Abramson, Daniel, Skyscraper Rivals: The AIG Building and the Architecture of Wall Street (Princeton Architectural Press, 2001)

Adams, James Truslow, The Epic of America (Little, Brown, & Company, 1931)

Allen, Frederick Lewis, Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the Nineteen-Twenties (Harper & Row, 1931)

Allen, Frederick Lewis, Since Yesterday: The Nineteen-Thirties in America (Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1940)

Ambrose, Stephen, Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad, 1863–69 (Simon & Schuster, 2000)

Andersen, Stanley Peter, American Ikon: Response to the Skyscraper, 1875–1934 (University of Michigan, Ph.D. dissertation, 1960)

Bacon, Mardges, Ernest Flagg: Beaux-Arts Architect and Urban Reformer (MIT Press, 1968)

Baker, Paul R., Richard Morris Hunt (MIT Press, 1980)

———, Stanny: The Gilded Life of Stanford White (Free Press, 1989)

Bank of the Manhattan Company, Manna-hatin: The Story of New York (Ira J. Friedman, Inc., 1919)

Beach, W. W., The Supervision of Construction (Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1937)

Benson, Robert Alan, Douglas Putnam Haskell (1899–1979): The Early Critical Writings (University of Michigan, 1987)

Blake, Curtis Channing, The Architecture of Carrère & Hastings (Columbia University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1976)

Bletter, Rosemarie Haag, and Cervin Robinson, Skyscraper Style: Art Deco New York (Oxford University Press, 1975)

Bourke-White, Margaret, A Portrait of Myself (Simon & Schuster, 1963)

Brierly, J. Ernest, The Streets of Old New York (Hastings House, 1953)

Brooks, John, Once in Golconda: A True Drama of Wall Street 1920–1938 (W. W. Norton & Company, 1969)

Brown, Wheelock, Harris, Vought & Company, Chrysler Building: 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue (Chrysler Tower Corporation, 1930)

Burchard, John, and Albert Bush-Brown, The Architecture of America: A Social and Cultural History (Little, Brown & Company, 1961)

Burns, Ric, and James Sanders, New York: An Illustrated History (Knopf, 1999)

Bush-Brown, Harold, Beaux Arts to Bauhaus and Beyond: An Architect’s Perspective (Whitney Library of Design, 1976)

Chase, W. Parker, New York, The Wonder City (Wonder City Publishing Company, 1932)

Chrysler Corporation, The Story of an American Company (Chrysler Corporation: Department of Public Relations, 1955)

Chrysler Tower Corporation, The Chrysler Building (Chrysler Tower Corporation, 1930)

Chrysler, Walter P. in collaboration with Boyden Sparkes, Life of an American Workman (Dodd, Mead & Company, 1950)

Cochran, Edwin, The Cathedral of Commerce (Broadway Park Place Company, 1916)

Corn, Joseph J., The Winged Gospel: America’s Romance with Aviation, 1900–1950 (Oxford University Press, 1983)

Cram, Ralph Adams, My Life in Architecture (Little, Brown, and Company, 1936)

Curcio, Vincent, Chrysler: The Life and Times of an Automotive Genius (Oxford University Press, 2000)

Di Donato, Pietro, Christ in Concrete (Signet Classic, 1939)

Douglas, Ann, Terrible Honesty: Mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s (Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1995)

Douglas, George H., Skyscrapers: A Social History of the Very Tall Building in America (McFarland & Company, 1996)

Einbinder, Harvey, An American Genius: Frank Lloyd Wright (Philosophical Library, 1986)

Eksteins, Modris, Rites of Spring: the Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age (Houghton Mifflin, 1989)

Ellis, Edward Robb, The Epic of New York City (Coward-McCann, 1966)

Emery, Edwin, and Henry Ladd Smith, The Press and America (Prentice-Hall, 1954)

Empire State, Inc., Commemorating the Completion of Empire State (1931)

———, Empire State: A History (Selecting Printing Company, 1931)

Federal Writers’ Project of the Works Progress Administration in New York City, The WPA Guide to New York City: A Comprehensive Guide to the Five Boroughs of the Metropolis—Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond (The New Press, 1992)

Fenske, Gail G., The “Skyscraper Problem” and the City Beautiful: The Woolworth Building (Arizona State University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1988)

Ferriss, Hugh, The Metropolis of Tomorrow (I. Washburn, 1929)

Fitzgerald, F. Scott, The Crack-Up: with Other Uncollected Pieces, edited by Edmund Wilson (New Directions, 1956)

Fowler, Gene, Skyline: A Reporter’s Reminiscence of the 1920s (Viking Press, 1961)

Galbraith, John Kenneth, The Great Crash: 1929 (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1988)

Geisst, Charles R., Wall Street: A History (Oxford University Press, 1997)

Gillen, Edmund Vincent, Beaux-Arts Architecture in New York (Dover Publications, 1988)

Goldberg, Vicki, Margaret Bourke-White: A Biography (Harper & Row, 1986)

Goldberger, Paul, The Skyscraper (Knopf, 1981)

Goldman, Jonathan, The Empire State Building Book (St. Martin’s Press, 1980)

Gordon, J. E., Structure: Or, Why Things Don’t Fall Down (Plenum Press, 1978)

Gournay, Isabelle Jeanne, France Discovers America, 1917–1939, French Writings on American Architecture (Yale University, 1989)

Gray, Susan, ed., Architects on Architects (McGraw-Hill, 2001)

Handlin, Oscar, Al Smith and His America (Little, Brown and Company, 1958)

Harris, Neil, Building Lives: Constructing Rites and Passages (Yale University Press, 1999)

Hine, Thomas, Burnham of Chicago: Architect and Planner (Oxford University Press, 1979)

Horowitz, Louis, and Boyden Sparkes, The Towers of New York: The Memoirs of a Master Builder (Simon & Schuster, 1937)

Hughes, Robert, The Shock of the New (Knopf, 1981)

Huxtable, Ada Louis, The Tall Building Artistically Reconsidered: The Search for a Skyscraper Style (Pantheon Books, 1984)

James, Theodore, Jr., The Empire State Building (Harper & Row, 1975)

Jencks, Charles, Skyscrapers—Skyprickers—Skycities (Rizzoli, 1980)

Johnson, Paul, A History of the American People (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997)

Josephson, Matthew and Hannah, Al Smith: Hero of the Cities (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969)

Kahn, Ely Jacques, A Building Goes Up (Simon & Schuster, 1969)

King, Ross, Brunelleschi’s Dome: How a Renaissance Genius Reinvented Architecture (Walker & Company, 2000)

Klingaman, William K., 1929: The Year of the Great Crash (Harper & Row, 1989)

Koolhaas, Rem, Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan (Oxford University Press, 1978)

Landau, Sarah Bradford, Rise of the New York Skyscraper, 1865–1913 (Yale University Press, 1996)

Landmarks Preservation Commission, Chrysler Building (Landmarks Preservation Commission, 1978)

———, Empire State Building (Landmarks Preservation Commission, 1981)

Latimer, Margaret, Two Cities: New York and Brooklyn the Year the Great Bridge Opened (Brooklyn Educational and Cultural Alliance, 1983)

Lehman, Arnold L., The New York Skyscraper: A History of Its Development, 1870–1939 (Yale University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1974)

Leighton, Isabel, ed., The Aspirin Age, 1919–1941 (Simon & Schuster, 1949)

Lescaze, William, On Being an Architect (G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1942)

Leuchtenburg, William E., The Perils of Prosperity, 1914–32 (University of Chicago Press, 1958)

Levinson, Leonard Louis, Wall Street: A Pictorial History (Ziff-Davis Publishing Company, 1961)

Matsui, Yasuo, Skyscraper: Multiple Business Dwellings (JPMorgan Chase Archives, 1930)

Mehrhoff, Arthur, The Gateway Arch: Fact and Symbol (Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1992)

Messler, Norbert, The Art Deco Skyscraper in New York (Peter Lang, 1986)

Miller, Ron, and Frederick C. Durante, The Art of Chesley Bonestell (Sterling Publications, 2001)

Mizener, Arthur, The Far Side of Paradise: A Biography of F. Scott Fitzgerald (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1951)

Morgan, Marilyn Phelan, An Icon Within an Icon: The Cloud Club in the Chrysler Building (Columbia University, M.A. dissertation, 1994)

Morris, Edmund, The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt (Modern Library, 2001)

———, Theodore Rex (Random House, 2001)

Moses, Robert, A Tribute to Governor Smith (Simon & Schuster, 1962)

Mujica, Francisco, History of the Skyscraper (Archaeology & Architecture Press, 1930)

Nash, Eric P., Manhattan Skyscrapers (Princeton Architectural Press, 1999)

Noffsinger, James Philip, The Influence of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts on the Architects of the United States (Catholic University of America Press, Ph.D. dissertation, 1955)

O’Connor, Richard, The First Hurrah: A Biography of Alfred E. Smith (G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1970)

Pound, Arthur, The Golden Earth: The Story of Manhattan’s Landed Wealth (Macmillan Company, 1935)

Reynolds, John B., The Chrysler Building (Chrysler Tower Corporation, 1930)

Roosevelt, Theodore, The Works of Theodore Roosevelt (Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1923–26)

Ruttenbaum, Steven, Mansions in the Clouds: The Skyscraper Palazzi of Emory Roth (Balsam Press, 1986)

Saylor, Henry, The AIA’s First Hundred Years (Octagon, 1957)

———, The Beaux-Arts Boys on the Boulevard, or The Invasion of Paris in 1931 (New York, 1931)

Scully, Vincent, American Architecture and Urbanism (Praeger, 1969)

Secrest, Meryle, Frank Lloyd Wright (Knopf, 1992)

Severini, Lois, The Architecture of Finance: Early Wall Street (UMI Research Press, 1983)

Shachtman, Tom, Skyscraper Dreams: The Great Real Estate Dynasties of New York (Little, Brown & Company, 1991)

Shaw, Arnold, The Jazz Age: Popular Music in the 1920s (Oxford University Press, 1987)

Shultz, Earle, and Walter Simmons, Offices in the Sky (Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1959)

Silverman, Jonathan, For the World to See (Viking Press, 1983)

Slayton, Robert A., Empire Statesman: The Rise and Redemption of Al Smith (Free Press, 2001)

Snyder-Grenier, Ellen M., Brooklyn! An Illustrated History (Temple University Press, 1996)

Sparling, Earl, Mystery Men of Wall Street: The Powers Behind the Markets (Blue Ribbon Books, 1930)

Starrett, Paul, Changing the Skyline (Whittlesey House, 1938)

Starrett, Colonel W. A., Skyscrapers and the Men Who Build Them (Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1928)

Stern, Robert A. M., Pride of Place: Building the American Dream (Houghton Mifflin, 1986)

Stern, Robert A. M., Raymond Hood: Pragmatism and Poetics in the Waning of the Metropolitan Era (Rizzoli, 1982)

Stern, Robert A. M., Gregory Gilmartin, and John Montague Massengale, New York 1900: Metropolitan Architecture and Urbanism, 1890–1915 (Rizzoli, 1983)

———, Gregory Gilmartin, and John Montague Massengale, New York 1930: Architecture and Urbanism Between Two World Wars (Rizzoli, 1987)

Sullivan, Nell Jane Barnett, and David Kendall Martin, A History of the Town of Chazy, Clinton County, New York (Little Press, 1970)

Taurenac, John, The Empire State Building: The Making of a Landmark (Scribner’s, 1995)

Taylor, William R., In Pursuit of Gotham: Culture and Commerce in New York (Oxford University Press, 1992)

Thomas, Dana L., The Plungers and the Peacocks: An Update of the Classic History of the Stock Market (William Morrow & Company, 1967)

Thomas, Gordon, and Max Morgan-Witts, The Day the Bubble Burst: A Social History of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 (Doubleday, 1979)

Tuchman, Barbara, The Guns of August (Macmillan, 1962)

Turner, E. S., The Shocking History of Advertising (E. P. Dutton & Company, 1953)

Twombly, Robert, Louis Sullivan: His Life and Work (Viking, 1986)

Van Alen, Benjamin Taylor, Genealogical History of the Van Alen Family (Chicago, 1902)

Van Dyke, John C., The New New York: A Commentary on the Place and People (Macmillan, 1909)

Van Leeuwen, Thomas, The Skyward Trend of Thought: Five Essays on the Metaphysics of the American Skyscraper (AHA Books, 1986)

Vitruvius, On Architecture, edited and translated by Frank Granger (Harvard University Press, 1931)

Vlack, Don, Art Deco Architecture in New York, 1920–1940 (Harper & Row, 1974)

Ward, James, Architects in Practice, New York City, 1900–1940 (J&D Associates, 1989)

Warner, Emily Smith, and Hawthorne Daniel, The Happy Warrior: A Biography of My Father, Alfred E. Smith (Doubleday & Company, 1956)

Weingarten, Arthur, The Sky Is Falling (Grosset & Dunlap, 1977)

Willensky, Elliot, When Brooklyn Was the World, 1920–1957 (Harmony Books, 1986)

Williamson, Roxanne Kuter, American Architects and the Mechanics of Fame (University of Texas Press, 1991)

Willis, Carol, Form Follows Finance: Skyscrapers and Skylines in New York and Chicago (Princeton Architectural Press, 1995)

———, ed., Building the Empire State (W. W. Norton, New York, 1998)

Wilson, Edmund, The Shores of Light: A Literary Chronicle of the Twenties and Thirties (Northeastern University Press, 1985)

Woods, James Playsted, The Story of Advertising (Ronald Press Company, 1958)


William Van Alen

American Architect, “Chrysler Architect Sues Owner,” January 1930.

The Architect, “A Selling Urge,” December 1928, pp. 352–53.

Architectural Forum, “Forward House,” 1933.

Boyd, John Taylor, “The Newer Fifth Avenue Retail Shop Fronts,” The Architectural Record, June 1921.

Cret, Paul, “The Ecole des Beaux-Arts and Architectural Education,” American Society of Architectural Historians, April 1941.

Gray, Christopher, “An Architect Called the ‘Ziegfeld of His Profession,’ ” New York Times, March 22, 1998.

———, “Fast Food, Then and Now, On Stylish Fifth Avenue,” New York Times, November 6, 1988.

New York Herald Tribune, “Beaux-Arts Ball Stages Midnight Pageant Friday,” January 12, 1931.

———, “William Van Alen, 71 Dies,” May 25, 1954.

New York Sun, “Architect to Build—William Van Alen Assembled Plot on Lexington Avenue,” January 14, 1930.

———, “Automobiles in Architecture—Row of Motors Cars Placed in Design of Chrysler Tower,” January 1930.

New York Times, “Building Design—Architect Deplores Use of Old Types in Steel Construction,” March 22, 1931.

———, “Note Cast from Ship Drifts to Scotland,” January 30, 1932.

Society of Beaux-Arts Architects, “Circular of Information Concerning the Paris Prize,” 1912.

———, “Final Competition for the Fifth Paris Prize,” 1908.

Solon, Leon, “The Passing of the Skyscraper Formula for Design,” The Architectural Record, 1924, pp. 136–44.

Swales, Francis, “Master Draftsmen, VII, Emmanuel Louis Masqueray,” Pencil Points, 1917, pp. 59–67.

———, “Master Draftsmen, XVIII, Cass Gilbert,” Pencil Points, 1926, pp. 583–93.

———, “The Competition Extraordinary,” Pencil Points, 1928, pp. 39–44.

———, “Draftsmanship and Architecture, V, as exemplified by the work of William Van Alen,” Pencil Points, August 1929, pp. 515–27.

Van Alen, William, “Architect Finds New Designs in Frame of Steel,” New York Herald Tribune, September 9, 1930.

Chrysler Building

The Architect, “They Do Say,” May 1929, p. 222.

Bareuther, David, “Chrysler Building, Now Tallest in World, Steel Tops Woolworth,” New York Sun, October 12, 1929.

Buildings and Building Management, “The Tallest Yet,” June 16, 1930, pp. 47–53.

Clute, Eugene, “The Chrysler Building, New York,” The Architectural Forum, October 1930, pp. 403–10.

Comstock, William, “The Chrysler Building,” Architecture and Building, August 1930, pp. 223–24.

Engineering News Record, “New Alloy Steel to Be Used in Chrysler Building,” July 18, 1929, p. 119.

———, “Steel Erection Problems on a 1,000 Foot Building,” January 28, 1930.

Goldberger, Paul, “The Chrysler Building Enduring Symbol,” New York Times, August 18, 1980.

Gray, Christopher, “Chrysler Building’s Predecessor,” New York Times, September 2, 2001.

Haskell, Douglas, “Architecture—Chrysler’s Pretty Bauble,” Nation, October 22, 1930.

Klein, Dan, “The Chrysler Building,” The American Connoisseur.

Krinsky, Carol Herselle, “The Chrysler Preserved,” Art in America, July 1979, pp. 80–87.

Lohman, J. P., “Speaking of Real Estate,” New York American, October 22, 1929.

McHugh, F. D., “Manhattan’s Mightiest ‘Minaret,’ ” Scientific American, April 1930, pp. 265–68.

Michaelis, David, “77 Stories—The Secret Life of a Skyscraper,” Manhattan, Inc., June 1986, pp. 105–31.

Murchison, Kenneth, “The Chrysler Building as I See It,” The American Architect, September 1930, pp. 24–33, 78.

———, “The Spires of Gotham,” The Architectural Forum, June 1930.

New York Evening Post, “Architect’s ‘Race’ Jostles the Moon,” November 18, 1929.

———, “Chrysler Building to Stand on Height,” June 14, 1930.

New York Herald Tribune, “Building Height Crown Now Held by Chrysler—Structure’s Frame Was Completed, October 1,” October 20, 1929.

———, “Chrysler Building Going Up Four Floors a Week,” July 28, 1929.

———, “Chrysler Building Will Be City’s Highest Tower,” March 8, 1929.

———, “Chrysler Tower Wins Sky Race, Soars 1,030 Ft.” November 18, 1929.

———, “Chrysler Will Keep His Tool Chest in Tower,” January 19, 1930.

———, “Reynolds’s 68 Story Plan Nets $2,500,000 in Sale to Chrysler,” October 17, 1928.

New York Sun, “Chrysler Building Workers Honored,” September 10, 1929.

———,“Chrysler Plans Are Announced,” March 7, 1929.

———,“Forms Chrysler Building Company,” October 19, 1928.

New York Telegram, “Chrysler Gives Credit to Men,” January 24, 1930.

———, “Chrysler Opens His Skyscraper With Ceremony,” May 27, 1930.

New York Times, “Architect Designs Home Using Panels—Man Who Planned the Chrysler Skyscraper Turns Skill to Low-Cost Housing,” December 22, 1935.

———, “Chrysler Building City’s Highest, Open,” May 28, 1930.

———, “Chrysler Building Now Tallest Edifice,” October 16, 1929.

———, “Chrysler Tower Suit Off,” August 22, 1931.

———, “54 Story Skyscraper, Tallest in Midtown, Planned at Lexington Avenue and 42nd Street,” February 2, 1928.

———, “W. H. Reynolds, Builder, Dead at 63,” October 14, 1931.

New York World, “Chrysler’s Spire Formally Opened,” May 27, 1930.

New Yorker, “Up and Up,” August 17, 1929, p. 13.

Pierpont, Claudia Roth, “The Silver Spire,” New Yorker, November 18, 2002, pp. 74–81.

Ralston, Louis, “The Engineer’s Problems in Tall Buildings,” The Architectural Forum, June 1930, pp. 909–20.

Record and Guide, “Plan to Start 67-Story Reynolds Building Soon,” August 25, 1928.

Robinson, Cervin, “Chrysler,” Architecture Plus, 1974.

The World, “World’s Highest Building Raises the Stars and Stripes,” November 3, 1929, gravure section.

Time, “A Man of the Year—Walter Chrysler,” January 7, 1929.

T-Square [George Chappell], “The Skyline,” New Yorker May 24, 1930.

———, “The Skyline,” New Yorker, July 12, 1930.

Van Alen, William, “The Structure and Metal Work of the Chrysler Building,” The Architectural Forum, October 1930, pp. 493–98.

Wheeler, William, “Safeguarding Construction Crews in a Great Skyscraper,” Building and Building Management, December 2, 1929, pp. 25–29.

Zismer, Gustave, “Chrysler’s Loftiest Apartment,” April 16, 1930.

Manhattan Company Building

Bankers Magazine, “New Bank of Manhattan Building to Be New York’s Tallest,” 1929, pp. 897–900.

Bareuther, David, “Japanese Designs Great Towers,” New York Sun, January 11, 1930.

Boston Herald, “Planning 63-Story Wall Street Building,” April 14, 1929.

Bridges, William, “New York’s Highest Lookout,” New York Sun, May 31, 1930.

Comstock, William, “The Manhattan Company Building,” Architecture and Building, July 1930.

Engineering News Record, “Building a 71-Story Skyscraper in 33 Weeks,” May 15, 1930, pp. 800–803.

Evening Post, “Manhattan Bank Men Deny Plan to Top Chrysler Peak,” March 12, 1930.

Evening World, “Take 18 Workers Playing Craps in Lofty Structure,” December 13, 1929.

———, “Views Camera Caught 925 Feet Above Wall Street,” November 18, 1929.

Forbes, B. C., “Romance Behind World’s Tallest New Skyscraper,” Boston American, April 17, 1929.

Fortune, “40 Wall: X-Ray of a Skyscraper,” 1937.

40 Wall Street Building, Inc., “Report as of June 30, 1956,” JPMorgan Chase Archives, 1956.

40 Wall Street Corporation, “Manhattan Company Building,” December 1929.

40 Wall Street Corporation, “The Manhattan Company Building—First Mortgage Fee and Leasehold,” November 1, 1958.

Grid, “The Rise, Fall, and Rise of 40 Wall Street,” spring 1999, pp. 117–18.

Holson, James, “New Skyscraper Race Is Won by Bank of Manhattan,” New York Telegram, October 18, 1929, p. 20.

Matsui, Yasuo, “Architect Explains Tower Height,” New York Sun, March 1, 1930.

McIntosh, W. T., “Unusual Foundation Procedure for 71-Story Building,” Engineering News Record, April 24, 1930, pp. 691–95.

Michigan State Journal, “War Time Aviator to Erect Big Bank,” May 1, 1929.

Morrison, Chester, “Bold Post Climber Explores Bank of Manhattan Peak,” New York Evening Post, December 26, 1929.

New York Evening Post, “Manhattan Tower Opened to Public,” May 26, 1930.

New York Herald Tribune, “Bank of Manhattan Tower Not Being Lifted,” March 14, 1930.

———, “Half-ton Block Crashes from 70-Story Bank,” November 13, 1929.

———, “64-Story Bank Building to Rise in Wall Street,” April 7, 1929.

———, “World’s Highest Office Building Being Rushed Up in Record Time,” September 15, 1929.

New York Sun, “Wall Street Tower to Rise 850 feet,” April 13, 1929.

New York Times, “Andrew Eken, Builder, 83, Dies,” June 12, 1965.

———, “Denies Altering Plans for Tallest Building,” October 20, 1929.

———, “47-Story Building to Rise in Wall Street,” March 2, 1929.

———, “G. L. Ohrstrom, 61, Financier, Dead,” November 11, 1955.

———, “Holding Company to Unite Utilities,” April 24, 1929.

———, “Paul Starrett, Builder, 90, Dies,” July 6, 1957

———, “Plane Hits Wall Street Tower,” May 21, 1946.

———, “Wall Street Site Leased by Iselins,” September 5, 1928.

New York World, “Only a Few Slightly Hurt as Derrick Cable on Bank of Manhattan Company Building Snaps,” November 13, 1929.

Sieder, O. F., “Steel Design and Erection on a 900-Foot Tower Building,” Engineering News Record,” May 8, 1930, pp. 756–61.

The Manhattan Family, Series of Articles Related to the Bank of the Manhattan Company Building, JP Morgan Chase Archives, November 1928–June 1930.

Unknown, “A formation of three Salmsons,” Electronic: members.livingalbum. net/robert110/pages/pageeight.htm

Empire State Building

The Architect, “Mr. Murchison of New York Says——,” January 1929.

———, “Mr. Murchison of New York Says——,” February 1929, p. 589.

Bareuther, David, “Unique Brilliance for New Tower,” New York Sun, March 4, 1930.

Bridges, William, “Looking Down from 1,050 Feet,” New York Sun, January 10, 1931.

Building and Building Management, “A Promising Contestant for the Office Building Height-and-Size Record,” May 19, 1930, p. 36.

Carmody, John, “The Empire State Building—Field Organization and Methods,” Architectural Forum, April 1931.

Eken, Andrew, “The Ultimate in Skyscrapers,” Scientific American, May 1931, pp. 318–20.

Engineering News Record, “Planning and Control Permit Erection of 85 Stories of Steel in Six Months,” August 21, 1930, pp. 280–84.

———, “Topping Out the Empire State Building,” January 22, 1931, p. 153.

Evening Post, “Ex-Governor Smith to Talk on Realty,” November 9, 1929.

———, “Waldorf Razing Started by Smith,” October 1, 1929.

Evening Telegram, “Empire Building to Be 1,248 Feet,” July 21, 1930.

Fortune, “Governor Smith of the Empire State,” September 1930.

———, “Skyscrapers: The Paper Spires,” September 1930, pp. 54–59, 119–26.

Fowler, Glenn, “Tall Lady Is Gainly and Gainful at 40,” New York Times, May 9, 1971.

Glassman, Don, “City’s Zeppelin Port Nears Completion,” The World, November 23, 1930.

Gray, Christopher, “A Red Reprise for a ’31 Design,” New York Times, June 14, 1992.

Harmon, Arthur Loomis, “The Design of Office Buildings,” Architectural Forum, June 1930, pp. 819–20.

Hill, Edwin, “Al Smith, Realtor,” New York Sun, January 11, 1930.

———, “It’s a Tremendous Event,” New York Sun, May 1, 1931.

Huxtable, Ada Louise, “Tinsel in the Sky,” New York Times, June 4, 1992.

Johnston, Alva, “Waldorf Passes as Auctioneers Chant Dirge and Guests Feast,” New York Herald Tribune, May 2, 1929.

Lamb, William, “The Empire State Building—The General Design,” Architectural Forum, January 1931, pp. 2–7.

Literary Digest, “Personal Glimpses: Sky Boys Who ‘Rode the Ball’ on Empire State,” May 23, 1931

McManus, Robert Cruise, “Raskob,” North American Review, 1931, pp. 10–13.

New York Evening Post, “Smith in Capital, Explains Air Mast,” December 13, 1929.

———, “Smith Skyscraper to Rise 102 Stories,” July 21, 1930.

New York Evening Telegram, “J. J. Riordan Ends His Life,” November 9, 1929.

New York Herald Tribune, “Empire State Gets More Financing,” April 23, 1930.

———, “Raskob Plans to Aid Workers by Investments,” May 7, 1929

———, “Riordan Friends Call Resources of Bank Ample,” November 10, 1929.

———, “Smith Extends Site for World’s Highest Tower,” November 19, 1929.

———, “Smith Plans Zeppelin Mast Atop 1,100 Foot New Building,” December 12, 1929.

———, “Smith Plays Hurdy-Gurdy in His Hotel Apartment,” March 13, 1929.

———, “Smith to Head Firm Erecting 80-Story Tower,” August 30, 1929.

———, “Syndicate Gets Waldorf Site,” June 4, 1929.

———, “$25,000,000 Giant Proposed for Waldorf,” December 23, 1928.

———, “Will Design Big Building for Al Smith,” September 11, 1929.

New York Sun, “80-Story Tower Will Rise Soon,” August 30, 1929.

———, “John Raskob of General Motors Made 80 Millionaires in 4 Years,” March 12, 1928.

———, “New Plans for Tallest Skyscraper,” November 18, 1929.

———, “Wreckers Busy on Old Waldorf,” September 27, 1929.

New York Times Magazine, “The Candidates as They Really Are,” October 14, 1928.

New York Times, “Notable at Ceremony Opening the Empire State Building,” May 2, 1931.

———, “Observation Roof 1,050 Feet in Air,” January 12, 1930.

———, “Raskob Is New Type in the Political Field,” July 15, 1928.

———, “Sightseers Gallery 1,222 Feet Above 5th Avenue,” July 21, 1930.

———, “Smith at Funeral of Young Raskob,” July 8, 1928.

———, “Smith Lays Stone for Tallest Tower,” September 10, 1930.

Poore, C. G., “Empire State Building Defeats Time,” New York Times, July 27, 1930.

———, “Greatest Skyscraper Rises on a Clockwork Schedule,” New York Times, July 27, 1930.

Record and Guide, “Shreve Outlines Economics of Office Building,” November 23, 1929.

Shreve, R. H., “The Economic Design of Office Buildings,” Architectural Forum, 1931, pp. 340–59.

———, “The Empire State Building Organization,” The Architectural Forum, June 1930.

Starrett, William A., “Making Buildings from Blueprints,” Engineering News Record, February 19, 1931.

Time, “Raskobism,” November 18, 1929, p. 16.

Walsh, James, “John J. Raskob,” Irish Studies Quarterly, September 1928.

Weber, Hamilton, “Empire State Figures Quoted,” New York Telegram, July 1, 1930.

Zismer, Gustave, “Architect Reveals Cost Problems,” New York Sun, November 23, 1929.

———, “Greater City in Skyscrapers,” New York Sun, January 1930.

Craig Severance

The Architect, “A Practical Point,” November 1929.

———, “Modern Architecture,” May 1930.

The Architectural Record, “The Work of Messrs. Carrère & Hastings,” January 1910.

Gray, Christopher, “Restoring the City’s Oldest High-Rise Artists’ Studios,” New York Times, October 6, 1991.

New York Times, “Faith Severance Weds G. F. Hackl Jr.,” January 10, 1929

———, “H. C. Severance, 62, Architect, Is Dead,” September 2, 1941.

Price, Matlack, “A Renaissance in Commercial Architecture,” Architectural Record, May 1912.

Sullivan, Bell B., “Severance,” J. C. Hubbell Papers, County History, Clinton and Franklin County.

T-Square [George Chappell], “The Skyline–Cheap Architecture,” New Yorker, October 16, 1926.

———, “The Skyline,” New Yorker, November 27, 1926.

Zismer, Gustave, “45 Stories for 7th Avenue and 34th Street,” New York Sun, October 18, 1929.

Height Contest

The Architect, “Mr. Murchison of New York Says,” April 1928.

———, “Mr. Murchison of New York Says,” November 1929.

———, “Mr. Murchison of New York Says,” December 1929.

Bareuther, David, “Reaching for the Sky,” The Nation, November 20, 1929.

Beals, Allen, “Daily Building Reports,” Architects’ Weekly Building Material Price Supplement, November 16, 1929.

Brock, H. I., “New York Completes Highest Office Buildings in All the World,” New York Times, February 9, 1930.

Engineering News Record, “The Contest Skyward,” September 5, 1929.

Evening Post, “Figures Belittle Skyscrapers Here,” July 26, 1930.

Evening Telegram, “Los Angeles to Have Airport,” November 16, 1929.

Gray, Christopher, “A Race for the Skies, Lost by a Spire,” New York Times, November 15, 1992.

New York Evening Post, “Bank Skyscraper to Rise 925 Feet,” October 2, 1929.

New York Herald Tribune, “150-Story Super-Skyscraper Being Considered for Two Broadway Blocks,” October 6, 1929.

———, “The Race Upward,” November 23, 1929.

New York Sun, “Skyscraper Now a National Institution with Cities in Race,” January 1, 1929.

New York Telegram, “83-Story Tower to Rise on Site of Hippodrome,” December 16, 1929

New York Times, “Building in Chicago to Be World’s Tallest,” May 5, 1929.

———, “Mussolini to Build Highest Skyscraper,” September 30, 1924.

———, “110-Story Building, Highest in World,” December 1926.

———, “Sees 200-Story Buildings,” October 24, 1929.

———, “Tallest Building to Rise in Times Square Area; Lefcourt Will Erect 1,050 Foot Skyscraper,” October 4, 1929.

Potter, Robert, “Every Day Sees a New Mark,” New York Evening Post, December 21, 1929.

Record and Guide, “Thirteen of the World’s Fifteen Tallest Buildings in New York,” May 24, 1930.

Review of Reviews, “A Race into the Sky,” February 1930.

Robins, Anthony, “The Continuing Saga of the Tallest Building in the World,” Architectural Record, January 1987.

The World, “Continued Stories,” November 19, 1929

Zismer, Gustave, “100-Story Building Looms,” New York Sun, October 4, 1929.

New York in the Roaring Twenties

Brock, H. I. “Again Manhattan Shifts Its Backdrop,” New York Times Magazine, March 29, 1931.

———, “The City That the Air Traveler Sees,” New York Times Magazine, March 11, 1928.

———, “From Flat Roofs to High Towers,” New York Times Magazine,” April 19, 1931.

Business Week, “Put Skyscrapers on Ticker Tape,” December 14, 1929.

———, “What the Wall Street Crash Means,” November 2, 1929.

Corbett, Harvey Wiley, “A Vision of Midtown,” New York Times Magazine, October 6, 1929.

Evening Post, “Autos Jam Roads Until After Dawn,” September 3, 1929.

Evening World, “Wall Street in All-Night Rush,” October 25, 1929.

Gould, Bruce, “Night Shows the Airman Manhattan’s Beauty,” Evening Post, February 8, 1930.

Morrison, Chester, “Clanking Ash Cans,” Evening Post, January 2, 1930.

———, “Post Owl Writers Nocturne to Gotham’s Lobster Shift,” Evening Post, December 30, 1929.

New York Herald Tribune, “New York, a City That Never Will Be Finished,” October 28, 1928.

———, “Operators and Brokers Confident,” January 26, 1930.

New York Times, “Building Scenes Along 42nd Street,” January 6, 1929.

———, “Stocks Collapse,” October 30, 1929.

———, “Topics in Wall Street,” March 15, 1929

Record and Guide, “Manhattan’s Growth Reviewed by Joseph Day,” June 8, 1929.

Simpich, Frederick, “This Giant That Is New York,” National Geographic Magazine, 1930.


Arnaud, Leopold, “The Tall Building in New York in the Twentieth Century,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, XI, 2.

Bareuther, David, “Structure on End,” New York Sun, January 12, 1929.

Bragdon, Claude, “The Frozen Fountain,” Pencil Points, October 1931.

Brock, H. I., “Architecture Styled International,” New York Times Magazine, February 7, 1932.

———, “Our Towers Take on Decoration,” New York Times Magazine, January 16, 1927.

Corbett, Harvey Wiley, “The Limits of Our Skyscraping,” New York Times Magazine, November 17, 1929.

Davis, Elmer, “Too Stately Mansions,” New Republic, June 1, 1932.

Engineering News Record, “Life of Modern Building Set at 30 Years,” June 20, 1929.

Gray, George, “The Future of the Skyscraper,” New York Times Magazine, September 13, 1931.

Harbeson, John, “Design in Modern Architecture,” Pencil Points, January 1930.

Jacobs, Harry Allan, “New Architecture Based on Utility,” New York Times, November 30, 1930.

Jones, Chester Henry, “Architecture Astray,” Atlantic, January 1931.

Mumford, Lewis, “Notes on Modern Architecture,” New Republic, March 18, 1931.

New York Times, “Building in the Spirit of the Age,” October 14, 1928.

———, “75-Story Skyscrapers Found Economical,” September 22, 1929.

Pole, Grace, “Sire of the Skyscraper,” New York Times Magazine, November 21, 1926.

Pope, Virginia, “Architecture of America Molds Beauty Anew,” New York Times Magazine, December 19, 1926.

Record and Guide, “Dr. Wynne Discusses Housing and Skyscrapers,” November 24, 1928.

Rybczynski, Witold, “The Future Up,” New York Times, December 9, 2001.

The World, “Mayans Reared First Skyscraper,” October 27, 1929.

Webster, J. Carson, “The Skyscraper: Logical and Historical Considerations,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, XV, 3.

Weisman, Winston, “New York and the Problem of the First Skyscraper,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, XII, 1.

Woolf, S. J., “An Architect Hails the Rule of Reason,” New York Times Magazine, November 1, 1931.

Building and Skyscraper Construction

Bridges, William, “In the Eyes of a Steel Worker,” New York Sun, January 29, 1930.

Collins, William, “Our Queerest Building Custom,” Pencil Points, March 1931.

Coyle, David, “Skyscrapers Vibrate Like the Tuning Fork,” New York Times, March 31, 1929.

Fortune, “Skyscrapers,” 1930.

———, “Skyscrapers: Builders and Their Tools,” 1930.

———, “Skyscrapers: Life on the Vertical,” 1930.

———, “Skyscrapers: Pyramid in Steel and Stock,” 1930.

———, “Skyscrapers: The Paper Spires,” 1930.

Jones, Bassett, “The Modern Building Is a Machine,” The American Architect, January 30, 1924.

McClain, Harold, “The Recollections of a Construction Worker,” Empire State Building Commemorative Issue, April 30, 1981.

New Republic, “The Steel Mills Today,” February 19, 1930.

New York Times, “Novel Methods Are Tried,” June 30, 1929.

———, “31⁄2 Tons of Girders Plunge 22 Stories,” New York Times, April 21, 1929.

New York Times Magazine, “Watching a Skyscraper Grow Out of a Hole,” February 17, 1929.

Norris, Margaret, and Brenda Ueland, “Riding the Girders,” Saturday Evening Post, April 11, 1931.

Poore, C. G., “The Riveter’s Lofty Panorama,” New York Times Magazine, January 5, 1930.

Pope, Virginia, “The Miracle of Mounting Skyscrapers,” New York Times Magazine, March 2, 1930.

Rasenberger, Jim, “When They Were Young and the Towers Were New,” New York Times, September 23, 2001.

Scientific American, “The Story of Steel,” January–September 1924.

On Being an Architect

Anonymous, “The Story of an Architect,” Century Magazine, 1917.

Architecture, “The Editor’s Diary,” 1928–31.

Fistere, John, “Poets in Steel,” Vanity Fair, December 1931.

Fouilhoux, J. Andre, “Drawings, Specifications and Inspection,” New York Engineering News Record, February 19, 1931.

Hood, Raymond, “Behind the Scenes in Building Planning,” Engineering News Record, February 19, 1931.

Hood, Raymond, “Choosing the Right Career for Success,” New York Evening World, May 13, 1930.

Illinois Society of Architects, “Just What Does an Architect Do for His Client,” Pencil Points, December 1929, pp. 866–67.

Keller, Allan, “For Rockefeller Center Or a Small Home. It’s Harrison and Fouilhoux,” New York World-Telegram, February 16, 1938.

Ludlow, William, “The Owner and The Architect,” Pencil Points, 1928, pp. 47–49.

Magonigle, H. Van Buren, “Office Principles, Policies and Practice,” Pencil Points, 1925, pp. 43–46.

Pencil Points, “How an Architectural Project Is Carried on,” July 1931.

———, “What Is an Architect?” July 1930.

Sturges, R. Clipston, “The Relationship Between the Architect and the Draftsman,” Pencil Points, August 1926, pp. 457–58.

Talmey, Allene, “Raymond Hood—Man Against Sky,” New Yorker, April 11, 1931.

Wills, Royal Barry, “The Pursuit of the Elusive Client,” Pencil Points, June 1931.


Clarence S. Stein Papers at Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library (Ithaca, New York)

Cooper Union, “Minutes of Trustees Meetings,” Cooper Union Library (New York, New York)

Empire State Building Archive, Avery Drawings and Archives, Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University (New York, New York)

Ely Jacques Kahn Papers, Avery Drawings and Archives, Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University (New York, New York)

Harold Van Buren Magonigle Papers, Manuscripts and Archives Division, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations (New York, New York)

Ivy L. Lee Papers, Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University Library (Princeton, New Jersey)

John Jakob Raskob Papers, Hagley Museum and Library (Wilmington, Delaware)

JP Morgan Chase Archives (New York, New York)

Margaret Bourke-White Papers, Department of Special Collections, Syracuse University Library (Syracuse, New York)

Nicholas Kelley Papers, Manuscripts and Archives Division, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations (New York, New York)

Pierre S. du Pont Papers, Hagley Museum and Library (Wilmington, Delaware)

Ralph Walker Papers, Department of Special Collections, Syracuse University Library (Syracuse, New York)

“Reminiscences of Nicholas Kelley,” Columbia University Oral History Research Office Collection, Columbia University (New York, New York)

“Reminiscences of Eddie Dowling,” Columbia University Oral History Research Office Collection, Columbia University (New York, New York)

Supreme Court of the State of New York, “William Van Alen versus Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, Reylex Corporation, W.P. Chrysler Building Corporation and National Surety Company,” 1930–31 (New York, New York)

Supreme Court of the State of New York, “William Van Alen versus H. Craig Severance,” 1924–26 (New York, New York)

Yasuo Matsui Papers, Avery Drawings and Archives, Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University (New York, New York)

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