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CHAPTER 21: “I FEEL TROUBLE IN THE AIR”

180,000 soldiers…black males: Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 (New York: Harper & Row, 1988; 1989), p. 8.

Emancipation Proclamation flatly declared…“United States”: AL, “Emancipation Proclamation,” January 1, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 30.

Stanton authorized…and other Northern states: Quarles, Lincoln and the Negro, p. 156; Dudley Taylor Cornish, The Sable Arm: Black Troops in the Union Army, 1861–1865 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1956; 1987), p. 105.

the war would not be won…“suppressing the rebels”: Douglass’ Monthly (August 1862).

He wrote stirring appeals…many other cities: Blight, Frederick Douglass’ Civil War, pp. 157–59.

“Why should a colored…that claim respected”: Douglass’ Monthly (April 1863).

thousands of Bostonians…high-ranking military officials: Boston Daily Evening Transcript, May 28, 1863.

“No single regiment…admirable marching”: Ibid.

He urged Banks…the enlisting process: AL to Nathaniel P. Banks, March 29, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 154; AL to David Hunter, April 1, 1863, in ibid., p. 158; AL to USG, August 9, 1863, in ibid., p. 374.

“The colored population…rebellion at once”: AL to Andrew Johnson, March 26, 1863, in ibid., pp. 149–50.

Chase…“nearly two years ago”: SPC to James A. Garfield, May 31, 1863, reel 12, Garfield Papers, DLC.

a series of obstacles…losing their freedom or their lives: Benjamin Quarles, Frederick Douglass. Studies in American Negro Life Series (Associated Publishers, 1948; New York: Atheneum, 1970), pp. 209–10; Quarles, Lincoln and the Negro, pp. 167, 169, 173–74, 177.

“this is no time…to embrace it”: Douglass’ Monthly (August 1863).

they earned great respect…“bravery and steadiness”: Cornish, The Sable Arm, pp. 142–43 (quote p. 143).

“dooming to death…negro troops”: NYTrib, reprinted in Liberator, May 15, 1863.

As word of the unique…swiftly diminishing: James M. McPherson, The Negro’s Civil War: How American Blacks Felt and Acted During the War for Union (New York: Pantheon Books, 1965; New York: Ballantine Books, 1991), pp. 176, 179.

“What has Mr. Lincoln…responsible for them”: Douglass’ Monthly (August 1863).

“When I plead…rulers at Washington”: Frederick Douglass to Major G. L. Stearns, August 1, 1863, reprinted in ibid.

he asked Halleck…“placed at hard labor”: AL, “Order of Retaliation,” July 30, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 357.

The order was “well-written…became impossible”: Entry for August 4, 1863, in Gurowski, Diary from November 18, 1862 to October 18, 1863, pp. 292–93.

Douglass agreed…“required to act”: Douglass to Stearns, August 1, 1863, in Douglass’ Monthly (August 1863).

the lack of “fair play”…to the president: Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, pp. 784–85.

“tumult of feeling”: Frederick Douglass, quoted in the Washington Post, February 13, 1888.

“I could not know…an interview altogether”: Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, p. 785.

a large crowd in the hallway…into the office: Liberator, January 29, 1864; Philip S. Foner, Frederick Douglass (New York: Citadel Press, 1950; repr. 1964), p. 216.

“I was never more…Abraham Lincoln”: Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, p. 785.

The president was seated…“began to rise”: Douglass, “Lincoln and the Colored Troops,” in Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln, ed. Rice, p. 316.

Douglass hesitantly began…“glad to see you”: Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, p. 786.

Lincoln’s warmth…“Abraham Lincoln”: Frederick Douglass to George L. Stearns, August 12, 1863 (photocopy), container 53, Papers of Frederick Douglass, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress [hereafter Douglass Papers, DLC].

Douglass laid before…“very apparent sympathy”: Douglass, “Lincoln and the Colored Troops,” in Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln, ed. Rice, p. 317.

“Upon my ceasing…not suspected him”: Douglass to Stearns, August 12, 1863, Douglass Papers, DLC.

it “seemed a necessary…at all as soldiers”: Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, p. 787.

“in the end they shall…as white soldiers”: AL quoted in Douglass, “Lincoln and the Colored Troops,” in Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln, ed. Rice, p. 318.

“he would sign…commend to him”: Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, p. 787.

Lincoln’s justification…“killed for negroes”: Douglass to Stearns, August 12, 1863, Douglass Papers, DLC.

“once begun…humane spirit”: Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, p. 787.

he had read a recent speech…“retreated from it”: Liberator, January 29, 1864.

“as though I could…his shoulder”: Douglass, “Lincoln and the Colored Troops,” in Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln, ed. Rice, p. 325.

“The manner of”…in the Mississippi Valley: Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, pp. 787–88 (quote); Quarles, Lincoln and the Negro, pp. 168, 172.

The War Department followed up…commission was not included: Quarles, Lincoln and the Negro, p. 169.

“I knew too much…mark of my rank”: Douglass, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, p. 788.

“Perhaps you may like…I felt big there!”: Liberator, January 29, 1864.

Conkling had invited…loyal Unionists: AL to James C. Conkling, August 26, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 406.

False rumors circulated: NYT, August 8 and 13, 1863.

“Ah! I’m glad”…he bade him good night: Stoddard, Inside the White House in War Times, pp. 129–30.

“deceptive and groundless…they have strove to hinder it”: AL to James C. Conkling, August 26, 1863, in CW, VI, pp. 407–10.

Lincoln continued to refine…public duties: “23 August 1863, Sunday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 76.

“You are one of the best…very slowly”: AL to James C. Conkling, August 27, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 414.

An immense crowd…“the country calls”: Illinois State Journal, Springfield, Ill., September 2, 1863.

he was furious to see…around the country: John W. Forney to AL, September 3, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

“I am mortified…How did this happen?”: AL to James C. Conkling, September 3, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 430.

When a petitioner tried…“obvious to any one”: AL to D. M. Leatherman, September 3, 1863, in ibid., p. 431.

a message arrived from Conkling…“the next day”: James C. Conkling to AL, September 4, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

“Disclaiming the arts…wants to discuss”: NYTrib, September 3, 1863.

“The most consummate…which needs driving”: NYT, September 7, 1863.

The Philadelphia Inquirer…“continue to write”: Philadelphia Inquirer, September 5, 1863.

“His last letter…logicians of all schools”: JH to JGN, September 11, 1863, in Hay, At Lincoln’s Side, p. 54.

the New York Times also commended…“their faith in him”: NYT, September 7, 1863.

“I know the people…on the ground”: JH to JGN, September 11, 1863, in Hay, At Lincoln’s Side, p. 54.

Seward came back…the diplomatic corps: WHS to Charles Francis Adams, August 25, 1863, quoted in Seward, Seward at Washington…1861–1872, p. 188.

to celebrate his seventieth…“good as I deserve”: Entry for September 4, 1863, in The Diary of Edward Bates, 1859–1866, pp. 305–06.

his ten-day visit…“perhaps more missed”: Entry for September 11, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 431.

Lincoln and Stanton had hoped…“blow to the rebellion”: EMS to William S. Rosecrans, July 7, 1863, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXIII, Part II, p. 518.

Rosecrans delivered…“victory at Chattanooga”: JH to JGN, September 11, 1863, in Hay, At Lincoln’s Side, p. 54.

“unexpectedly appeared…of [the] Chicamauga”: Charles A. Dana to EMS, September 12, 1863, reel 5, Stanton Papers, DLC.

battle of Chickamauga: See Dave Powell, “Chickamauga, Battle of,” in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, ed. Heidler and Heidler, pp. 427–31.

“Chicamauga is as fatal…as Bull Run”: Charles A. Dana to EMS, September 20, 1863, reel 6, Stanton Papers, DLC.

Union casualties: Entry for September 20, 1862, in Long, The Civil War Day by Day, p. 412.

“We have met with…scattered troops there”: William S. Rosecrans to Henry W. Halleck, September 20, 1863, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXX, Part I, pp. 142–43.

the dispatches reached him…“awake and watchful”: Entry for September 21, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 438.

wandered into Hay’s room…“air before it comes”: “[27 September 1863, Sunday],” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 85.

Lincoln telegraphed Mary…“see you and Tad”: AL to MTL, September 21, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 471.

Mary responded…plans to do so: MTL to AL, September 22, 1863, quoted in Helm, The True Story of Mary, p. 215.

proved “less unfavorable…feared”: Entry for September 22, 1863, in Chase Papers, Vol. I, p. 449 (quote); Charles A. Dana to EMS, September 20, 1863, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXX, Part I, p. 193.

Thomas’s corps had held…than the Federals: Powell, “Chickamauga, Battle of,” in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, ed. Heidler and Heidler, p. 430.

“still remains in…to twenty days”: Charles A. Dana to EMS, September 23, 1863, reel 6, Stanton Papers, DLC.

Stanton came up with…dispatched messengers: Flower, Edwin McMasters Stanton, p. 203.

Chase had just retired…and his entire army: Entry for September 23, 1863, in Chase Papers, Vol. I, p. 450.

John Hay was sent to the Soldiers’ Home…back to the War Department: “[27 September 1863, Sunday],” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 86 (quotes); John G. Nicolay and John Hay, Abraham Lincoln: A History, Vol. VIII (New York: Century Co., 1917), p. 112.

“I have invited…serious for jokes”: Entry for September 23, 1863, in Chase Papers, Vol. I, pp. 450–52 (quotes); Flower, Edwin McMasters Stanton, p. 203.

“he had fully considered…with excellent arguments”: Entry for September 23, 1863, in Chase Papers, Vol. I, p. 452.

Stanton immediately sent an orderly…“make a few figures”: W. H. Whiton recollections, quoted in Gorham, Life and Public Services of Edwin M. Stanton, Vol. I, pp. 123–24.

“I can complete…given my consent”: McCallum, EMS, and AL, quoted in Flower, Edwin McMasters Stanton, p. 204.

“Colonel McCallum…I will approve them”: AL, quoted in W. H. Whiton recollections, quoted in Gorham, Life and Public Services of Edwin M. Stanton, Vol. I, pp. 124–25.

Stanton worked…stop to resupply: EMS to J. T. Boyle, September 23, 1863, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXIX, Part I, p. 147; EMS to R. P. Bowler, September 24, 1863, in ibid., p. 153; Daniel Butterfield to Oliver O. Howard, September 26, 1863, in ibid., p. 160; W. P. Smith to EMS, September 26, 1863, in ibid., p. 161; Flower, Edwin McMasters Stanton, pp. 204–06. For documentation of Stanton’s efforts to move the 11th and 12th Army Corps to the Army of the Cumberland, see OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXIX, Part 1, pp. 146–95.

The first train left Washington…arrived in Tennessee: W. P. Smith to EMS, September 26, 1863, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. 29, Part I, p. 161; Flower, Edwin McMasters Stanton, pp. 205–06.

Monitoring reports…agree to leave his post: Flower, Edwin McMasters Stanton, pp. 205–07; W. P. Smith to EMS, September 26, 1863, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXIX, Part I, p. 162.

“It was an extraordinary…the twentieth century”: McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. 675.

Dana’s reports…troops had lost confidence: Charles A. Dana to EMS, September 30, 1863, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXX, Part I, p. 204.

Stanton telegraphed Grant…discussing the overall military situation: Grant, Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant, pp. 315–16.

the general departed for Chattanooga…Lookout Mountain: Ibid., pp. 320–51; James H. Meredith, “Chattanooga Campaign” and “Lookout Mountain, Battle of,” in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, ed. Heidler and Heidler, pp. 411–15, 1216–18.

“would have been a terrible disaster”: Grant, Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant, p. 318.

“The country does…nights work”: Entry for September 23, 1863, in Chase Papers, Vol. I, p. 453.

affectionately call his “Mars”: Bates, Lincoln in the Telegraph Office, p. 400.

“esteem and affection…French comic opera”: Benjamin, “Recollections of Secretary Edwin M. Stanton,” Century (1887), pp. 768, 760–61.

“No two men were…a necessity to each other”: New York Evening Post, July 13, 1891.

“in dealing with the public…than his heart”: A. E. Johnson, opinion cited in Bates, Lincoln in the Telegraph Office, p. 389.

the story of a congressman…“step over and see him”: Julian, Political Recollections, 1840 to 1872, pp. 211–12.

“remarkable passages…at Cincinnati”: EMS, quoted in Parkinson to Beveridge, May 28, 1923, container 292, Beveridge Papers, DLC.

“Few war ministers…for Mr. Lincoln”: “The Late Secretary Stanton,” Army and Navy Journal, January 1, 1870, p. 309.

When Stanton was eighteen…near death from cholera: Wolcott, “Edwin M. Stanton,” p. 36.

he insisted on including…to stand guard: Joseph Buchanan and William Stanton Buchanan, quoted in Flower, Edwin McMasters Stanton, pp. 39, 40.

Oh! Why should the spirit…: William Knox, “Mortality,” quoted in Bruce, “The Riddle of Death,” in The Lincoln Enigma, p. 135.

He could recite from memory…“in the English language”: Carpenter, Six Months at the White House, p. 59.

The mossy marbles rest: Oliver Wendell Holmes, “The Last Leaf,” in The Poetical Works of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Vol. I (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1892), p. 4.

he had written…“he should be honored?”: EMS, “Our Admiration of Military Character Unmerited,” 1831, reel 1, Stanton Papers, DLC.

an army of more than 2 million men: Margaret E. Wagner, Gary W. Gallagher, and Paul Finkelman, eds., The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference (New York: Grand Central Press/Simon & Schuster, 2002), p. 376.

“There could be no greater…to eternity”: EMS, quoted in Gideon Stanton, ed., “Edwin M. Stanton.”

“Doesn’t it strike you…flowing all about me?”: AL quoted in Louis A. Warren, Lincoln’s Youth: Indiana Years, Seven to Twenty-one, 1816–1830 (New York: Appleton Century Crofts, 1959), p. 225 n29.

an audience to a group of Quakers: AL to Eliza P. Gurney, September 4, 1864, in CW, VII, p. 535.

“If I had had…still governs it”: AL, quoted in Eliza P. Gurney, copy of interview with AL, [October 26, 1862], Lincoln Papers.

“On principle…no mortal could stay”: AL to Eliza P. Gurney, September 4, 1864, in CW, VII, p. 535.

Stanton still wrote…“‘our love in two’”: EMS to SPC, March 7, 1863, Chase Papers, Phi.

Stanton would ask Chase to stand: EMS to SPC, December 30, 1863, reel 30, Chase Papers.

“It is painful…after concurrence, action”: SPC to George Wilkes, August 27, 1863, reel 28, Chase Papers.

Radicals insisted…both the Union and emancipation: Foner, Reconstruction, pp. 35–50, 60–62.

“standard-bearer…of the Radicals”: Brooks, Mr. Lincoln’s Washington, p. 236.

Chase’s desire…proclaim his campaign: Ibid., p. 237.

he wrote hundreds of letters…Lincoln administration: Hendrick, Lincoln’s War Cabinet, p. 400.

“I should fear nothing…management of the War”: SPC to Edward D. Mansfield, October 18, 1863, reel 29, Chase Papers.

“If I were myself…man should be had”: SPC to William Sprague, November 26, 1863, reel 30, Chase Papers.

He was thrilled…on another candidate: Horace Greeley to SPC, September 29, 1863, reel 28, Chase Papers.

“first choice…should receive it”: Edward Jordan to SPC, October 27, 1863, reel 29, Chase Papers.

Governor Dennison alerted him…“like a beaver”: “17 October 1863, Saturday, New York,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 92.

Seward cautioned…“for Mr. Chase”: TW note, quoted in “28 November 1863, Saturday,” in ibid., p. 119.

Samuel Cox…“New England States”: “24 December 1863, Thursday,” in ibid., p. 132.

A Pennsylvanian politician…“out of both eyes”: “25 October 1863, Sunday,” in ibid., p. 100.

John Hay learned…Independent to his side: “28 November 1863, Saturday,” in ibid., p. 120.

“Chase’s mad hunt after the Presidency”: “29 October 1863, Thursday,” in ibid., p. 103.

“plowing corn…make his department go”: “[July–August 1863],” in ibid., pp. 78, 313 n143.

Lincoln agreed…“very bad taste”: AL, quoted in “18 October 1863, Sunday,” in ibid., p. 93.

“was sorry…that it ought to”: “29 October 1863, Thursday,” in ibid., p. 103.

Lincoln’s friends…“President’s interests”: Eaton, Grant, Lincoln and the Freedmen, p. 176.

let “Chase have…what he asks”: “29 October 1863, Thursday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 103.

a “frank, guileless…for the first one”: Leonard Swett to WHH, January 17, 1866, in HI, pp. 168, 164.

After criticizing…“So I still work on”: SPC to James Watson Webb, November 7, 1863, reel 29, Chase Papers.

“all along clearly…from New Orleans”: AL, quoted in “18 October 1863, Sunday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 93.

“Chase would try…spot he can find”: “29 October 1863, Thursday,” in ibid., p. 103.

the people of Missouri…extinguish slavery: AL to Charles D. Drake and Others, October 5, 1863, in CW, VI, pp. 499–504; Foner, Reconstruction, pp. 41–42.

Governor Gamble worried…a conservative partisan: Hamilton R. Gamble to AL, October 1, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

He was accused…guise of military necessity: AL to Charles D. Drake and Others, October 5, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 500; “Conversation with Hon. M. S. Wilkinson, May 22 1876,” in Nicolay, An Oral History of Abraham Lincoln, pp. 59–60; Williams, Lincoln and the Radicals, p. 299.

a delegation of radicals…“not to alienate them”: “29 September 1863, Tuesday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, pp. 88–89 (quote); Williams, Lincoln and the Radicals, p. 299.

“these Radical men…side with the Radicals”: AL, paraphrased in “10 December 1863, Thursday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 125.

“they are nearer…set Zionwards”: AL, quoted in “28 October 1863, Wednesday,” in ibid., p. 101.

resented the radicals’ demand…“short statutes of limitations”: “10 December 1863, Thursday,” in ibid., p. 125.

“So intense and fierce…saddest features of the times”: Entry for September 29, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 448.

“show that…powerful as they may be”: AL, quoted in “29 September 1863, Tuesday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, pp. 88–89.

an invitation to spend the evening: EB to J. O. Broadhead, October 24, 1863, Broadhead Papers, MoSHi.

“surprised and mortified…as traitors”: EB to Hamilton R. Gamble, October 10, 1863, Bates Papers, MoSHi (quote); entry for September 30, 1863, in The Diary of Edward Bates, 1859–1866, p. 308.

Bates should hardly be…if he were to decide to run against Lincoln: Hamilton R. Gamble to EB, October 17, 1863, Bates Papers, MoSHi.

meeting with the Missourians…“instead of wind”: “30 September 1863, Wednesday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 89.

Lincoln listened attentively…remove him from command: AL to Charles D. Drake and Others, October 5, 1863, in CW, VI, pp. 500 (quotes), 503.

“The President never…his candid logic”: “30 September 1863, Wednesday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, pp. 89–90.

Lincoln emerged…“as he supposed”: Entry for September 30, 1863, in The Diary of Edward Bates, 1859–1866, p. 308.

“whoever commands…or conservatives”: AL to Charles D. Drake and Others, October 5, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 504.

he wrote to remind…“injury to the Military”: AL to John M. Schofield, October 1, 1863, in ibid., p. 492.

leaning toward…“conflicting elements”: “13 December 1863, Sunday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 127.

he decided to replace him with Rosecrans: “Rosecrans, William Starke (1819–1898),” and “Schofield, John McAllister (1831–1906),” in Sifakis, Who Was Who in the Union, pp. 342, 355.

Before an overflowing crowd…Jefferson Davis himself: Speech by Frank Blair, reprinted in Missouri Republican, St. Louis, September 27, 1863.

The Liberator criticized…“which he advocates”: Roxbury Journal, quoted in Liberator, October 16, 1863.

“not let even…share of his resentment”: EBL to SPL, [October 24, 1863], in Wartime Washington, ed. Laas, p. 316.

He wrote a letter to Monty…“skill and usefulness”: AL to MB, November 2, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 555.

a gentle letter of reprimand…“would not cure the bite”: AL to James M. Cutts, Jr., October 26, 1863, in ibid., p. 538, and note.

Chase again intervened…eligibility to vote: Niven, Salmon P. Chase, p. 339.

voiced his opposition at Rockville: Speech of Montgomery Blair, reprinted in the Star, October 5, 1863.

it aroused deep hostility…Blair from his cabinet: Smith, The Francis Preston Blair Family in Politics, Vol. II, pp. 241–43, 248; Williams, Lincoln and the Radicals, pp. 298, 303.

Lincoln refused to support…“against him”: “22 October 1863, Thursday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 97.

Noah Brooks attended a mass rally…“utterances”: Brooks, Mr. Lincoln’s Washington, pp. 246–48.

Chase was a featured…his “fossil theories”: Ibid., pp. 247–49.

Chase was elated…“a Cardinal principle”: SPC to Horace Greeley, October 31, 1863, reel 29, Chase Papers.

Worried that Lincoln’s…“were producing logical results”: Leonard Swett to WHH, January 17, 1866, in HI, pp. 164–65.

“the most truly progressive…struggles with them”: John W. Forney, quoted in “31 December 1863, Thursday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 135.

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