Y. World, Mar. 3, 1883; also quoted in Putnam, 285.

277 “Never indulge yourself”: quoted in Wister, 21.

278 Reactions of N.Y. Evening Post and World: Scrapbook (TRC).

278 “The difference between our party and yours”: quoted in Putnam, 287-88; also, full speech in Works, XIV, 16-21.

279 N.Y. Observer. Mar. 10, 1883.

279 “Now, Theodore”: quoted in Pringle, 70.

279 Erastus Brooks incident: recalled by Assemblyman F. S. Decker (TRC).

279 Court ruling on the Cigar Bill: TR, Autobiography, 84-85; also Harbaugh, 40-42.

280 Admirers skeptical of O’Brien support: N.Y. Times, Dec. 27, 1883.

281 Reporter notes “friends of the Administration” in Delavan lobby: N.Y. Evening Post, Jan. 2, 1884.

281 “I am a Republican”: TR to Jonas S. Van Duzer, Nov. 20, 1883, Letters, 1,63.

281 “That young fellow”: N.Y. Times, Dec. 29, 1883.

281 “most ambitious man”: Emlen Roosevelt to Hagedorn (TRC).

282 Larger employer than Carnegie: Reeves, 46.

282 Seth Low on city government: Low in Bryce, I, 650-66.

283 TR on Hubert O. Thompson: TR, Legislative Diary, Appendix I, Letters, II.

284 “we stood shoulder to shoulder”: TR, Autobiography, 67.

284 “blamelessness and the fighting edge”: ibid., 88.

284 Mark Sullivan observation: Sullivan, II, fn. 221.

284 Unwillingness to “face the rather intimate association”: TR to Henry Cabot Lodge, Jan. 28, 1909, Letters, VI, 1490.

284 “The wicked flee”: Proverbs 28:1.

284 Eliot on a man in a fight: Brown, Harvard Yard, 25.



285 “I have a bad headache”: TR to C, July 1, 1883, Letters, I, 61.

285 “I felt much better for it”: TR to ALR, Jan. 22, 1884, Letters, I, 64.

286 James Alfred worried: TR to E, Nov. 28, 1880 (FDRL).

286 Income and sources: TR, Diary, 1883 (LC).

286 $20,000 to Putnam: Pringle, 54.

286 “before a bright fire”: TR, Diary, Jan. 3, 1883 (LC).

286 Anna Gracies instructions: Parsons, 44-45.

287 Friends to see Alice: ibid.

287 “All of the men”: TR to ALR, Jan. 28, 1884, Letters, I, 64.

287 End to social life: The social doings of Elliott and his wife, meantime, were a pet topic in the papers. When Mrs. Astor’s ball was front-page news that January, Mrs. Elliott Roosevelt’s importance in The New York Times account was second only to that of Mrs. Astor. “Mrs. Elliott Roosevelt wore white tulle and green velvet and silver. It was made with a long train and a low neck, fastened with a diamond. Pearls and diamonds were the ornaments,” reported the Times, Jan. 22, 1884.

287 “I tried faithfully”: Riis, 36-37.

287 Disillusioned by the law: TR, Autobiography, 57.

288 “I hardly know what to do”: TR to B, Sept. 15, 1882, Letters, I, 57.

289 Remarks to Country Life: Hagedorn, Roosevelt Family of Sagamore Hill, 7.

289 Final cost $17,000: ibid., 9.

291 Hunt’s recollections: Harvard Club Transcripts (TRC).

291 Corinne’s account of return to 57th Street: C to Pringle, Sept. 1930, Pringle notes (TRC).

292 Mittie’s death at three o’clock: TR, memorial to MBR (TRC).

292 Double funeral service: N.Y. Times, Sun, and Tribune, Feb. 17, 1884.

292 Chester A. Arthur and Bright’s disease: Reeves, 317-18.

293 Talk of criminal negligence: Mrs. Robert Bacon, Pringle interview, Pringle notes (TRC). Since Mrs. Bacon’s husband was then employed at Lee, Higginson, it is possible that the Lee family too had similar thoughts concerning Alice’s death.

293 “He does not know what he does”: quoted in Sewall, 11.

293 “bravely in the darkness”: quoted in Putnam, 389.

294 Hunts account of all-night work: Hagedorn files (TRC).

294 “I have taken up my work”: TR to Carl Schurz, Feb. 21, 1884, Letters, I, 66.

294 Schurz and the death of his wife: Fuess, 219.

294 “as sweet and gentle as ever”: C to E, Mar. 4, 1884 (FDRL).

294 Sale of 6 West 57th Street: B reminiscences.

295 “That year seems a perfect nightmare”: ibid.

295 Condolence letters; J. Bulloch cable: (TRC).

295 Alice entrusted to Bamie: B reminiscences.

295 “so few that one really cared for”: C to E, Mar. 4, 1884 (FDRL).

296 Memorial to Alice: (TRC).


Newspapers of the late nineteenth century, in a day when it was still not possible technically to publish photographs, reported events in a vivid, pictorial style seldom found in present-day journalism; and since newspapers then were also intensely competitive and openly partisan politically, the coverage of a national convention to be found in the files of almost any great paper of the era is especially alive and colorful, filled with detail. The papers referred to for this account of the Republican National Convention of 1884 include The N.Y. Times, N.Y. Sun, N.Y. Tribune, N.Y. Herald, N.Y. Evening Post, N.Y. World, Chicago Tribune, Boston Transcript, and the Washington Post. Excerpts from various speeches have all been taken from Proceedings of the Eighth Republican National Convention Held at Chicago, Illinois, June 3, 4, 5, and 6,1884.


297 “Fast and thick the delegates”: N.Y. Times, June 1, 1884.

297 California delegates in the Palmer House barbershop: a composite of several newspaper accounts, but especially Chicago Tribune, May 31,1884.

298 “All were filled”: N.Y. Sun, June 1, 1884.

298 TR to Bamie: June 8, 1884, Letters, I, 71-72.

299 “Tattooed Man”: cartoon by Bernard Gillam, Puck, Apr. 16, 1884.

299 TR to Lodge: May 26, 1884, Letters, I, 70.

300 “He isn’t ‘Chet’ Arthur any more”: quoted in Reeves, 260.

300 Failure of Grant and Ward: Rhodes, 205.

300 Arthur transforms the White House: Reeves, 268-71.

300 Beecher endorsement: ibid., 368.

300 Orders return of $100,000: ibid., 374.

301 Harper’s Weekly on Edmunds: Feb. 2, Mar. 1, 1884.

301 State convention at Utica: for a thorough account see Putnam, 413-24.

301 Washington trip with Lodge: Lodge journal, Mar. 20,1885, Massachusetts Historical Society.

302 “We are breaking up house”: TR to Henry Cabot Lodge, May 5, 1884, Letters, I, 69.

302 To Chicago in a private car: N.Y. World, June 6, 1884.

302 Evening Post appraisal of TR: May 31, 1884.

302 Nast cartoon of TR and Cleveland: Harper’s Weekly, Apr. 19, 1884.

302 “mouth full of regular white teeth”: N.Y. Tribune, June 6, 1884.

302 Statement to the Chicago Tribune: Chicago Tribune, June 1, 1884.

302 “as if the fate of the nation”: N.Y. Herald, June 1, 1884.

303 Lodge doubts Blaine can be stopped: Lodge journal, Mar. 20, 1885, Massachusetts Historical Society.

303 “Bits of good news”: N.Y. Tribune, June 1, 1884.

303 McKinley a sign: ibid., June 3, 1884.

303 “Not for forty nominations”: Stone, Fifty Years, 150.

304 “pulled together”: TR to B, June 8, 1884, Letters, I, 72.

304 “Many of our men”: ibid.

304 “Chicagoe” a “marvelous city”: TR to B, Sept. 2, 1880.

305 Badges cast in gold: Sullivan, II, 215.

305 “What I liked about him”: Platt, 185.

306 “The leader was Mr. George William Curtis”: Chicago Tribune, June 4, 1884.

306 Platt stroking his beard: N.Y. Times, June 4, 1884.

308 “rather dudish-looking” TR: unidentified newspaper account quoted in Foraker, 167-68.

308 “Up from the midst of the Empire State”: N.Y. Times, June 4, 1884.

308 “It was the first time”: TR to B, June 8, 1884, Letters, I, 72.

308 TR’s speech: Proceedings, 10; also, Works XIV, 37-38.

309 N.Y. Times praise: June 4, 1884.

309 “quick, watchful, rather enjoying”: N.Y. Tribune, June 6, 1884.

310 Andrew White’s scorn of the convention: White, Autobiography, 204.

310 “his voice rang like a trumpet”: TR to B, June 8, 1884, Letters, I, 72.

312 “It is eager, bitter, and peculiar”: Chicago Herald, quoted in Bryce, II. (Bryce thought so highly of the Herald’s coverage of the convention, thought it such a classic bit of political Americana, that he included it in the Appendix of his own classic work.)

313 “It was a tumultuous crowd”: ibid.

313 TR tries to get on stage: N.Y. Times, June 7, 1884.

313 McKinley calms the storm: Chicago Herald, quoted in Bryce, II.

314 “This is the hour”: quoted in Fuess, 286.

314 “I decline to say anything”: N.Y. World, June 7, 1884.

314 “A grave would be garrulous”: Boston Transcript, June 7, 1884.

315 Arthur pledges support, confides he does not have long to live: Reeves, 381.

315 TR’s encounter with Horace White: White, letter to N.Y. Times, Oct. 20, 1884. TR, in answer to the Times (Oct. 21), expressed surprise that any gentleman would so divulge a private conversation. He had been “savagely indignant at our defeat,” TR said, as explanation of his own behavior.

316 Pioneer Press interview and newspaper response: clippings in B’s scrapbook (TRC).

316 “The gallant young man”: N.Y. World, June 27, 1884.

316 Reaction in Boston: Nevins, Cleveland, 157.

317 Letters to the Times: N.Y. Times, June 8, 1884.

317 Putnam response: Nevins, Cleveland, 157.

317 “Mr. Lodge maintains”: William Everett quoted in Garraty, Lodge, 80.

317 Schurz advice: quoted, ibid., 81.

318 Lodge answer: July 14, 1884, Lodge Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society.

318 Lodge on pre-Chicago pact with TR: Lodge journal, Mar. 20, 1885, Massachusetts Historical Society.

318 “I am absolutely ignorant”: TR to Henry Cabot Lodge, June 17, 1884, Letters, I, 73.

318 “precisely the proper course”: TR to Henry Cabot Lodge, June 18, 1884, ibid., 75.

319 Chicago Tribune tribute: June 7, 1884.

319 Chicago Times tribute: quoted in the N.Y. Evening Post, June 6, 1884.

319 “first revelation of that immense pluck”: White, Autobiography, 205.

319 “You’ll know more, sir, later”: quoted in Riis, 69.

320 “I can’t help writing you”: TR to Henry Cabot Lodge, Oct. 11, 1895, Letters, I, 484.

320 “never been able to work so well”: TR to Henry Cabot Lodge, Aug. 12, 1884, ibid., 77.

321 “It may be that ’the voice of the people’”: TR to B, June 8, 1884, ibid., 71.

321 “the most serious crisis”: Bishop, 35-36.

322 View of Nicholas Roosevelt: N. Roosevelt, Roosevelt, 97.

322 Letter to Josephine Shaw Lowell: Feb. 24, 1882, Letters, VIII, 1425.

323 TR’s statement to the Boston Herald: see also, N.Y. World, July 21, 1884.

323 “We thought of him as a lost leader”: Thayer, Roosevelt, 55.

323 “As for Cabot Lodge”: Wister, 26.

323 “Young men like Mr. Roosevelt”: N.Y. Evening Post, July 21, 1884.

324 “Most of my friends”: TR to Henry Cabot Lodge, July 28,1884, Letters, 1,75.

324 “You would be amused”: TR to Henry Cabot Lodge, Aug. 12, 1884, Letters, I, 77.


The standard work on TR’s time in the West is Hermann Hagedorn’s Roosevelt in the Bad Lands (here referred to as Hagedorn, RBL), which was based on interviews with a number of the principals in the story and appeared in 1921. And though it is plainly flawed by Hagedorn’s almost blind adulation of TR and by the use of fictitious names for any characters presented in a bad light, it remains the single most valuable source for what was one of the most important periods in TR’s life. Hagedorn’s Bad Lands notes for the book are also part of the great Theodore Roosevelt Collection at Harvard.

Material in this chapter concerning the influence of Remington, Wister, and TR on the overall aura of the cowboy West has been drawn chiefly from G. Edward Whites The Eastern Establishment and the Western Experience (1968); background for eastern investment in the cattle empire comes from Gene M. Gressley’s excellent Bankers and Cattlemen (1966). Of the several articles from North Dakota History relied upon, the most useful have been “Ranching in the Dakota Badlands,” by Ray H. Mattison, referred to here as Mattison, and “The Career of the Marquis de Mores in the Badlands of North Dakota,” by Arnold O. Goplen, referred to as Goplen.

Of TR’s own voluminous published accounts, the best is Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail, which is included with Hunting Trips of a Ranchman in Volume I of the collected Works (page numbers below refer to that edition).


325 Clarence Day on cowboys: Day, 12.

326 TR’s recommended reading: TR, Hunting Trips, 11.

326 Warns of financial disaster: ibid., 17; also TR, Ranch Life, 290.

326 Gorringe interests: Hagedorn, RBL, 8-10.

327 Teschemacher and the Paris paper: Clay, 76.

327 Trimble and his poodle: Forbis, 216.

327 Bacon, Agassiz, the Seligmans, et al.: Gressley, Bankers.

328 “little in common with the humdrum”: TR, Ranch Life, 274.

328 “nor are the mechanics”: ibid., 278.

328 “Of course every ranchman carries”: TR, Hunting Trips, 27-28.

328 “In the hot noontide hours”: TR, Ranch Life, 309.

329 “perfect picture”: Wister, “The Young Roosevelt,” in Works, I, 260.

329 “This life has a psychological effect”: quoted in White, Eastern Establishment, 123.

329 “wonder if there is such a place as Philadelphia”: ibid.

329 “a queer episode”: ibid., 132.

329 TR’s costly regalia: see Wilson, 44.

329 “having a glorious time”: TR to B, June 17, 1884, Letters, I, 73.

330 Sewall’s observations: Mattison, “Life at Roosevelt’s Elkhorn Ranch.”

330 Bad Lands terrain: TR’s own descriptions in both Hunting Trips and Ranch Life; also, Winser, The Great Northwest, the Northern Pacific Railroad’s 1883 guidebook, and Clark, The Badlands.

330 Hell with the fires out: remark attributed to General Alfred Sully, 1864.

331 “a place for stratagem”: quoted in White, Eastern Establishment, 104.

331 “What a wondrous country”: Clay, 90.

331 Large and small ranchers: Mattison.

332 “All the security he had”: quoted in Hagedorn, RBL, 43.

332 “By Godfrey”: ibid., 36.

332 Ferris recollection: Ferris, “When Roosevelt Came to Dakota.”

332 Champagne over a tent peg: N.Y. Times, Sept. 21, 1884.

332 “It takes me only a few seconds”: Hagedorn, RBL, 61.

333 Marquis had already killed two men: Dresden, 20.

333 Wife’s income $90,000: Goplen.

333 Twenty-one thousand acres, twelve thousand sheep, salmon shipments: ibid.

334 “I like this country”: Hagedorn, RBL, 335.

334 “Why, shoot”: Dresden, 60.

334 Pleasure and vice synonymous: TR, Hunting Trips, 7.

334 “preach King Cattle”: Bad Lands Cow Boy, Feb. 7, 1884.

335 “Again and again is the fitness”: ibid., Feb. 21, 1884.

335 “There are now in the Bad Lands”: ibid., Mar. 13, 1884.

335 N.Y. Times reports on Medora and the Marquis: Sept. 21, 1884.

335 Marquis quoted in N.Y. World: Dresden, 90.

335 The château: Except for a big box elder beside the back door, the house looks today no different from what it does in old photographs and is furnished throughout just as it was. The Marquis and Madame de Mores left everything behind—trunks, children’s clothes, his books, rifles, the lead-filled walking stick, her china and watercolors. The property now belongs to the State Historical Society of North Dakota.

336 “most dignified, stately, and aristocratic”: C. O. Armstrong quoted in Goplen.

336 Madame kills bears: Bismarck Weekly Tribune, Sept. 4, 1885.

336 Langs bury Luffsey: Lang, 75.

336 TR and Marquis turned down as vigilantes: Putnam, 461.

337 “Theodore did not care for the Marquis”: quoted in Hagedorn, RBL, 338.

337 “lost about 25 head from wolves”: TR to B, June 17,1884, Letters, I, 73.

337 TR’s share of Mittie’s trust fund: Putnam, 337.

337 Additional $26,000 in cattle: Hagedorn, RBL, 94.

337 “I designed the house myself”: Sewall, 19. (The house is gone, but the site today looks as it did in TR’s time. One can sit among the cottonwoods and look over the river to the distant plateaus and understand perfectly why he so adored the place.)

338 “Hasten forward”: Hagedorn, RBL, 101.

338 Fight in the Mingusville bar: TR, Autobiography, 125-26.

338 “gained him some reputation”: Sewall, 43.

338 “He worked like the rest of us”: ibid., 39.

338 “A man who will steal for me”: Hagedorn, RBL, 256.

338 Exchange between TR and Sewall: Sewall, 47-48.

338 “Must have a depraved idea”: Mattison, “Life at Roosevelt’s Elkhorn Ranch.”

339 “The country is growing on me”: quoted in Hagedorn, RBL, 105.

339 Bad Lands looked the way Poe sounds: TR, Hunting Trips, 11.

339 “Nowhere . . . does a man feel more lonely”: ibid., 151-52.

339 Parkman and TR on sea of grass and being far afield from civilization: Parkman, 34; TR, Ranch Life, 274, 307.

339 Sound of the mourning dove: TR, ibid., 309-10.

339 “When the days have dwindled”: ibid., 341.

340 Edith Wharton on New York: Age of Innocence, 30-31.

340 Voice of the meadowlark: TR, Hunting Trips, 12.

341 Praise for Manitou: ibid., 28-29.

341 “and the rapid motion”: TR, Ranch Life, 329.

341 “fulfilling a boyish ambition”: quoted in Hagedorn, RBL, 105.

341 “in our ideal ‘hero land’”: quoted in Robinson, 138.

341 “What with the wild gallops”: Reid, Scalp Hunters, 19.

342 “the best weapon I ever had”: TR, Hunting Trips, 27.

342 Lebo and TR: Hagedorn BL notes, Merrifield interview (TRC).

342 Letter to Bamie: quoted in Hagedorn, RBL, 179-80.

343 “I went back and paced off the distance”: TR, Diary, 1884 (LC).

343 Describes blacktail buck: TR, Hunting Trips, 116-17.

344 Bear hunt and kill: TR, Diary, 1884 (LC).

344 Remarks on Elliott’s tiger: ibid., 231.

345 “I found myself face to face with the great bear”: TR to B, Sept. 20, 1884, Letters, I, 82.

345 “So I have had good sport”: ibid.

345 “all kinds of things of which I was afraid”: TR, Autobiography, 55-56.

345 Sewall on Bad Lands winter: Mattison, “Life at Roosevelt’s Elkhorn Ranch.”

347 An additional $12,500: Hagedorn, RBL, 255.

347 TR lunches at the château: TR to Lodge, May 15, 1885, Letters, I, 90.

347 Two fine accounts of a Bad Lands roundup, besides what TR wrote, are to be found in Huidekoper, 29-36, and Lang, 176-200.

347 “Invariably he was right on the job”: Lang, 185.

347 “all strangeness . . . passed off”: TR, Autobiography, 105.

347 “a very vivid affair”: Huidekoper, 29.

347 “gave us all an exhibition”: Lang, 183-84.

348 “I rode him all the way”: quoted in Hagedorn, RBL, fn. 289.

348 Broke something in his shoulder: TR, Ranch Life, 320.

348 “very thorough in whatever work”: Burdick, 12.

348 “He could rassle”: Hagedorn BL notes, Merrifield interview (TRC); also quoted in Putnam, 524-25.

348 TR’s account of the night stampede: TR, Autobiography, 107-08.

349 “can now do cowboy work”: TR to Lodge, June 5, 1885, quoted in Hagedorn, RBL, 299.

349 “Meanness, cowardice, and dishonesty”: TR, Ranch Life, 325.

349 “He would not tolerate”: TR, Autobiography, 9-10.

350 “I have seen him when”: unidentified clipping, Hagedorn BL notes (TRC); also quoted in Putnam, 527.

350 Asthma and stomach trouble: Sewall, 41.

350 “ate heart medicine”: Hagedorn BL notes, Merrifield interview (TRC).

350 “Rugged, bronzed”; quoted in Hagedorn, RBL, 308.

350 “a very powerful man”: Thayer, Roosevelt, 57.

350 “But what a change”: Pittsburgh Dispatch, Aug. 23, 1885, quoted in Putnam, 530.

351 Marquis’s Sept. 3 letter to TR: (TRC); also quoted in full (postscript included) in Putnam, 537-38.

352 Marquis “backed off”: TR to Bill Sewall, Dec. 28, 1893, quoted in Sewall, 102.

352 Lang on the Marquis: Lang, 75. Huidekoper, too, took the same view as Lang, except that Huidekoper also greatly admired the Marquis as a person: “The Marquis was a fine man and game as a pebble; when they tell the story of Roosevelt backing him down, they are sure guessing wrong.” (Huidekoper, 27.)

352 TR wanted Winchester rifles at twelve paces: Sewall, 27.

352 TR sees Marquis in jail: Hagedorn, RBL, 344.

352 “all a very happy family”: ibid., 38-39.

352 TR to Bamie: May 15, 1886, Letters, I, 101.

353 Marquis launches retail stores: Goplen.

353 Marquis done in by the beef trust: Dresden, 140-46.

353 Loss estimates: Goplen.

353 TR on “overstocking”: TR, Ranch Life, 290.

354 Sewall’s diary entry: Mattison, “Life at Roosevelt’s Elkhorn Ranch.”

354 Seventy-five percent losses: Mattison.

354 TR’s losses: Hagedorn, RBL, Appendix, 482.

355 Stickney recollection: undated article by Stickney, Hagedorn BL notes (TRC); see also Hagedorn, RBL, 382-83; Putnam, 568-69.

356 Chase after the thieves: TR’s own account is in Ranch Life, 383-98; see also, Sewall, 58-83.

356 “To submit tamely”: TR, Ranch Life, 384-85.

356 TR to Corinne on Tolstoy: Apr. 12, 1886, Letters, I, 96.

357 “He impressed me”: undated article by Stickney, Hagedorn BL notes (TRC); also quoted in Hagedorn, RBL, 383.

358 TR’s July 4 speech: quoted in Hagedorn, RBL, 407-10.

360 Packard predicts presidency: ibid., 411.

360 “We were glad to get back”: Sewall, 94-95.

360 “When he got back”: ibid., 41.



361 “She has no looks”: quoted in Longworth, 19.

361 “hers was the best mind”: N. Roosevelt, Front Row Seat, 33.

362 “intensely on-the-ball”: Mrs. W. Sheffield Cowles, Jr., to the author.

362 “Bamie’s telegram at 11:30”: quoted in Lash, 52.

362 “Always Auntie Bye meant more”: ARL, Hagedorn interview (TRB).

363 “She used to tell me stories”: Longworth, 20.

363 “She was the only one”: ARL, Hagedorn interview (TRB).

363 Eleanor on Bamie: E. Roosevelt, This Is My Story, 57-58.

363 Auntie Bye would have been President: ARL, Hagedorn interview (TRB).

363 “to stick the knife in”: W. Sheffield Cowles, Jr., to the author.

363 “She was such a tremendous personality”: Mrs. J. Alsop, Oral History Collection, Columbia University.

364 Trip to Mexico with the James Roosevelts: B reminiscences.

364 “queer, little dumpy figure”: Mrs. J. Alsop, Oral History Collection, Columbia University.

364 “She grasped everything”: Helen Roosevelt quoted in N. Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, 32.

364 TR wants Bamie to organize a salon: TR to B, Apr. 22, 1886, Letters, I, 98.

365 “insisted that we did not live together”: B reminiscences.

365 “Theodore would not be happy”: quoted in Rixey, 56.

365 TR promises to forgo the pronoun “I”: TR to B, June 28, 1886, Letters, I, 104.

365 “Can you send me at once”: Nov. 3, 1884, Letters from Theodore Roosevelt to Anna Roosevelt Cowles, 70.

366 Remarks on the “singularly attractive” Mrs. Selmes: Aug. 11,1886, ibid., 88-89.

366 TR laments he has no “constancy”: Putnam, 557 (Putnam heard the story from Mrs. Selmes’s daughter, the Arizona congresswoman Isabella Greenway).

367 TR’s letter to Bamie of Sept. 20, 1886: (TRB); also quoted in Morris, Edith Kermit Roosevelt, 90-91.

367 Bamie could keep Baby Lee: ibid.

368 “makes me quite blue”: C to B, Mar. 29, 1886.

368 “They didn’t want it”: ARL, Hagedorn interview (TRB).

368 Chance meeting in Bamie’s front hall: Fanny Smith (Parsons) to Putnam; see Putnam, 556-57.

368 TR and Edith: see Morris, Edith Kermit Roosevelt, 79-83.

368 “What day does Edith go abroad”: TR to C, Apr. 12,1886, Letters, 1,96.

369 “We haven’t had campaign headquarters”: undated N.Y. Times clipping, scrapbook (TRC).

369 “It almost broke my heart”: B reminiscences.

369 Bamie’s letter to Edith, Oct. 23, 1886: Sarah Alden Gannett collection (private).

370 Bamie’s letter to Nannie Lodge: quoted in Rixey, 62.

371 “At least I have a better party standing”: ibid.

371 Addressing the engagement announcements: B reminiscences.



373 “There was never a serious subject”: quoted in Rixey, 230.

373 “You felt such gallantry: Mrs. Emory Gardiner, Oral History Collection, Columbia University.

375 TR’s response to Louisa Schuyler: N. Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, 100.

375 “My father, Theodore Roosevelt”: TR, Autobiography, 9.

375 “I have realized . . . all day”: quoted in Robinson, 206-07.

376 “peculiarly pleasant having you here”: TR to RBR, Mar. 6,1905, Letters, IV, 1131.

376 Recollection of Mittie in the N.Y. Sun: Oct. 21, 1900.

376 “I hate to think of her suffering”: quoted in Robinson, 240-41.

377 “wonderful balance”; “in many ways, as formidable”: Nicholas Roosevelt to Lilian Rixey, Jan. 15, 1964 (courtesy of P. James Roosevelt).

377 “To be with him was to have fun”: N. Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, 11.

377 “I love all these children”: TR to Emily Carow, Aug. 16,1903, Theodore Roosevelt’s Letters to His Children (Works, XIX), 441.

378 “Hereafter I shall never press Ted”: TR to B, Mar. 1898, Letters, II, 804.

378 “I am falling behind physically”: TR to Theodore, Jr., Oct. 24, 1903, Theodore Roosevelt’s Letters to His Children (Works, XIX), 449.

379 The life of ex-President TR: see Gardner, Departing Glory.

379 Lines from Edith Wharton: quoted in Wagenknecht, 109.

379 Bamie at Austrian sanitarium with Elliott: B reminiscences.

379 “Poor Elliott”: Edith Roosevelt to B, July 19, 1893.

380 “He can’t be helped”: quoted in Lash, 89.

380 “the ugly duckling may turn out to be a swan”: Edith Roosevelt to B, Apr. 18, 1894.

380 “like some stricken, hunted creature”: TR to B, Aug. 18, 1894 (TRB); also quoted in Morris, Edith Kermit Roosevelt, 143–44.

380 “I only need to have pleasant thoughts of Elliott now”: quoted in Lash, 96.

381 “Talk as loudly”: N. Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, 34.

381 “Very early for a fox sparrow”: quoted in Robinson, 232.

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