Exam preparation materials



1. A

11. D

21. D

31. D

41. D

51. C

61. D

71. D

2. A

12. D

22. C

32. A

42. A

52. B

62. C

72. D

3. B

13. A

23. A

33. A

43. B

53. A

63. B

73. B

4. A

14. A


34. D

44. C

54. D

64. E

74. E

5. D

15. D

25. A

35. B

45. E

55. E

65. A

75. C

6. E

16. C

26. B

36. B

46. B

56. C

66. C

76. D

7. C

17. E

27. B

37. A

47. B

57. B

67. D

77. C

8. B

18. E

28. A

38. E

48. B

58. B

68. B

78. B

9. D

19. D

29. E

39. C

49. D

59. C

69. E

79. C

10. E

20. D

30. B

40. A

50. E

60. C

70. B

80. C

1. The correct answer is (A). Renaissance humanists advocated a liberal education, and they used many primary sources from Greece and Rome for their lessons.

2. The correct answer is (A). The people of the Netherlands were traditionally open-minded and tolerant of varying religious views.

3. The correct answer is (B). After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Russian Orthodox Church considered Moscow the Third Rome.

4. The correct answer is (A). The Enlightenment thinkers considered themselves reformers, not revolutionaries. They sought reform through writings and philosophy as opposed to violence and weapons.

5. The correct answer is (D). France loaned a great deal of money to the American colonies. In addition, France provided the colonies with men and supplies. This increased French debt exponentially.

6. The correct answer is (E). The Romantic Movement included such literature as that of Edgar Allan Poe and Mary Shelley. These and other authors seemed shockingly terrifying to many and simply bizarre to others.

7. The correct answer is (C). India was considered the jewel of the British crown. The British invested heavily in India and made Queen Victoria Empress of India.

8. The correct answer is (B). The students of Europe (and the United States) often took to the streets to protest war and other issues over which they felt they had little or no voice or influence. Participation in the student movement dwindled in the 1970s.

9. The correct answer is (D). The dark shaded area is the land under the influence of Protestant thought around 1550.

10. The correct answer is (E). Oliver Cromwell used the military to take and keep control of England. He also used his military to enforce his many laws. Therefore, as Lord Protector, Cromwell acted as a dictator.

11. The correct answer is (D). In October 1789, about 7,000 angry women marched from Paris to Versailles to demand bread. They eventually forced the royal family to return to Paris from Versailles.

12. The correct answer is (D). Austria and Prussia issued the Declaration of Pillnitz as an invitation to other monarchs to offer support to the French monarchy in order to prevent revolutionary ideas from spreading to other European nations.

13. The correct answer is (A). Prince Klemens von Metternich, a staunch conservative, dominated the Congress of Vienna and ushered in the Age of Metternich.

14. The correct answer is (A). A plebiscite was held in the Papal States and in the Two Sicilies, and the people overwhelmingly voted to unite with Piedmont.

15. The correct answer is (D). Charles Darwin, in his theory of natural selection, argued that species that were fit would survive and their traits and attributes would be passed on to their offspring.

16. The correct answer is (C). Hermann Goring’s final solution to the “Jewish problem” was the elimination of the Jews using labor and concentration camps.

17. The correct answer is (E). Historians often use the phrase “God, gold, and glory” to sum up the motivations of explorers during the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century expeditions to the New World.

18. The correct answer is (E). Ptolemy placed the earth at the center of the universe. Around it orbited crystalline spheres, and beyond those orbits were God and the angels.

19. The correct answer is (D). The junkers were German noble land- owners and landlords.

20. The correct answer is (D). The Russians used the scorched earth strategy, which involves retreating and burning the land, food, and supplies along the way so that the pursuers are left with no resources.

21. The correct answer is (D). The Corn Laws added exceptionally high tariffs to imported grain, thus ending free trade of grain. The Corn Laws did not deal with British corn.

22. The correct answer is (C). Bismarck aimed his Kulturkampf at Catholics but later backed down from his original hard-line policies.

23. The correct answer is (A). The theory of Social Darwinism maintained that in the struggle for superiority between nations, stronger nations would inevitably consume the weaker nations.

24. The correct answer is (E). This Russian poster was used to portray the woman factory worker as a heroine during times of war. This encouraged Russian women to work in factories on the homefront.

25. The correct answer is (A). Luther believed that a woman should be a submissive yet supportive wife. He also believed that a woman should take an active role in the upbringing of children.

26. The correct answer is (B). Jethro Tull, Charles Townsend, and Robert Bakewell each made contributions to the field of agriculture that led to what historians have called the Agricultural Revolution.

27. The correct answer is (B). The leaders of the Republic of Virtue wanted to do away with all things Christian and Catholic, so they replaced the traditional month and day names with names relating to nature.

28. The correct answer is (A). Britain practiced free trade, but many countries on the Continent felt that the only way they could compete with Britain was through the use of protective tariffs.

29. The correct answer is (E). In December 1825, the Decembrists led an unsuccessful revolt against the czar in which they appealed for a constitutional monarchy and the abolition of serfdom.

30. The correct answer is (B). Count Cavour (1810-1861), prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, was a practical and realistic political man. His ambition was to unite Italy with King Victor Emmanuel and its leader. He knew the Italian states, divided as they were, could not rid themselves of Austrian domination without the help of a strong ally. He was willing to trade Nice and Savoy to France in return for her military assistance against Austria. In 1854, Cavour entered Piedmont into the Crimean War on the side of France and Britain in order to tie his country and France closer together. In the summer of 1858, Cavour managed to get Napoleon Ill’s promise to help Piedmont in a war against Austria.

31. The correct answer is (D). Stalin arrested, tried, and executed many Old Bolsheviks in order to establish greater control of the party.

32. The correct answer is (A). The European Coal and Steel Community members created the EEC and eliminated trade barriers between the nations.

33. The correct answer is (A). The Medici family was one of the most influential families of Renaissance Italy.

34. The correct answer is (D). This statue of Peter the Great symbolically shows him leading Russia up a hill toward the west. It represents his greatness and his leadership of Russia toward a more Western culture.

35. The correct answer is (B). Locke believed that man was born with his mind as a clean slate and without innate ideas. He argued that knowledge is derived from experiences.

36. The correct answer is (B). Napoleon hoped to crush the British economy by cutting them off from their trade partners on the continent.

37. The correct answer is (A). The Romantics looked at nature in a much more organic, emotional, and sentimental way than the philosophes, who subjected things to reason and science.

38. The correct answer is (E). Prince Albert was referring to mans magnificent achievements, specifically Britain’s achievements, in the Industrial Revolution.

39. The correct answer is (C). Giuseppe Mazzini founded a group called Young Italy, a group that advocated Italian nationalism in 1831.

40. The correct answer is (A). Most people initially believed that the war would be over within a matter of weeks or months and that their troops would be home by Christmas 1914.

41. The correct answer is (D). The Church sponsored many artists to do work on churches, abbeys, and other religious buildings.

42. The correct answer is (A). Created during the Catholic Reformation, the Jesuits and the Ursuline Order helped stop the spread of Protestantism and helped convert people to Catholicism.

43. The correct answer is (B). After he became king, Henry IV converted from Protestantism to Catholicism to appease the Catholic population of France.

44. The correct answer is (C). In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia reduced the power of the pope in Germany and granted the German princes sovereignty.

45. The correct answer is (E). Metternich made this statement after the threat of Napoleon had been eliminated. Metternich expressed his ultraconservatism by encouraging stability of the government and wariness of revolutionary and nationalistic ideas.

46. The correct answer is (B). Britain and France were concerned that Russia would upset the European balance of power by becoming the dominant nation of Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean.

47. The correct answer is (B). During the Second Industrial Revolution, women were deterred from working in the factories and mines and were encouraged to stay at home and raise children. Some women who needed to work to supplement the household income turned to prostitution or working in sweatshops.

48. The correct answer is (B). After the war, Stalin reverted to his totalitarian methods of the prewar years.

49. The correct answer is (D). Europeans single-handedly destroyed such mighty civilizations as the Incas and Aztecs and forever altered the other societies they encountered.

50. The correct answer is (E). Henry VIII defended the sacraments from Luther’s attacks and was rewarded by Pope Leo X. Of course, this was before Henry’s relationship with Rome went sour.

51. The correct answer is (C). Cervantes wrote Don Quixote during the Golden Age of Spain. Don Quixote is considered one of the greatest European novels.

52. The correct answer is (B). England developed an intense rivalry with Spain under Elizabeth I, especially concerning naval power.

53. The correct answer is (A). Millet’s painting The Sower depicts a typical rural scene, one that would have been unidealized by most other painters. This type of painting was often interpreted as a protest of poor conditions for rural inhabitants.

54. The correct answer is (D). Nietzsche believed that Christianity was a religion of pity and made everything weak. He believed that Christianity tended to crush the human spirit.

55. The correct answer is (E). The size of European militaries increased by leaps and bounds in the twenty or so years prior to World War I. With the increase in size came the increased influence of the military leaders in government affairs, especially in foreign policy.

56. The correct answer is (C). The Truman Doctrine pledged assistance to any nation that needed help escaping or avoiding Communism.

57. The correct answer is (B). The Paris and London Foundling Hospitals were created to care for unwanted children in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

58. The correct answer is (B). The Persian Letters used fictitious letters written by Persians who had visited Europe to criticize various institutions and practices of Europeans. This style was typical of many Enlightenment writers.

59. The correct answer is (C). Hosted by prominent women, salons provided a safe environment for the philosophes to discuss intellectual and political matters without having to worry about being harassed by the government.

60. The correct answer is (C). Spain was not a member of the Quadruple Alliance against Napoleon’s France.

61. The correct answer is (D). The Franco-Prussian War caused an unprecedented rise in German nationalism and patriotism.

62. The correct answer is (C). The middle class of the Victorian Age placed an unprecedented amount of importance upon the family and the development of children.

63. The correct answer is (B). Kipling’s poem reflects the idea that the more civilized, superior nations have the burden of civilizing and bettering the inferior people of the world.

64. The correct answer is (E). Hitler wanted to create more living space for the superior races by eliminating the subhuman races and taking their land.

65. The correct answer is (A). This scientific statement is from Newton’s work on gravitation.

66. The correct answer is (C). Descartes divided things into two categories: things thought, or of the mind, and things occupying space, or of the body.

67. The correct answer is (D). In addition to natural population increases, Russia’s territorial expansion added vast numbers of people to its population.

68. The correct answer is (B). In the eighteenth century, landlords enclosed the land to consolidate it and increase their profits.

69. The correct answer is (E). The concordat merely stated that most French citizens were Catholic. It did not satisfy the pope, and it did not establish the dominance of Catholicism in France. Napoleon benefited the most from the signing of the concordat.

70. The correct answer is (B). The Zollverein was a customs union that stimulated trade among German states by eliminating tolls on roads and rivers.

71. The correct answer is (D). The total war effort did nothing to shorten the war. It simply increased the ability of each nation to inflict more damage upon the other nations.

72. The correct answer is (D). Hitler and Mussolini jointly offered assistance to General Franco in order to help him establish a fascist government in Spain.

73. The correct answer is (B). The Long Parliament made it illegal to collect ship money and taxes without parliamentary consent. Parliament also abolished the Star Chamber and required parliamentary sessions at least every three years.

74. The correct answer is (E). Cardinal Richelieu supported Protestants elsewhere to contain and check the power of the Habsburgs.

75. The correct answer is (C). A few hundred thousand people fled France, and many of them either joined the international efforts against France or joined the army of William of Orange.

76. The correct answer is (D). Although printed material played a role during the Reformation, the mass volume of books and pamphlets led to an unprecedented wave of reading and writing that resulted in an unprecedented dispersion of information and ideas across Europe during the Enlightenment.

77. The correct answer is (C). The Combination Acts outlawed labor organizations and worker associations. They did not outlaw trade unions, though.

78. The correct answer is (B). The Catholic Church experienced a great revival during the Age of Romanticism. Protestantism experienced a revival, or awakening, too.

79. The correct answer is (C). Alexander Dubcek attempted to create communism with a human face in Czechoslovakia, but his efforts were thwarted when the Soviets invaded in 1968.

80. The correct answer is (C). Perestroika, or restructuring, meant that Gorbachev wanted to relax the strict economic policies of the hard-line Communists and allow more free-trade and free-market economics. 

Suggestions for the Document Based Question, Part A

Describe and analyze the views of those involved in the womens suffrage movement in England in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Hopefully, you remembered to take notes on the documents and remembered to organize the documents using a chart. If you did, then writing this essay probably was not very difficult. The most important part of answering this question is the development of your thesis. Your thesis should be clear and concise. It should tell the reader exactly what you are going to say in your essay. In short, your thesis must clearly sum up your argument. For this particular question, your thesis should deal with the people who advocated womens suffrage and those who opposed it. In addition, your thesis should address a few of the reasons why each group felt the way they did. For example:

The women s suffrage advocates believed that women deserved the vote, that women had earned the vote, and that women could contribute to politics. Those that opposed woman suffrage believed that women had no place in politics, but rather women belonged at home.

The next step is the body of the essay. Your essay should offer a clear, organized argument that supports your thesis. The body of your essay should first include some historical background of the womens suffrage movement. Your essay could begin with either side of the issue of womens suffrage in England, either for it or against it. Your essay should include the reasons and arguments made on behalf of the suffrage movement.

Your essay should state that Documents 1 and 6 argue that women have contributed to society and therefore deserve the right to vote. Documents 2, 3, 4, and 6 advocate womens suffrage because womens suffrage would promote better living and a higher morality in society. Documents 5 and 7 argue that women are capable of understanding and contributing to the political system. Your essay should point out the authorship and the points of view of the authors of these documents, in particular Document 3, which is an excerpt from a mans speech. The remaining documents oppose womens suffrage. Document 8 portrays politics as a man’s world better left to men alone. The document, along with Document 9, also implies that women would simply slow the process because of their political inexperience. Document 9 implies that no great empire had ever granted women’s suffrage and that most women didn’t want it anyway. In addition, Document 9 implied that women belonged in the home and not in politics. Document 10 warns of burdening women with the vote. Document 11 argues that suffrage granted to so many women would be unsafe, also implying that women lack the political experience to vote, as did Documents 8 and 9.

Your essay could either present one side of the issue over the other or it could present one point and then a conflicting point from the opposition and so on. In this essay, it is very important that you discuss the points of view and biases of the authors. If your essay includes most or all of these points, you are well on your way to a good, solid essay. In addition, any extra historical information you can add to your essay will enhance the overall quality of your piece. Use the rubric and worksheet on pages 266-267 to further evaluate your essay.

Suggestions for the Free Response Essays, Part B

Essay 2

“The Reformation was not only a religious movement but also a political and economic movement. ” Assess the validity of this statement.

Your essay should begin with the historical background of the Reformation, including its causes and goals. Your essay should include a treatment of the economic effects that include the Protestant idea that all vocations are important and the justification of business classes. In addition, your essay should include a discussion of the Protestant work ethic. You should include in your essay the idea of a religiously homogenous state as decided by the prince, the decline of the intervention of the Church into affairs of the state, and the increasing identity of the Church within the state. An excellent essay would also include the legislation of England under Henry VIII as example. You might also include a discussion of the religiously motivated military conflicts during and after the Reformation. Be sure your essay uses historical facts to support your argument. Finally, make sure your essay has a clear, organized thesis and an organized body that supports it.

Essay 3

Evaluate the revolutionary nature of the Scientific Revolution in Europe.

Your essay should argue that the Scientific Revolution either was or was not revolutionary and, if it was, to what extent. Regardless of your thesis, you should begin your essay with some historical background on the Scientific Revolution. Also regardless of your thesis, you should include a discussion of the move toward a new world view. You should include a treatment of the Copernican theory as opposed to the traditional Ptolemaic/Aristotelian theory of the universe, and discuss the extent to which this theory was accepted and rejected. An excellent essay would discuss the transition from focusing on the metaphysical to focusing on the physical during this time. An excellent essay would point out that the revolution occurred more in the way of thinking rather than in scientific and technological developments. Your essay should mention different thinkers of the Scientific Revolution and how they affected the new way of thinking. Be sure your essay uses historical facts to support your argument. Finally, make sure your essay has a clear, organized thesis and an organized body that supports your thesis.

Essay 4

Analyze and discuss the origins of nationalism in Europe during the Napoleonic Era and the role of nationalism in the fate of Napoleon.

Your essay should begin with some historical background on the French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon. You should also include a treatment of the rise of the nationalistic spirit during the French Revolution. You should discuss the extent to which the people of Europe did not want to be under the control of Napoleon but rather preferred to be united with others of a common history, culture, language, or geography. Your essay should include examples such as Spain and Prussia. Your essay should include a summary of the role nationalism played in the defeat of Napoleon. Be sure your essay uses historical facts to support your argument. Finally, make sure your essay has a clear, organized thesis and an organized body that supports your thesis.

Suggestions for the Free Response Essays, Part C

Essay 5

Choose TWO of the following people and analyze their political goals, their methods, and the degree to which they succeeded in reaching those goals:

Prince Klemens von Metternich

Camillo de Cavour

Otto von Bismarck

Napoleon III

If your essay is about Metternich, you should include some historical background on Metternich, including his battle against liberalism and nationalism, his fight for a balance of power in Europe, his oppressive police force, the Carlsbad Decrees, and the fact that he was successful until 1848. If your essay is about Cavour, you should include the failed Revolutions of 1848, the emergence of Sardinia-Piedmont as the most influential Italian state, his diplomacy and wars, and his relationship with Garibaldi. You should include a discussion of the unification of Italy. If your essay is about Bismarck, your essay should include the struggles between Bismarck and the parliament, the Danish War, the Austro-Prussian War, and the Franco-Prussian War. You should also include the fact that Germany emerged as the most powerful nation in Europe under Bismarck. If your essay is about Napoleon III, your essay should include his rise to power, his control of the national elections, the political structure of the French government, and the governmental control of the French economy. You should also include a treatment of his success economically and politically in the Second Empire. Be sure your essay uses historical facts to support your argument. Finally, make sure your essay has a clear, organized thesis and an organized body that supports your thesis.

Essay 6

Discuss the extent to which music, art, and literature reflected the feelings and thoughts of Europe in the early twentieth century. Use specific examples to support your answer.

You should begin your essay with a discussion of the events of the early twentieth century and the feelings and emotions that accompanied and followed those events in Europe. Your essay should include a discussion of the musical changes that occurred in the early twentieth century along with some of the early twentieth-century musicians. You should also include a discussion of the major artistic movements of the time period and the way in which the art diverged from the traditional art that had gone before. An excellent essay would include several examples of both art and artist. Finally, your essay should include some of the writers who changed the face of literature in the early twentieth century and the methods of writing they employed. Again, an excellent essay would include several writers and examples of their work. Be sure your essay uses historical facts to support your argument, and make sure your essay has a clear, organized thesis and an organized body that supports your thesis.

Essay 7

Analyze and discuss the steps taken by Western Europe toward economic recovery in the second half of the twentieth century.

Your essay should begin with a discussion of the economic consequences of World War II on Western Europe. You should include the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. You could even include the Berlin Airlift. Your essay should emphasize the importance of the rise of capitalism and free trade in Western Europe, due mostly to the enormous economic success of the United States. You should also include a treatment of the move toward unity, particularly economic unity, in Western Europe. Good examples that need to be included in your essay are the European Coal and Steel Community and the Common Market. An excellent essay would include the elimination of colonies by some countries and the institution and the easing of socialist welfare programs in other countries. Be sure your essay uses historical facts to support your argument. Finally, make sure your essay has a clear, organized thesis and an organized body that supports it.







Overall Impression

Demonstrates excellent understanding of European history and outstanding writing; thorough and effective; incisive

Demonstrates good understanding of European history and good writing competence

Reveals simplistic or incomplete thinking and/or immature understanding of European history; fails to respond adequately to the question; little or no analysis

Very little or no understanding of European history; unacceptably brief; fails to respond to the question; little clarity

Understanding of European History

Scholarly; excellent understanding of the question; effective and incisive; in-depth critical analysis; includes many apt, specific references; acknowledges opposing views

Mostly historically accurate; good understanding of the question; often perceptive; includes specific references and critical analysis

Some historical inaccuracies; superficial understanding and treatment of the question; some misreading of documents and lack of historical evidence; mechanical; over- generealized

Serious historical errors; extensive misreadings and little supporting evidence; completely off the topic


Original, unique and/or intriguing thesis; excellent use of documents and historical knowledge; thoroughly developed; conclusion shows applicability of thesis to other situations

Adequate thesis; satisfactory use of documents and/or historical knowledge; competent development; acceptable conclusion

Inadequate, irrelevant or illogical thesis; little use of documents and/or historical knowledge; some development; unsatisfactory, inapplicable, or nonexistent conclusion

Lacking both thesis and conclusion; little or no use of historical documents or knowledge; no distinguishable development

Organization/Conventions of English

Meticulously and thoroughly organized; coherent and unified; virtually error free

Reasonably organized; mostly coherent and unified; some errors

Somewhat organized; some incoherence and lack of unity; some major errors

Little or no organization; incoherent and void of unity; extremely flawed

Rate yourself in each of the categories below. Enter the numbers on the lines below. Be as honest as possible so you will know what areas need work. Then calculate the average of the four numbers to determine your final score. It is difficult to score yourself objectively, so you may wish to ask a respected friend or teacher to assess your essays for a more accurate reflection of their strengths and weaknesses. On the AP test itself, a reader will rate your essays on a scale of 0 to 9, with 9 being the highest.

Each category is rated 9 (high) to 0 (incompetent).

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