Common section


Chapter One: Physical, Biological and Human Background

1. 1 Ma = one megayear or 1 million years.

2. A geological term for the double arc of islands from Flores, through Aior and Wetar, to Banda (Inner Banda Arc), and Raijua, through Timor and the Tanimbar Islands, then north to the Kai Islands and west to Seram and Buru (Outer Banda Arc).

3. The forcing of one part of the earth's crust below another at the junction of two tectonic plates.

4. The forcing of one part of the earth's crust over another at the junction of two tectonic plates.

5. The Director-General of Geology and Mineral Resources flew over Una-una on 23 July on a reconnaissance flight and the climax of the eruption occurred only a few hours after the flight finished.

6. These ores are within the Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park and a decision has recently been taken not to exploit them (p. 640).

7. Care must be taken in these analyses that one is not measuring copper concentrations from commonly-used copper-based fungicides.

8. The Sunda Shelf is the shallow continental shelf on which Sumatra, Java, Bali and Borneo sit connected to mainland Asia. New Guinea and the Aru Islands sit on the Sahul Shelf connected to Australia.

9. A dry month is defined here as a month whose mean precipitation (mm) is less than twice the mean temperature (°C). Therefore a month with 65 mm of rain and a mean temperature of 30°C is nearly a dry month (65 is more than 30 x 2).

10. Species are the basic unit of the structured system of hierarchical biological classification that was developed in the eighteenth century by the Swede Carl von Linne, a name better known in its latinized form Linnaeus. Each organism is generally known by a name in two parts. For example, the flying fox is given the name Pteropus vampyrus, the first of which (always with a capital letter) being the 'genus' or generic name and the second the 'species' or specific epithet; both are written in italics or underlined. A genus can have any number of members (e.g., central flying fox Pteropus alecto, ashy-headed flying fox Pteropus caniceps, grey flying fox Pteropus griseus, etc.). In a list the genus of the second and subsequent species may be abbreviated to its initial letter (i.e., P. caniceps). One or more related genera (plural of genus) are grouped into a family (e.g., Pteropidae representing all the fruit bats). The family name ends in 'idae' for animals and usually in 'aceae' for plants and always starts with a capital letter. A group of related families are grouped in an order such as bats, related orders in a class such as mammals, and related classes in a phylum, such as the chor-dates, which includes all vertebrates. Finer divisions such as sub-families and sub-orders exist but these are used relatively rarely.

11. The assemblage of plants in a given area.

12. All plants mentioned in this book are followed by a four-letter abbreviation of the family except where this has been given in the same section or sub-section. A key to the family names is given in Appendix B.

13. A hemi-parasite is a facultative parasite which can survive in the absence of a host.

14. There is debate, as there is in all taxonomic fields, concerning the status and names of certain animals. Thus the dwarf buffaloes are sometimes given the generic name Anoa; some people believe that a mountain subspecies of tarsier is a valid species Tarsius pumilus, and that the cuscus on Peleng Island is valid, too, as Phalanger pelengenisis. A list reflecting these minor differences of opinion is given elsewhere (Musser in press).

15. That is, found in Sulawesi and nowhere else.

16. The lowland anoa is relatively small, short-tailed and has smooth, round horns. The mountain anoa is relatively large, long-tailed. white-legged and has rough horns triangular in cross-section (Groves 1969).

17. An identification key is provided in Appendix I.

18. Channa is often referred to as Ophicephalus or Ophiocephalus, but Channa has priority under the rules of zoological nomenclature.

19. The arguments for species conservation are discussed on page 634.

20. A subspecies of this bird has also been recorded from the Nenusa Islands north of Talaud, but considering that almost the whole of these islands has been converted to coconut groves, the bird is probably extinct there.

21. The similarity of this word to the name of the lake might indicate the derivation of the lake's name.

22. A group of natural populations that differ constantly in their taxonornic characters from other groups of the same species, but which can interbreed successfully with those other groups.

23. Milkweed butterflies are conspicuous, medium-sized insects with bright colours separated by bold, black lines predominating in caterpillars and adults alike. The caterpillars feed on poisonous milkweeds (Ascl.) and absorb the toxins thereby making themselves unpalatable to predators. The adults retain these toxins. These butterflies are much harder to kill with a thorax pinch than are most butterflies, and many specimens, presumed dead, have 'come to life' unexpectedly.

24. The ecological role or profession of an organism in a community.

25. The floral regions of Malesia extend from a line between Kangar and Pattani in northern Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand respectively, across Indonesia and the Philippines, to the Bismark Islands east of New Guinea.

26. Some have maintained that mountain plants of the central Latimojong mountains have closer affinity with New Guinea than with Borneo (van Steenis 1937; van Steenis and Veldkamp 1984).

27. The Talaud Islands are inhabited by a rat Melomys fulgens known also from Seram. The Talaud Islands are the most westerly record of this genus which is most common in New Guinea.

28. B.P. = Before Present.

29. Taro, banana and sugarcane may have been developed earlier and independently on at least Sulawesi, and New Guinea (I. Glover pers. comm.).

30. For example, in the early 20th century many second-generation American immigrants, originally from southern Italy, were closer to the American norm in terms of measurable characteristics than to the Italian parent stock, even though they mainly married within their cultural group.

31. Chert is a hard, tough, dense and splintery rock comprising of silica, opal and quartz. It has similar mechanical properties to obsidian (pp. 74-75).

32. A midden of Carbicula mussel shells has been reported from Lobonto Island in Lake Lindu (Sarasin and Sarasin 1905).

33. Obsidian is a glossy, dark-coloured rock formed by the rapid cooling of lava flows. When hit, its flakes break off, leaving sharp edges. Obsidian was commonly used for prehistoric tools and such tools have been found in northern Sumatra, Central and West Java, as well as North Sulawesi.

34. Megaliths are found in several areas of Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia but there is no evidence that they were related or contemporary, that is, there was no single 'megalithic culture' (Glover 1979).

35. This drum can be seen in the village of Bontobangun, 3 km south of Benteng, the Salayar capital.

36. Interestingly, however, there is evidence from northern Australia that wooden-hafted, ground-edged axes were in use 23,000 years ago.

37. Sulawesi has ten species of Dioscorea yams, half of which are widespread in the tropics, and half of which are endemic (Burkill 1951).

38. An interesting paper on the manner and effects of this acceptance on the dynamics of Islamization in South Sulawesi is available (Pelras 1985).

39. It is of some interest that it has been remarked that tree names in the Onggak-Dumoga area of Bolaang Mongondow are quite similar to the Filipino names (Verhoef 1938).

40. The stone has been the site of five other major meetings. Some years after the first meeting it was necessary for different factions to discuss unity; in 1643 a meeting was held to determine insurrection over the Spaniards, in 1655 to determine how to respond to the threat posed by the kings of Bolaang Mongondow, in 1939 Dr. Sam Ratulangi gathered resistance forces together to plan attacks against the Dutch, and resistance leaders met there on 25th August 1945 to unite under the new national government.

41. A standard bibliography on the different groups is available (Kennedy 1974).

Chapter Two: Seashores

1. This is sometimes referred to as the littoral zone.

2. The earth and moon rotate around their common centre of gravity which, due to the much larger size of the earth, is within the mass of the earth. The rotation of the earth about this point gives rise to centrifugal force or acceleration which is the same at all points on the earth's surface. The force of the moon's gravitational pull, however, decreases in proportion to the square of its distance and so is greatest at the point of the earth closest to the moon.

3. Formerly know as Littorina (Reid 1986).

4. The range of this species never overlaps with that of its congener L. liltorea.

5. The measurement of dry weight biomass of a forest requires access to drying ovens, a great deal of time, and patience. If one or more of these is not available it is possible to use allometric relationships (Ong et al. 1985). In these the above-ground dry weight (wa.g.) for Bruguiera parviflora trees is: wa.g. = 0.035 (girth at breast height)2.424 and for Rhizophora apiculata trees is wa.g. = 0.0068 (girth at breast height).2.624 Relationships for other species can be determined from first principles using a number of samples.

6. Perhaps the best known members of this genus are the vegetables kangkung lpomoea aquatica (p. 269) and ubi keladi or sweet potato 1. batatas (van Oostroom 1953).

7. Roots of I. pes-caprae in Tanjung Peropa Reserve were found to penetrate at least 30 cm into the sand (L. Clayton pers. comm.).

8. A plant growing on another for support rather than to gain water or nutrients.

9. The cultivated form with pale green leaves is known as 'Molucca Cabbage' which is incorrectly called P. alba. It belongs to the small family Nvctaginaceae, the best-known member of which is the garden plant Bougainvillea (Stemmerik 1964).

10. A useful guide to coastal snails is given by Roberts et al. (1982).

11. Some workers use 1.0 mm and 0.05 mm sieves.

12. In an Australian mangrove, molluscs accounted for 60% of the infauna biomass (Wells 1984).

13. A key to the mudskippers of Sulawesi coasts is provided in Appendix H.

14. The common scrub hen Megapodius freycinet is found in the Nicobar Islands northwest of Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines.

15. A hen's egg is about 5 cm long and weighs about 50 g or about 3% of the adult body weight. The maleo egg weighs 16% of the adult weight, one of the highest ratios of egg-to-body weight known.

16. A curious name meaning 'white rock' since the beach is composed of black volcanic gravel.

17. That is, they may eat predators but are not eaten themselves.

18. A key to the portunid crabs (including Scylla serrata) of use to biologists working in Sulawesi is available (Moosa 1980).

19. Most hermit crabs found on beaches belong to the Paguridae.

20. A single specimen has also been reported from the shores of Tangkoko-Batuangus Reserve (Anon. 1980b).

21. Distance between the anterior and posterior borders of the thoracic groove.

22. Known in Indonesian as 'ikan mujair' after Mujair, a foreman of the colonial fisheries service, by whose efforts and in whose home pond this fish was first cultivated in Indonesia.

23. At the same time, however, the Directorate-General of Fisheries is encouraging the conversion of mangrove forests to ponds.

Chapter Three: Estuaries, Seagrass Meadows and Coral Reefs

1. An identification key to seagrasses is provided in Appendix D.

2. The same authors have suggested standardizing methods of seagrass analysis. These are: the collection of regular data to investigate seasonal and between-year variations, and of environmental data such as salinity, temperature, sediment type. At least six samples should be taken and each should be weighed before and after drying in an oven at 60°C for 12 hours. Epiphytic algae should be removed by gentle scraping, with the edge of a plastic ruler for example, and washing in seawater. When dry, the blades should be ground. The chemical procedures are given in their paper (Dawes and Lawrence 1983).

3. The other species are called manatees and these live in freshwater and estuarine habitats in southeast North America to northern South America, west Africa and the Amazon River.

4. Ruminant herbivores include deer, cows and goats which chew the cud and have a complex, chambered stomach.

5. Aggregations of 100 or more occur in undisturbed populations but it is unlikely whether such sights can still be seen around Sulawesi.

6. The use of light aircraft or helicopters are the most efficient means of surveying dugongs, but in the current economic climate it might be difficult to find sufficient funds.

7. Perhaps for this reason their eyes are adapted to low-intensity light (Anderson 1982).

8. Both animals died within three weeks of their capture.

9. These corals are of special interest because of their ability to shift their position.

10. Coral identification is not easy but a good field guide is available (Ditlev 1980).

11. Differences in the rate at which new species or genera are encountered over a fixed time can only be compared with results collected by a single observer. Identification, even to genus level, in the field requires considerable expertise. Such fixed-time search techniques can, however, provide an easily applied and convenient tool for coral reef survey work where quantification of community responses to factors causing disturbance are required (Harger 1984).

12. Excellent colour photographs of sea-cucumbers are available in two publications concerning New Caledonia (Anon. 1979; Guille et al. 1986), but since most of the species have wide distributions, most if not all of the species found around Sulawesi should be illustrated. The more recent publication also has hundreds of photographs of the other echinoderms.

13. A note of warning needs to be added about competitive exclusion and niche differentiation. Niche differentiation is sometimes very hard to demonstrate but it is impossible to prove its absence. If niche differentiation between two species cannot be found it can always be argued that the wrong parameters were investigated. The exclusion principle cannot be disproved and so fails to meet the standard definition of a scientific hypothesis.

14. The next largest centre is Surabaya which in the same year exported 'only' 300 t.

15. A conventional fibreglass surveyors tape is quite suitable but it must be rinsed in fresh water and dried after use.

16. It is difficult to estimate size underwater because everything appears larger and closer than it actually is.

17. This is generally white but small plants can grow on it giving it a brown, black, pink or red tinge. This coral is in its natural position but has died recently. This should be recorded only if it is certain it is dead.

Chapter Four: Freshwater Ecosystems

1. The bottom of the lake is actually below sea level.

2. Literally 'small world' meaning a small community that can be taken as representative of a much larger ecological system.

3. A measure of the exchangeable cations that can be held by a soil expressed as milli-equivalents/100 g of soil at pH7.

4. A table for the interpretation of soil analyses is given in Appendix A.

5. The clear headwaters of the Jeneberang River examined by an EoS team had a total dissolved solid concentration of just 11 mg/l.

6. Keys to the submerged, swimming and floating macrophytes of Sulawesi are given in Appendix E. A key to all aquatic plants, including emergents, of Java is provided elsewhere (Pancho et al. 1985) and this would be of some use on Sulawesi.

7. The pressure 10 m beneath the water is approximately twice that at the water surface.

8. Chara is of considerable use in biology teaching because the protoplasm can easily be seen streaming around inside its large cells under a low-power microscope. Village people find its main use to be as stuffing for pillows (L. Clayton pers. comm.).

9. Equivalent to 0.05 mm.

10. 'Fishes' is used in the conventional sense of meaning a number of fish species; 'fish' refers to the singular or plural of a single species of fish.

11. It should be noted that the taxonomy of molluscs is somewhat confused because of considerable variation within species in shell shape and colour. As a result some of these species, particularly among the Thiaridae and Corbiculidae, may be found to be invalid (E. Gittenberger pers. comm.; D. Dudgeon pers. comm.).

12. Adults trapped at Toraut were noticeable paler than, say, those in Australia. This may be because few Sulawesi species appear to be diurnal (A. Wells pers. comm.).

13. Labiobarbus is sometimes incorrectly referred to as Dangila (M. Kottelat pers. comm.).

14. Channa is often incorrectly referred to as Ophicephalus or Ophiocephalus.

15. Formerly known as Panchax panchax in the large family Cyprinodontidae. It is now the only representative of the Aplocheilidae in Southeast Asia.

16. A colour illustration is included with the original description (Boulenger 1897b).

17. Authors rarely if ever give details of sample depth which is clearly an important omission.

18. Saprophytes are organisms that derive their energy from dead organic matter and are the chief agents in the process of decay.

19. Recent work has shown that six to seven replicate samples of drift are required before confidence can be achieved in the quantification of drift and its comparison between sites (Allan and Russek 1985).

20. This fish is sometimes incorrectly referred to as P. javanicus.

21. One fisherman interviewed near Aopa Swamp by an EoS team had caught 18 large (>50 cm) eels that morning but had discarded them because they had no market value.

22. This is similar to the ornamental Canna hybrids. C. edulis is sometimes grown in gardens for its edible rhizome, and can be recognized by the broad, brownish-purple border of its leaves and its small red flowers.

Chapter Five: Lowland Forests

1. Tropical forests are not the only ecosystems with large numbers of plant species; heathlands in South Africa have similar richness.

2. This site later used by the Royal Entomological Society of London's Project Wallace scientists is hereafter referred to simply as Toraut or the Toraut forest.

3. The equation was derived independently by Shannon and Wiener and is sometimes mistakenly called the Shannon-Weaver equation. Log2pi can be calculated as Log10p ÷ Log210 or Log10 p ÷ 0.3010.

4. In the west of Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park.

5. A fourth species Gnetium gnemon found on Sulawesi is a lowland forest tree whose fruit is crushed, dried and fried to make 'emping' crisps. This tree also has quite conspicuous hoops around the trunk.

6. The climbing stems of both species is used as cordage and in basket making (Heyne 1927; Burkill 1966).

7. A gap has been defined as a 'hole' in the forest extending through all levels down to an average height of 2 m above the ground. The sides of a gap are regarded as vertical, and the side at a particular point on the perimeter is located at the innermost point reached by foliage, at any level at that place. Only openings of at least 20 m2 were considered to be gaps (Brokaw 1982a).

8. Primary succession is the sequential growth of plant species on newly formed substrates such as coastal sediments (p. 128) or volcanic ash and lava (p. 520).

9. Fine litter is leaves, thin twigs, flowers, fruits and the faeces of caterpillars and other invertebrate herbivores.

10. Coarse litter is the big twigs, branches and tree trunks.

11. Gross primary production is the total assimilation of organic matter by a plant or population of plants per unit time per unit area. Net primary production is gross primary production less that consumed by respiration processes.

12. The second category is included because, for birds that feed largely but not entirely on fruit, seeds or nectar, insects represent a protein-rich source of food essential for the energy-expansive tasks of feeding young and moulting.

13. Lipid-rich fruit, such as nutmegs, are oily to the touch and the flesh is generally drier than in carbohydrate-rich and lipid-poor fruit, such as figs. The families bearing lipid-rich fruit include Annonaceae, Burser-aceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Bombacaceae and Myristicaceae (Leighton 1982).

14. Snails are generalist herbivores frequently used in palatability experiments.

15. Sources of nectar, often at the base of the leaf blade, which serve to attract insects that prey on small herbivorous insects.

16. A seed has been likened to a child and its packed lunch inside a spacecraft the route and destination of which is never certain.

17. Seed predators eat seeds which are killed in the digestive tract.

18. This is now a relatively rare tree which has considerable economic value as a source of red wood used in making furniture.

19. Defined as those growing to at least 35 cm diameter at breast height.

20. Garuga floribunda is illustrated on page 484.

21. The persimmon fruit Diospyros kaki is also a member of this genus.

22. A detailed study of succession has also been conducted at a site 870-1,235 m above sea level in the south of Mindanao, the Philippine island closest to Sulawesi.

23. Interestingly, this plant is also found in southern Florida, U.S.A., but in the absence of suitable bats it is not extending its range.

24. A key to the genera of Sulawesi soldier termites is provided in Appendix G.

25. Pheromones are volatile chemicals produced by animals. The ingestion or smell of a pheromone produced by one individual of a particular species can determine or influence the behaviour of another individual of the same species.

26. Pitta erythrogaster is widespread, whereas P. sordida is known only from the northern peninsula, and P. moluccensis is a rare vagrant.

27. See Appendix 1 for a key to the species of toads and frogs.

28. This tree is most common along the banks of certain rivers and it is probably significant that the fruits can float in water for long periods. The fruits are brown, roughly pear-shaped, 15-25cm x 7-12cm containing about 20 close-packed seeds. The fruit are a frequent food of babirusa although it is not known whether they eat just the soft pericarp or the entire fruit including seeds. This is of relevance because the seeds contain high concentrations of prussic acid or hydrocyanic acid. Boiling the seeds for an hour destroys the enzyme gynocardase which would interact with the glucoside gynocardine to produce hydrocyanic acid. The poison has been used to advantage to stupefy fish and as an antiseptic in preserving fresh fish during transport. The mature leaves are a common food in Minahasa where the shredded leaves are cooked with pig's blood and salt (Heyne 1927; Sleumer 1954; Burkill 1966).

29. A 'guild' is a group of species having similar ecological resource requirements and foraging strategies, and therefore having similar roles in the community (Lincoln et al. 1982).

30. The breeding season was found to be September to November in Tangkoko-Batuangus (Anon. 1980), but in Central Sulawesi was found to be synchonized within a population but not regular (Watling 1983).

31. When censusing hornbills it is important to remember that when they are breeding the adult females will not be seen because they are enclosed with the young in the nest hole.

32. Foraging is a term given to the activity of searching for food.

33. The generally smaller insectivorous bats are much harder to trap in conventional mist nets partly because they can detect it, and partly because they fly slower and are therefore less likely to get entangled should they fly into a net.

34. Other sources of food are nectar, pollen and leaves, the pith of which, like fruit pulp, is spat out (Marshall 1985).

35. Stomachs of Asian and African fruit bats sometimes include small quantities of insect remains but these appear to be ingested accidentally whilst eating fruit (Thomas 1984; Marshall 1985).

36. The perception of objects using echoes of high frequency sounds emitted by some bats and swiftlets (p. 553).

37. In dry air the velocity- is 330 m/s.

38. Weights were calculated from a weight/wing length curve produced from data obtained for the wood pigeon, feral pigeon, barbary dove, and diamond dove.

39. This is generally regarded as a species of lowland forest but one has been observed as 2,400 m near Lore Lindu National Park (K.D. Bishop pers. comm.).

40. This Park has three types of macaque; Macaca nigra nigra in the extreme east, M. n. nigrescens in the centre and M. lonkeana in the west.

41. The seriousness of soil compaction caused by bulldozers may be judged when it is considered that water was unable to infiltrate the soil of one of the main walking paths used by Project Wallace scientists in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park, yet infiltration was immediate just 50 cm away from the path.

Chapter Six: Specialized Lowland Forest Types

1. After capture the deer are released.

2. Only a preliminary report was ever produced and since the untimely death of the principal investigator, Dr. Marius Jacobs, in 1983 the detailed manuscript that had been prepared has not been found (M. van Balgooy pers. comm.).

3. Alluvium is soil transported to flat areas by rivers.

4. Gleying is the process by which iron compounds are reduced to their ferrous forms during inundated periods, and then partially reoxidized and precipitated during dry periods.

5. Called Sarcocephalus by Bloembergen (1940).

6. Pitcher plants are unusual among insectivorous plants in that there appear to be no conspicuous guidelines that show up when viewed under ultra-violet light, wavelengths that are visible to insects (Joel et al. 1985).

7. The Sopu valley Eucalyptus deglupta have recently been logged and exported by a forest concessionaire (N. Wirawan pers. comm.). Despite its size. E. deglupta is little used for its wood by village people. In Bolaang Mongondow, at least, its vernacular name refers to a fatal skin disease the appearance of which is similar to the flaking of bark of the tree (Steup 1933).

8. The average velocity between the ground and the canopy.

9. A key to toads and frogs is provided in Appendix I.

10. Alluvial soils are transported by water, colluvial soils by gravity.

11. A type of North American ground squirrel.

12. Immature soils with dark friable upper A horizon, calcareous lower A horizon over a light grey or yellow calcareous B horizon, typical of limestone areas.

13. It is said that if candlenut seeds are pounded with cotton and copra until the mix attains the consistency of stiff wax. this can be moulded around a bamboo splint to form a candle (Burkill 1966).

14. Apart from sugar and fermented juice, this palm provides very strong wood from its trunk, the leaflets stalks are made into brooms, the leaves make a temporary thatch, the black fibres at the leaf base are used as thatch, cordage, brooms, brushes, etc.

15. Dracaena and Cordyline, both large members of the lily family, are superficially similar with longish, straight leaves, leaf scars around the stem, and bifurcating stems like pandans which they resemble. Dracaena may be distinguished by its orange or yellow roots which are often pleasantly scented.

16. Formerly Papilio androcles.

17. Sometimes referred to as Gossampinus malabarica. During the Hindu period in East Java, this tree used to be planted as boundary markers.

18. This is an introduced species that was cultivated near the Mediterranean four centuries b.c. There are no records of when it first arrived in Sulawesi.

19. This was probably introduced to Sulawesi centuries ago (p. 34) and its presence in many savannas is evidence of long-since failed plantations (Steup 1939).

20. The largest being these of its congener C. umbraculifera of southern India.

21. When crushed the red pigment cochineal adheres to the skin.

22. The insect which had had the most dramatic effect under Australian conditions was the pyralid moth Cactoblastis cactorum which is often quoted as one of the most impressive examples of biological control known.

23. In the last couple of years the Leucaena farnesiana trees of the valley have suffered considerably from insect pests.

Chapter Seven: Mountains

1. A table enabling limited interpretation of soil analysis results is provided in Appendix A.

2. Typically about 500-5,000 lux (Fletcher 1981).

3. Another scheme for Malesian mountains is 0-1,000 m Tropical Zone, 1,000-1,500 m Submountane Zone, 1,500-2,400 m Montane Zone, 2,400-4,000 m Subalpine Zone (van Steenis 1984).

4. A key to the tree ferns found, and expected to be found, in Sulawesi is provided in Appendix F.

5. This is the only species in Indonesia of the Taxaceae, a largely temperate tree family (de Laubenfels 1978).

6. The latter is the sole member in Indonesia of the Aceraceae (sycamores and maples), a family common in the temperate regions.

7. A close relative Macadamia ternifolia is planted widely in Hawaii and northeast Australia for the nut which, because it contains 70% oil, is used in a growing market for confectionery. The nut of M. hildebrandii is probably as tasty as that of the commercial species and it might be worth examining the potential for bringing the Sulawesi species into cultivation because it fares much better in wet climates than M. ternifolia (Sleumer 1955).

8. Many of the pillars have been vandalized in the last few years by people who believe stories that valuable items are hidden within them.

9. Gleichenia and Dicranopteris are superficially similar ferns of the Gleicheniaceae. The former has simple or once-forked veins, the latter at least twice-forked veins. Both are found in open habitats, often on poor or leached soils, and occur on mountains. Gleichenia is almost exclusively found on mountains.

10. Acknowledgement must be made of the contribution of L. Coomans de Ruiter who was held by the Japanese in four civil prisoner camps on Sulawesi. The final one, in the Quails Mts. was quite the most wretched and many people died. In the paper quoted here he states: "It was the worst ordeal in our three-and-a-half year internment—but it was also a very instructive period for the writer for the valley was inhabited by many mountain birds which are biologically almost unknown."

11. Small buckets buried in the ground such that the soil surface was level with the bucket top. They were baited with lumps of corned beef and shrimp paste.

12. This is a standard method of sampling earthworm populations. A solution of 2%-4% formalin (100% formalin = 40% formaldehyde) is generally used.

13. This secretive bird is known from less than 10 museum specimens.

14. Zosterops chloris is also found in lowland forest but it is more typically a bird of secondary forest and scrubby vegetation.

15. The pigeons and parrots of Sulawesi mountain and lowland forests are discussed further on pp. 428-429. A key to the parrots of Sulawesi is provided in Appendix K.

16. This rat was also caught at 3,200 m by the EoS team that climbed Mt. Rantemario. This was 1,000 m above its know altitudinal limit.

17. As mentioned earlier (p. 38) there is some doubt whether this is genuinely different from B. depressicornis.

18. A composite sample of dung was made from three dung heaps. The first 25 epidermal fragments passing through a 0.08 mm sieve were examined on a microscope slide. This was repeated four times, giving a total of 100 fragments.

19. This animal is sometimes referred to as the giant civet but it is in fact not unusually large (Wemmer et al. 1983).

20. Tracks of Sulawesi civet forefeet measure 47 mm x 43 mm (width x length) and are five-claw impressions whereas tracks of the introduced but also forest-living Malay Civit Viverra tangalunga are more oval, measure 40 mm x 47 mm and are four-claw impressions (Wemmer and Watling 1986).

21. In an ecological sense, fire may be likened to a generalist, but not entirely random, herbivore; that is, it shows little selectivity although certain plants are more susceptible than others.

Chapter Eight: Caves

1. Caves are often defined as tinder-ground chambers that can be entered by humans, but this would not include chambers or passages through which permanent cave inhabitants can pass. If chambers that can be entered by micro-invertebrates are included in the understanding then 'caves' extend to pore spaces in soil. For the purposes of this chapter caves are taken to mean both those chambers that can be entered by humans and those voids inaccessible to them but which contribute in a major way to the working of the cave ecosystem.

2. Himpunan Kegiatan Speleologi Indonesia (HIKESPI), P.O. Box 55, Bogor.

3. The very small cracks, passages and chambers which are found between the soil and the caves.

4. Hardness is a measure of the quantity of calcium, magnesium and iron compounds dissolved in water. The water flowing from a limestone area is said to be hard because of the large quantities of calcium and magnesium bicarbonates. When soap is added to such water an insoluble scum forms consisting of these salts and the fatty acids of the soap. The removal of the salts renders the water soft. Hardness can also be removed by boiling in which the soluble bicarbonates break down into insoluble carbonates, carbon dioxide and water. This carbonate is what forms the 'fur' inside kettles.

5. Association Pyrénéenne de Spéléologie, Toulouse, France.

6. Small birds of the swift family Apodidae.

7. The dark zone may be said to have been reached when a hand held in front of your face can no longer be discerned five minutes after artificial lights have been extinguished or switched off.

8. A key to bat families is provided in Appendix L.

9. Long-fingered bats Minioplerus can cruise at about 50 km/h.

10. In contrast, young of large fruit bats are born with hair and open eyes but it takes 9-12 weeks before they can fly and 15-20 weeks before they are weaned (Tuttle and Stevenson 1982).

11. The only species of nycteribiid fly not associated with bats was recently found in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park during Project Wallace. This rather primitive species is new and was found inhabiting ant nests (Disney 1985).

12. Some tineid moths are known only from the fur or nests of mice, beavers and sloths, and from the nests of burrowing owls (Davis et al. 1986).

13. Tonasa I was closed in 1984 as a consequence of the recession. Tonasa II and III between them produce 1.1 million tons of cement each year which meets almost all the needs of eastern Indonesia.

Chapter Nine: Agroecosystems

1. The term 'biocide' is used in this chapter in preference to pesticide, insecticide, etc., since it serves as a reminder that these chemicals generally have some deleterious effect on all organisms.

2. This term is much used but its meaning is not consistent between authors. Some equate swidden agriculture with burned fields, others with forest farmers.

3. This means 'leaves that blow in the wind' referring to the way they generally flee from outsiders (Powell n.d.).

4. It is beyond the scope of this book to deal comprehensively with pest ecology and control. For details of the ecology of particular pest species readers should consult the agriculture literature and good general texts on pest ecology are available (e.g., Wratten and Watt 1984).

5. Unless indicated otherwise, the term 'rice' in the rest of the chapter refers to the crop grown in rain-fed and irrigated fields.

6. A list of rice field ostracods or seed shrimps from Sulawesi has been published (Victor and Fernando 1980).

7. Defined as '75%-100% of stems did not bear seed' although the utility of this definition is disputed.

8. A throaty 'kwok' (King et al. 1975).

9. This may have arisen from the frequent depiction of angels and Christ in white robes in Christian paintings.

10. It is an historical quirk that whereas oil palm, tea, sugarcane, coffee, cinchona and rubber are officially classified as plantation crops, and coconut, cotton, tobacco, nutmeg and clove are classified a industrial crops.

11. In recent years the clove price has sometimes exceeded Rp 15,000/kg, providing smallholders with extraordinarily high incomes.

12. Some insects lay eggs which hatch into juveniles looking superficially like very small adults. These juveniles grow and moult several times before becoming adults, and each of the juvenile stages is called an instar.

13. This species, identified by J. Holloway, has been named after the Coconut Research Centre (Balai: Penelitian Kelapa) in Manado, in recognition of its role in discovery of the pest (Hosang et al. 1986).

14. Prices on the international market have been falling over the last ten years but Indonesia desires to develop this crop for its own textile industry. At the moment however, less than 5% of the cotton used is home produced.

Chapter Ten: Urban Areas

1. Even a relatively small town such as Bitting, Minahasa, produces about 700 tons of collected waste each year (Palenewan 1983).

2. An exception to this is the effort being made by the Southeast Sulawesi Environmental Bureau to plant Pericopsis mooniana in Kendari.

3. This beautiful, red-flowered tree was discovered by a French botanist in Madagascar in 1824 but it is now unknown in the wild.

4. A guild is a group of species having similar roles in a community by virtue ot similar ecological requirements and feeding strategies.

5. This bird list was compiled while the authors were interned in a Japanese prisoner-of-war camp (see page 677, chapter 7, note 10).

6. Keys to bat families and fruit bat species are given in Appendix L and M respectively.

7. The females of many mosquito species suck nectar rather than blood. No male mosquitoes suck blood but some may suck nectar.

8. A key to house geckos is given in Appendix J.

Chapter Eleven: Resources and the Future

1. It is possible to tread a middle path of course but even this extends beyond sustainable exploitation and for the sake of this illustration will not be considered.

2. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

3. This tree does best above 1,000 m and can be harvested on a 6 -7 year rotation.

4. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland.

5. An additional reason is self-interest, but this only applies where individuals have control over significant areas of land. For example, early this century, the King of Bolaang Mongondow prohibited the felling of trees around the small Bunting Lake simply for the sake of the landscape which he himself enjoyed (Steup 1933).

6. This term was used in French field hospitals during World War II where severely limited medical supplies and workers had to be used to the best advantage. Patients who could probably wait and those who had little chance of survival were passed over in favour of those most likely to benefit.

Appendix A

1. Based on information from the Soil Research Centre, Bogor.

2. Bray 25%

3. Bray

4. Olsen

5. HCI 25%

Appendix C

1. Based on Wyatt-Smith, J. and Kochumen, K.M. (1979). Pocket check list of timber trees. 3rd ed. Malay. For. Rec. No. 17.

Appendix D

1. Based on Hartog, C. den (1957). Hydrochantaceae. Flora Malesiana I 5: 381-413; (1970). Sea Grasses of the World. North Holland, Amsterdam.

Appendix E

1. Adapted from van Bruggen (1971), den Hartog (1957a, b), Leach and Osborne (1985), van Steenis (1949a, b, 1981), de Wilde (1962).

2. The species of Najadaceae are more or less impossible to identify from sterile specimens and positive identification therefore must be based on reproductive parts; see de Wilde (1962).

3. Adapted from Backer (1951), Leach and Osborne (1985), Oostroom (1953), van der Plas (1971), Taylor (1977).

4. Adapted from den Hartog (1957b).

5. Adapted from van Steenis (1949b).

6. Adapted from Pancho et al. (1985).

7. Adapted from den Hartog (1957a).

8. Adapted from van der Plas (1971).

Appendix F

1. Provided by A.C. Jermy, British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD.

Appendix G

1. Based on Collins, N.M. (1984). The termites of the Gunung Mulu National Park. Sarawak Mus. J. 30: 65-87; Kemner, N.A. (1934). Systematisches und biologisches Studien ueber die Termiten Javas und Celebes'. Kungl. Svenska Vetensk. Handl. 13: 1-241.

2. This genus has not yet been recorded from Sulawesi but it is quite likely to be present.

Appendix H

1. Supplied by A.J. Whitten using Koumans, F.P. (1953). Goboiea. X. In The Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago by M. Weber and L.F. de Beaufort. Brill, Leiden, and Carcasson, R.H. (1977). A Field Guide to the Coral Reef Fishes of the Indian and West Pacific Oceans. Collins, London.

Appendix I

1. Supplied by Julian Dring.

2. Endemic species.

3. Taxonomically confused group, zim-meri not seen.

4. Occidozyga (or Ooeidozyga) celebensis is probably not distinct from O. laevis.

5. Taxonomically confused group, hein-richi not seen but seems to key out with mod-esta; records of additional species (grunniens, kuhli and microlympanum) probably based on misidentifications. The subgenus Limnonectes is not generally recognised.

6. Taxonomically confused group, Sulawesi species called papua but identification uncertain.

Appendix J

1. Supplied by A.J. Whitten based on specimens in the Zoology Museum Bogor, and Rooij, N. de (1915). Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago, Vol. 1. Brill, Leiden.

Appendix K

1. Adapted from Nash, S.V. and Nash, A.D. (1984). Kakatua, Pluri dan Kesturi (Psittacifoimes) di Sulawesi dan Nusa Tenggara. World Wildlife Fund/IUCN, Bogor.

Appendix L

1. Adapted from Lekagul, B. and McNeely, J.A. (1977). The Mammals of Thailand. Association for the Conservation of Wildlife, Bangkok.

Appendix M

1. Adapted from Bergmans, W. and Rozendaal, F.G. (in press). Notes on collections of fruit bats from Sulawesi and some off-lying islands (Mammalia, Megachi-roptera). Zool. Verh.

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