Exam preparation materials

PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses

Practice Test 1: Diagnostic

INDICATE YOUR ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN SECTION I ON THE SEPARATE ANSWER SHEET. No credit will be given for anything written in this examination booklet, but you may use the booklet for notes or scratch work. After you have decided which of the suggested answers is best, COMPLETELY fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. Give only one answer to each question. If you change an answer, be sure that the previous mark is erased completely.

Use your time effectively, working as rapidly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend too much time on questions that are too difficult. Go on to other questions and come back to the difficult ones later if you have time. It is not expected that everyone will be able to answer all multiple-choice questions.


Section I Time-55 Minutes 80 Questions

Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case, and then fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.

1. “A prince therefore who desires to maintain himself must learn to be not always good, but to be so or not as necessity may require.” This statement is typical of the writings of which of the following?

(A) Castiglione

(B) Erasmus

(C) Machiavelli

(D) Petrarch

(E) Boccaccio

2. On the issue of salvation, Martin Luther differed from the Catholic Church in that he believed

(A) salvation was obtained through good works alone.

(B) salvation was obtained through good works and faith.

(C) salvation was predetermined by God.

(D) salvation was available only through the Church.

(E) salvation could be obtained through faith alone.

3. Women were frequently tried and executed as witches for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

(A) their repeated acts of violence.

(B) their neighbors suspected the women of witchcraft.

(C) their communities feared the women worshipped the Devil.

(D) their neighbors feared the women engaged in sexual activities with the Devil.

(E) the prevailing misogyny of the period.

4. King Louis XIV of France provides perhaps the best example of the form of government known as

(A) despotism.

(B) absolutism

(C) constitutional monarchy.

(D) fascism.

(E) representative democracy.

5. The intellectuals that dominated the thought of the Enlightenment were known as

(A) scholastica.

(B) philosophes.

(C) Encyclopedie.

(D) Romantics.

(E) empiricists.

6. The Industrial Revolution, which began in the late eighteenth century, began in

(A) France.

(B) Germany.

(C) Russia.

(D) the Low Countries.

(E) Great Britain.

7. The event that triggered the outbreak of World War I was

(A) Germany’s return to unrestricted submarine warfare.

(B) the collapse of the Three Emperor’s League.

(C) the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand.

(D) the Bloody Sunday massacre.

(E) failure of the Treaty of Versailles.

8. During World War II, the Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan was known as

(A) the Entente Cordiale.

(B) the Allied Powers.

(C) the Triple Alliance.

(D) the Axis Powers.

(E) the Eastern Bloc.

9. The Supremacy Act of 1534

(A) declared the king the official head of the Church of England.

(B) revoked the Edict of Nantes.

(C) declared the Pope the supreme religious figure in England.

(D) declared the Bible the supreme source of religious authority.

(E) closed the monasteries and led to a more equitable distribution of land in England.

10. Generally speaking, after the Thirty Years’ War,

(A) the Holy Roman Empire was strengthened.

(B) the German princes were granted sovereignty and the Holy Roman Empire collapsed.

(C) Calvinism was prohibited throughout Germany.

(D) the pope was allowed to intervene in German religious affairs.

(E) Germany was unified.

11. The Glorious Revolution (1688-1689) was significant because

(A) William and Mary led a successful revolt among the English peasants.

(B) it reinstated the idea of the divine right of kings.

(C) the Parliament was suppressed by royal authority.

(D) of the excessive violence necessary to succeed in its attempt to overthrow the king.

(E) the idea of divine right was destroyed, and one monarch was replaced by another with minimal bloodshed.

12. The painting below most likely depicts

(A) the trial of an alleged witch.

(B) the licensing of a prostitute in early modern Europe.

(C) an anatomy lesson during the Scientific Revolution.

(D) the examination of a native from the New World during the Age of Exploration and Expansion.

(E) the public ostracizing of a woman who posed nude for a painting during the Renaissance.

13. The phrase “I am the state” best characterizes the reign of

(A) William and Mary.

(B) Louis XIV.

(C) Victor Emmanuel III.

(D) Otto von Bismarck.

(E) Helmut Kohl.

14. The philosopher who first doubted all but the power of his own reason and deduced the existence of God was

(A) René Descartes.

(B) Blaise Pascal.

(C) Sir Francis Bacon.

(D) Sir Isaac Newton.

(E) Baruch Spinoza.

15. The industry that paved the way for the Industrial Revolution was the

(A) steel industry.

(B) agricultural industry.

(C) textile industry.

(D) luxury goods industry.

(E) shipbuilding industry.

16. The Tennis Court Oath symbolized the

(A) resolve of the National Assembly to create a new constitution.

(B) desire of the National Assembly to behead the king and queen.

(C) resolve of the First and Second Estates to resist change.

(D) resolve of the monarchy to resist change.

(E) the determination of Robespierre to eliminate all enemies of the state.

17. An experimental utopian socialist society was built in New Harmony, Indiana, in the 1820s by

(A) Robert Owen.

(B) Karl Marx.

(C) Friedrich Engels.

(D) Thomas More.

(E) Flora Tristan.

18. Strides were made in nineteenth-century health care by

(A) returning to traditional methods of treatment and prevention.

(B) practicing methods formerly used by midwives and rural health-care professionals.

(C) mixing religion and science to prove a holistic approach to medicine.

(D) reviving classical ideas about health and sickness.

(E) employing rational methods of treating and preventing diseases.

19. Popular unrest, mass exodus, and mass demonstrations against the repressive measures of Erich Honecker in 1989 led to

(A) retaliatory measures by Honecker’s secret police.

(B) intervention into East German affairs by the United States.

(C) the strengthening of the East German government.

(D) the arrest of Solidarity leaders, including Lech Walesa.

(E) the collapse of the Communist Party and the destruction of the Berlin Wall.

20. The English Star Chamber was

(A) the first astronomer’s observatory of the Scientific Revolution.

(B) a court designed to end the influence of powerful nobles on the English courts.

(C) a room for the torture of Protestants under the control of Bloody Mary Tudor.

(D) the room designated for the trial of those suspected of witchcraft.

(E) established to increase the power of the English nobility.

21. Calvinists in France were known as

(A) Anabaptists.

(B) Trinitarians.

(C) Unitarians.

(D) Huguenots.

(E) Presbyterians.

22. The eighteenth-century European family household typically

(A) was a nuclear family.

(B) included grandparents and great-grand parents.

(C) included three to five other families.

(D) consisted of ten to twelve family members.

(E) consisted of an unmarried couple.

23. The graph below illustrates

(A) the economic impact of the Great Depression.

(B) the devastating effects of the bubonic plague.

(C) the pattern of the Great Migration.

(D) the rise of capitalism.

(E) national participation in World War II.

European Emigrants, 1851-1960

European Emigrants, 1851-1960

24. Adolf Hitler learned from Benito Mussolini’s example that

(A) he should establish fascist government through a military coup.

(B) fascism did not have to be violent.

(C) he should first gain political power through legal measures before establishing a totalitarian state.

(D) women were not inferior to men.

(E) Jews, Catholics, and homosexuals should be eliminated.

25. “Man is nothing else but what he makes of himself.” This statement is the first principle of

(A) abstract expressionism.

(B) transcendentalism.

(C) existentialism.

(D) atheism.

(E) postmodernism.

26. In response to the German Peasant Revolts of 1524-1525, Luther

(A) encouraged the peasants to seek political freedom similar to their spiritual freedom.

(B) encouraged the princes to crush revolts.

(C) encouraged the princes to grant the peasants’ wishes.

(D) encouraged the peasants to peacefully petition the princes with their desires.

(E) encouraged the papacy to grant the peasants’ wishes.

27. The illustration below most likely depicts the

(A) destructive power of witches.

(B) devastating results of total war.

(C) aftermath of the Great Lisbon Earthquake.

(D) effects of nuclear warfare.

(E) nuclear disaster at Chernobyl.

28. During the presidential elections of 1848 in France, a war veteran spoke of whom when he said, “Why shouldn’t I vote for this gentleman? I, whose nose was frozen near Moscow?”

(A) Louis XVI

(B) Louis-Philippe

(C) Louis Napoleon

(D) Richard Dreyfus

(E) Louis XIV

29. The leader of the group known as the Red Shirts was

(A) Victor Emmanuel III.

(B) Giuseppe Mazzini.

(C) Camillo de Cavour.

(D) Giuseppe Garibaldi.

(E) Benito Mussolini.

30. One of the outstanding new developments of Romantic music by musicians such as Franz Liszt was the

(A) use of music to express a literary or pictorial concept or idea.

(B) use of random, atonal music.

(C) cold, unemotional use of music.

(D) return to traditional forms.

(E) removal of the piano from the orchestra.

31. By the early twentieth century, art and literature began to reflect many people’s notions that

(A) the world needed to return to religion to restore hope and order.

(B) reality was to be perceived according to a few universal truths.

(C) the purpose of art and literature was to recreate reality as accurately as possible.

(D) the reason and rationality of the past was to be necessary for man’s progression in the future.

(E) reality may not be what they had once believed, especially in light of the new physics and new psychology.

32. In the years prior to World War I, the entity most perceived by Austria-Hungary as a threat to its empire was

(A) Russia.

(B) Germany.

(C) France.

(D) Serbia.

(E) the Ottoman Empire.

33. All of the following are tenets of John Calvin’s theology EXCEPT

(A) perseverance of the saints.

(B) total depravity of man.

(C) unconditional predestination.

(D) infallibility of the Church.

(E) limited atonement.

34. All of the following were true of the Council of Trent (1545-1563) EXCEPT

(A) authority of local bishops was increased.

(B) the selling of church offices was restricted.

(C) no doctrinal concessions were made to the Protestants.

(D) steps were taken to enhance the image and abilities of local parish priests.

(E) the rules requiring priests to remain celibate were relaxed and, in some cases, revoked.

35. The Peace of Utrecht (1713-1714)

(A) established the dominance of France after the War of the Spanish Succession.

(B) laid the foundations for the French dominance of Europe during the eighteenth century.

(C) established a balance of power in Europe and ended French dominance.

(D) established Catholicism as the one true religion in the Netherlands.

(E) greatly reduced the holdings of Great Britain in North America.

36. Sir Francis Bacon advocated

(A) reliance on scholastic traditions and knowledge from antiquity.

(B) the understanding of nature through mathematical laws.

(C) deductive reasoning.

(D) examination of empirical evidence.

(E) the idea that most truth had already been discovered.

37. In the time during and after the French Revolution, the French Catholic clergy were alienated most by the

(A) elimination of tax exemptions for the First Estate.

(B) state’s seizure of Church property.

(C) Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.

(D) involvement of women in the revolutionary activities.

(E) Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

38. John Wesley’s ministry primarily involved

(A) writing pamphlets and tracts.

(B) preaching in open fields.

(C) teaching in universities.

(D) preaching hellfire and brimstone sermons from the pulpit.

(E) caring for the sick in the slums of the urban areas.

39. The two major factors in the onset of the Great Depression were the

(A) collapse of the American stock market and the slowing of national economies.

(B) slowing of national economies and the rise in unemployment.

(C) collapse of the American stock market and the collapse of the Credit-Anstalt.

(D) collapse of the Credit-Anstalt and the rise of unemployment.

(E) skyrocketing unemployment rate worldwide and the secret treaties between European powers.

40. The Edict of Nantes, issued by Henry IV in 1598, effectively

(A) outlawed Protestantism in France.

(B) restricted Protestantism to rural areas of France.

(C) granted religious freedom to Protestants in France.

(D) ended papal authority in France.

(E) ignited the French Wars of Religion.

41. The building in the picture below was most likely constructed to

(A) honor the gods represented by the statues around the fountain.

(B) intimidate and impress foreign dignitaries.

(C) provide safety and protection.

(D) recreate classical architecture.

(E) serve as a public works project that would provide jobs for the unemployed.

42. The dominance of Napoleon helped inspire in subjugated lands feelings of

(A) loyalty to Napoleon.

(B) intense religious revival.

(C) nationalism.

(D) respect for the Catholic Church.

(E) a deep appreciation for French culture.

43. “I grieve, when on the darker side Of this great change I look; and there behold Such outrage done to nature as compels The indignant power to justify herself.”

This poem is most characteristic of

(A) Michel de Montaigne.

(B) Miguel de Cervantes.

(C) Vaclav Havel.

(D) Friedrich Nietzsche.

(E) William Wordsworth.

44. The German Schlieffen Plan during World War I called for

(A) German troops to maintain a defensive position in case of an attack by Russian forces.

(B) German troops to be positioned for a battle on both the eastern and western fronts.

(C) Germany to be allied with Russia in case Austria-Hungary attacked the Balkans.

(D) a total war effort on the homefront.

(E) the unconditional surrender of Germany’s enemies.

45. Joseph Stalin’s five-year plans were designed to

(A) turn Russia into an industrial power.

(B) make Russia the world’s leading agricultural producer.

(C) put Russian astronauts in orbit before the Americans.

(D) empower the kulaks.

(E) spread Communism to capitalist nations within five years.

46. The Dayton Accords of 1995

(A) split Bosnia into two separate states.

(B) authorized NATO forces to use force in Chechnya if needed.

(C) decelerated the international nuclear arms race.

(D) granted significant amounts of financial aid to Russia and states of the former Soviet Union.

(E) created the European Union.

47. In the mid-eighteenth century, the leading banking center of Europe was

(A) Florence.

(B) Milan.

(C) Amsterdam.

(D) Vienna.

(E) Prague.

48. The family that ruled Russia from the 1600s until 1917 was the

(A) Muscovites.

(B) Hohenzollerns.

(C) Romanovs.

(D) Brezhnevs.

(E) Habsburgs.

49. The philosophy of the philosophes conflicted with the theology of the Church because the

(A) philosophes believed that humanity could not be improved and the Church did.

(B) philosophes were not concerned with matters of this world but matters of the world beyond this one.

(C) philosophes disapproved of the scientific study of humanity as advocated by the Church.

(D) philosophes believed the Church was too open to new ideas.

(E) philosophes believed that humanity was not depraved and could be improved, as opposed to the view of the Church.

50. Prior to the French Revolution, the First Estate owned approximately what percent of the land of France?

(A) 10 percent

(B) 25 percent

(C) 50 percent

(D) 75 percent

(E) 90 percent

51. The map below most likely depicts

(A) the Ottoman Empire prior to the Crimean War.

(B) the Ottoman Empire after the Crimean War.

(C) the Balkans in 1914.

(D) the Balkans in 1995.

(E) Germany prior to 1871.

52. Hitler’s hatred of the Jews was no secret, but Hitler also despised the

(A) Anglo-Saxon Europeans.

(B) Scandinavians.

(C) Italians.

(D) French.

(E) Slavs.

53. The reduction of international tension through diplomacy and trade is best defined as

(A) perestroika.

(B) solidarity.

(C) glastnost.

(D) appeasement.

(E) détente.

54. The issue that drove a wedge between the French people in 1954 and nearly cost Charles de Gaulle his country was the

(A) independence of Algeria.

(B) independence of Morocco and Tunisia.

(C) destalinization of the Soviet Union.

(D) Dreyfus Affair.

(E) youth revolt in Paris.

55. The two thinkers who were the most influential forerunners of the Enlightenment were

(A) Galileo and Copernicus.

(B) Newton and Galileo.

(C) Descartes and Locke.

(D) Descartes and Newton.

(E) Newton and Locke.

56. The phrase enlightened absolutism is most often associated with

(A) Louis XIV and Frederick William I of Prussia.

(B) Charles V and Catherine the Great.

(C) Catherine the Great and Joseph II of Austria.

(D) William and Mary of England.

(E) Joseph I and Joseph II of Austria.

57. The Frenchman Joseph de Maistre would most likely agree that

(A) society was an agreement between the governed and the government.

(B) only an absolute monarch could maintain control and order in the wake of events like the French Revolution.

(C) the government’s key function was the preservation of its citizens’ basic natural rights.

(D) absolute monarchs had no place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

(E) democracy was superior to monarchy.

58. All of the following were true of Camillo de Cavour EXCEPT that he

(A) favored a constitutional government in Italy.

(B) encouraged economic development by expanding industry.

(C) encouraged economic development by building railroads and canals.

(D) spent large amounts of money to build and equip a large army.

(E) enlisted the help of Austria to declare war on Napoleon III.

59. The nineteenth-century concept of the germ theory

(A) inspired the germ warfare used in the twentieth century.

(B) was incorrect in asserting that germs were non-living organisms.

(C) was developed by Marie Curie and ultimately won her the Nobel Prize.

(D) implied that diseases were caused by living organisms.

(E) had no impact in hospital treatment and surgical procedures.

60. The most significant decision made at the Teheran Conference in 1943 was to

(A) partition Germany after the war.

(B) drop an atomic bomb on Japan.

(C) invade Normandy.

(D) build a wall in Berlin after the war.

(E) invade Germany from the east and west.

61. The Labour Party, which defeated Churchill’s Conservative Party after World War II, created in Britain what was best described as a

(A) democracy.

(B) republic.

(C) capitalist state.

(D) communist state.

(E) welfare state.

62. The Hohenzollerns were

(A) representatives in the Reichstag.

(B) representatives in the duma.

(C) rulers of Prussia known for their social fairness and economic freedoms.

(D) rulers of Prussia known for their weak military and poor administration.

(E) rulers of Prussia characterized by military strength and discipline.

63. All of the following were reforms of Peter the Great EXCEPT

(A) secularization of the Russian church.

(B) replacement of the government ministers with bureaus to more effectively manage taxes and economic affairs.

(C) establishment of new industries in Russia.

(D) the elimination of all Western ideas and influences in Russia.

(E) the subordination of the boyars.

64. All of the following are true of deism EXCEPT that it

(A) is emotional and irrational.

(B) is tolerant.

(C) allows for and encourages virtuous living.

(D) is reasonable.

(E) is empirical.

65. Napoleon’s armies were significant because

(A) of their sheer numbers and strength.

(B) Napoleon successfully used mercenaries to win numerous battles.

(C) they were not composed of conscripts.

(D) they successfully fought for someone in whom they did not believe and for a nation to whom they were not loyal.

(E) they were trained abroad and then brought back to France for battle.

66. The government of France after the July Revolution of 1830 could best be described as

(A) mutually beneficial to the upper and lower classes.

(B) beneficial only to the upper middle class.

(C) beneficial only to the workers.

(D) one of near-miraculous economic prosperity.

(E) an absolute monarchy.

67. Turner, Friedrich, and Delacroix were painters of which of the following movements?

(A) Romanticism

(B) Neoclassicism

(C) Impressionism

(D) Dadaism

(E) Cubism

68. All of the following can be said of Russian peasants after Czar Alexander II emancipated them in 1861 EXCEPT that they

(A) could own property.

(B) could marry freely.

(C) were completely free.

(D) could bring cases before the courts.

(E) could purchase land that had been made available to them.

69. Although the ostensible cause for the removal of Khrushchev from office was his deteriorating health, the real reason for his removal was

(A) his renunciation of Stalin.

(B) his failed economic policies.

(C) his increased contact with the Western world.

(D) his personality.

(E) the abuse and corruption he practiced while he was in office.

70. Through the teachings and work of John Knox, the ideas of John Calvin spread to Scotland in the form of

(A) Anglicanism.

(B) Methodism.

(C) Anabaptism.

(D) Presbyterianism.

(E) Catholicism.

71. The Prussian leader during the eighteenth century who was obsessed with all things military was

(A) Frederick William I.

(B) Franz Joseph.

(C) Catherine the Great.

(D) Peter the Great.

(E) Maria Theresa.

72. “The ordinary means therefore to increase our wealth and treasure is by Foreign Trade wherein we must ever observe this rule; to sell more to strangers yearly than we consume of theirs in value.” This statement best explains which of the following?

(A) Imperialism

(B) Socialism

(C) Communism

(D) Mercantilism

(E) Protectionism

73. The declaration of Notre Dame Cathedral as a Temple of Reason and the renaming of the days and months were measures taken by the Republic of Virtue to

(A) make the common people forget their old way of life.

(B) dechristianize the republic.

(C) satisfy the demands of the sans-culottes.

(D) unite the provinces with the revolutionary forces of the capital.

(E) unite both the clerical and secular factions of the republic.

74. Women tended to be especially oppressed in

(A) Russia under Lenin.

(B) Russia under Stalin.

(C) Germany under the Weimar Republic.

(D) Italy under Mussolini.

(E) France under de Gaulle.

75. One of the main reasons for the success of Lech

Walesa’s Solidarity movement was the

(A) enormous amount of funding it received from the United Nations.

(B) large military following Walesa amassed.

(C) support of other Eastern bloc governments.

(D) support of the Catholic Church.

(E) support of the Polish government.

76. The English Game Laws were examples of

(A) legislation designed to reduce the economic burden of the peasantry.

(B) laws that enabled Parliament to produce revenue by charging the peasants for hunting licenses.

(C) legislation that banned medieval tournaments.

(D) legislation that allowed hunting on the king’s land only in order to feed families and not for profit.

(E) class legislation that benefited only the gentry.

77. The last great outbreak of which of the following diseases took place in France in 1720?

(A) Smallpox

(B) Dysentery

(C) Bubonic plague

(D) Influenza

(E) Typhus

78. In response to the revolutionary activities in

France, many European governments

(A) ignored the events.

(B) offered to lend assistance to the revolutionaries.

(C) instituted repressive domestic policies to prevent the spread of the revolutionary fervor.

(D) did not see the danger in the ideas of the revolutionaries in France.

(E) signed treaties of nonaggression with both the old regime and the revolutionary forces.

79. The significant increase in crime rates across

Europe in the early nineteenth century is most likely attributable to the

(A) collapse of governments across Europe.

(B) inefficiency of local justice under the absolute rulers of Europe.

(C) increase in wealth due to industrialization and the jealousy of the few poor who remained.

(D) undesirable living conditions of the increasingly large number of poor as a result of urban overcrowding.

(E) increased number of secret political societies and student groups.

80. Between 1871 and 1914, the two European countries LEAST likely to rally were

(A) France and Great Britain.

(B) Austria-Hungary and Russia.

(C) Germany and Italy.

(D) France and Germany.

(E) Great Britain and Russia.


If you have time, you may go back and review your answers.

Section II Total Time-130 Minutes 3 Questions

Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying documents 1-13. Write your answer on the lined pages of the pink essay booklet.

This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. As you analyze the documents, take into account both the sources of the documents and the authors’ points of view. Write an essay on the following topic that integrates your analysis of the documents. Do not simply summarize the documents individually. You may refer to relevant historical facts and developments not mentioned in the documents. Take 15 minutes to read all documents and 45 minutes to write your essay.

Part A

1. Analyze and discuss the issue and the positions held by the two sides involved in the debate over Galileo’s support of the Copernican theory of the universe.

Historical Background: In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus published On the Revolution of Heavenly Bodies in which he explained that the reason for planetary motion was the central location of the sun and not of the earth. In 1609, Galileo Galilei created a telescope and claimed to have found evidence that supported the Copernican theory.

Document 1

From the King James Bible

Then spake Joshua to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jashar? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hastened not to go down about a whole day. (Joshua, 10:12-13)

The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to its place where it ariseth again. (Ecclesiastes 1:5)

Behold, I will bring again the shadow of the degrees which is gone down in the sun dial of Ahaz, ten degrees backward. So the sun returned ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone down. {Isaiah 38:8)

Document 2

From a Consultant’s Report on Copernicanism in February 1616

Proposition to be assessed:

(1) The sun is the center of the world and completely devoid of local motion. Assessment: All said that this proposition is foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it explicitly contradicts many places the sense of Holy Scripture, according to the literal meaning of the words and according to the common interpretation and understanding of the Holy Fathers and the doctors of theology.

(2) The earth is not the center of the world, nor motionless, but it moves as a whole and also with diurnal motion. Assessment: All said that this proposition receives the same judgment in philosophy and that in regard to theological truth it is at least erroneous in faith.

Document 3

Cardinal Bellarmine’s observations about the Church

... the Council [of Trent] prohibits interpreting Scripture contrary to the common agreement of the Holy Fathers; and if [you] would read not only all their works but also the modern commentaries. . . you will find that all agree in expounding literally that the Sun is in the heavens and travels swiftly around the Earth, while the Earth is far from the heavens and remains motionless in the center of the world. Now consider, with your sense of prudence, whether the Church could support giving Scripture a meaning contrary to the Holy Fathers and to all the Greek and Latin expositors.

Document 4

A statement from Cardinal Bellarmine on Galileo’s ideas

I say that if a real proof be found that the sun is fixed and does not revolve round the earth, but the earth round the sun, then it will be necessary, very carefully, to proceed to the explanation of the passages of Scripture which appear to be contrary, and we should rather say that we have misunderstood these than pronounce that to be false which is demonstrated. But I will not believe that there is such a demonstration, until it is shown to me.

Document 5

From a letter from Cardinal Bellarmine to Foscarini

I say that, as you know, the Council prohibits interpreting Scripture against the common consensus of the Holy Fathers; and if Your Paternity wants to read not only the Holy Fathers, but also the modern commentaries on Genesis, the Psalms, Ecclesiastes, and Joshua, you will find all agreeing in the literal interpretation that the sun is in heaven and turns around the earth with great speed, and that the earth is very far from heaven and sits motionless at the center of the world.

Document 6

From a report issued by theological consultants to the Inquisition in 1616

... foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it explicitly contradicts in many places the sense of Holy Scripture, according to the literal meaning of the words and according to the common interpretation and understanding of the Holy Fathers and the doctors of theology...

Document 7

From the sentencing hearing of Galileo’s trial

Furthermore, so that this serious and pernicious error and transgression of yours does not remain completely unpunished, and so that you will be more cautious in the future and an example for others to abstain from similar crimes, we order that the book Dialogue by Galileo Galilei be prohibited by public edict.

We condemn you to formal imprisonment in this Holy Office at our pleasure. As a salutary penance we impose on you to recite the seven penitential Psalms once a week for the next three years. And we reserve the authority to moderate, change, or condone wholly or in part the above-mentioned penalties and penances.

Document 8

From the Jesuits on Galileo

If Galileo had only known how to retain the favor of the fathers of this college, he would have stood in renown before the world; he would have been spared all his misfortunes, and could have written about everything, even about the motion of the earth.

Document 9

From Galileo’s Considerations on the Copernican Theory in 1615

Let us now see in what kind of hypothesis Copernicus places the earth’s motion and sun’s stability. There is no doubt whatever... that he places them among the primary and necessary suppositions about nature.

We should therefore understand clearly that Copernicus takes the earth’s motion and sun’s stability for no other reason and in no other way than to establish it, in the manner of the natural philosopher, as a hypothesis of the primary sort.

Document 10

From Galileo on the Church’s attacks on the Copernican theory

Consider now those who persist in wanting to say that as an astronomer Copernicus considered the earth’s motion and the sun’s stability only a hypothesis that is more adequate to save celestial appearances and to calculate the motions of planets, but that he did not believe it to be true in reality and in nature. With all due respect, these people show that they have been too prone to believe the word of someone who speaks more out of whim than out of experience with Copernicus’s book or understanding the nature of this business. For this reason they talk about it in a way that is not altogether right.

Document 11

From Galileo on the Church’s attack on him

Finally, now that one is discovering how well-founded upon clear observations and necessary demonstrations this doctrine is, some persons come along who, without having seen the book, give its author the reward of so much work by trying to have him declared a heretic; this they do only in order to satisfy their special animosity, groundlessly conceived against someone else [Galileo, himself] who has no greater connection with Copernicus than the endorsement of his doctrine.

Document 12

From Galileo

If the earth de facto moves, we cannot change nature and arrange for it not to move. But we can rather easily remove the opposition of Scripture with the mere admission that we do not grasp its true meaning. Therefore, the way to be sure not to err is to begin with astronomical and physical investigations, and not with scriptural ones.

Document 13

From Galileo’s book Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in 1632

Take care, theologians, that in wishing to make matters of faith of the propositions attendant on the motion and stillness of the Sun and the Earth, in time you probably risk the danger of condemning for heresy those who assert the Earth stands firm and the Sun moves; in time, I say, when sensately or necessarily it will be demonstrated that the Earth moves and the Sun stands still.

Directions: Choose ONE question from this group. The suggested writing time for this question is 30 minutes. You are advised to spend 5 minutes planning your answer in the space provided. Use specific examples to support your answer.

Part B

2. Evaluate the art of the Renaissance as a reflection of the values and ideals of the Renaissance era.

3. Compare and contrast the general trends in the feudalism of Eastern and Western Europe prior to, during, and after the Black Death.

4. Analyze and discuss the economic and social consequences of the Industrial Revolution. Include a treatment of the major developments of the Industrial Revolution and the consequences of those developments.

Directions: Choose ONE question from this group. The suggested writing time for this question is 30 minutes. You are advised to spend 5 minutes planning your answer in the space provided. Use specific examples to support your answer.

Part C

5. “The second half of the nineteenth century could be accurately called the Age of Nationalism.” Assess the validity of this statement.

6. Discuss the causes of the Russian Revolution as well as the longterm effects of the Revolution not only in Russia but also in the rest of Europe.

7. Analyze and discuss the extent to which the events following World War I contributed to the outbreak of World War II.


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