Common section

NOTES

PREFACE: THE MAN OR THE RABBIT IN THE MOON

1 There are some good short introductions (see, in the Bibliography, Hopkins, Kinsley, Knipe), longer reference works (Flood [Introduction and Companion ], Klostermaier, Michaels, Mittal, and Thursby), and books on Hinduism as it is lived today (Narayanan and Hawley). My own version of the history of the Hindus could be used as a basic textbook for a course over a fourteen-week semester: one week of introduction, one of conclusion, and two chapters a week for twelve weeks. I would recommend supplementing it with a good book on Indian history (Keay and Thapar are my favorites), a good survey (such as Flood’s or Glucklich’s), and a sourcebook (such as my Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, or Sources of Indian Tradition [3rd ed.], or the forthcoming NortonAnthology of World Religions). Basham’s The Wonder That Was India is still unbeatable as a general introduction to the cultures of India.

2 A good model is provided by Richman’s Many Ramayanas and Questioning Ramayanas, which trace the many Ramayanas throughout Hindu history.

3 Ramanujan, “Is There an Indian Way of Thinking?”

4 I have in mind works such as those provided by Shulman (et al.) on the Nayakas and Thapar on Somanatha.

5 Lévi-Strauss, Structural Anthropology.

6 Tubb, “Barn, Ben, and Begging Bowl: Sanskrit Words and the Things in the World.”

7 Narayana Rao, “ Hinduism: The Untold Story.”

8 Srinivas, Religion and Society of the Coorgs.

9 Hardiman, The Coming of the Devi, 158.

10 Srinivas, Social Change, 7.

11 Kosambi, Myth and Reality, 91-92.

12 Pollock, The Language of the Gods in the World of men, 283.

13 Ibid., 23.

14 Pollock, “India in the Vernacular Millennium.”

15 Pollock, Literary Cultures in History.

16 Microhistory, in the hands of a master like Carlo Ginzburg, is another way to excavate these often lost ordinary histories, but microhistory requires a thick description to which a survey such as this cannot aspire.

17 With apologies to William Blake: “To see a world in a grain of sand/And a heaven in a wild flower,/Hold infinity in the palm of your hand/ And eternity in an hour.”

18 Schmidt, “The Origin of Ahimsa.”

19 Ramanujan, “Is There an Indian Way of Thinking?”

20 Shankara’s “Thousand Teachings,” 1.6 ; Mayeda 2.1.6, 212.

21 Hardiman, The Coming of the Devi, 51.

22 “Sasa Jataka,” Jataka, vol. 3, no. 316, 34-38 of PTS.

23 Doniger, The Implied Spider, 154-56.

24 Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, part II, paragraph xi; citing Jastrow, “The Mind’s Eye.”

25 Alison Goddard, Times Higher Education Supplement , November 21, 2003, “Email Threats and Egg-throwing Spark Fears of Hindu Extremism,” See also Edward Rothstein, “The Scholar Who Irked the Hindu Puritains,” in “Arts and Ideas,” New York Times, January 31, 2005 (reprinted as “Daring to Tackle Sex in Hinduism,” in International Herald Tribune, February 2, 2005); William Dalrymple, “India: The War over History,” New York Review of Books, Vol. 52, no.6 (April 7, 2005).

26 IndianCivilization@yahoogroups.com; “Jiten Bardwaj” <jiten51@yahoogroups.com. Parts of the message were cited by Goddard, “Email Threats.”

27 Goddard, “Email Threats.”

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION: WORKING WITH AVAILABLE LIGHT

1 Idries Shah, The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin, 26. Idries Shah attributes the parable to Mulla Nasrudin.

2 For the idea that the Europeans have taught Hindus to say that India is timeless, see Sedgwick, Against the Modern World.

3 Lévi-Strauss, “Split Representation in the Art of Asia and America.”

4 The Narmamala of Ksemendra 3:44.

5 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition, 9.

6 Keillor, Pontoon.

7 Keay, India, 2.

8 Thapar, “Imagined Religious Communities,” 77.

9 Mishra, “Exit Wounds,” 81.

10 Alex von Tunzelmann, Indian Summer (Henry Holt, 2007), cited by Mishra, “Exit Wouds,”81.

11 Burghart, “The Category of ‘Hindu,’” 264-65.

12 Gottschalk, Beyond Hindu and Muslim.

13 Bloom, The Anxiety of Influence.

14 Paraskara, Paraskara grihya sutra 10.36, cited by Nath, Puranas and Acculturation, 202.

15 Michaels, Hinduism, 12-14.

16 Frykenberg, “The Emergence of Modern Hinduism,” in Sontheimer and Kulke, Hinduism Reconsidered, 31.

17 The act can be found at www.sudhirlaw.com/HMA55.htm.

18 Ronojoy Sen, Legalizing Religion, 6-38.

19 Ibid.

20 Brian K. Smith, “Exorcising the Transcendent,” requires six qualities out of a cluster of nine; Michaels, Hinduism, 20, cluster of five.

21 According to the 2004 Survey Report conducted by the Indian Census, 25 percent of persons aged fifteen years and above are reported to be vegetarian. But according to the 2006 the Hindu-CNN-IBN State of the Nation Survey, 40 percent of respondents were vegetarian (a figure that includes those who eat eggs), 55 percent of Brahmins are vegetarian, and in landlocked states such as Rajasthan and Haryana, where seafood is not available as a food source, more than 60 percent are vegetarians. Gujarat, the birthplace of Gandhi and home to a sizable Jain population, is predominantly landlocked, but only 45 percent vegetarian.

22 Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations. Wittgenstein’s method was similarly applied to Hinduism by the anthropologist Gabriella Eichinger Ferro-Luzzi, in “The Polythetic Network.”

23 Doniger, The Woman Who Pretended, 7.

24 J. Z. Smith on center and periphery.

25 Pace Michaels (Hinduism), there can be no single “habitus.”

26 Doniger, “Hinduism by Any Other Name.”

27 Narayana Rao, “Hinduism : The Untold Story” and “Purana as Brahminic Ideology.”

28 Herodotus, History, 3.97-100. He called them Hindoi.

29 Thapar, Early History, 275.

30 Joyce, Finnegans Wake, 10.

31 W. C. Smith, The Meaning and End of Religion, 30.

32 Babur, Baburnama, 352.

33 Encyclopaedia Britannica, s.v. India.

34 Hiltebeitel, “Of Camphor and Coconuts,” 28.

35 For the usefulness of the word “Hinduism,” despite its drawbacks and the subjective nature of its boundaries, see the arguments for the similarly subjective reasons for delineating the elements of a myth, in Doniger, The Implied Spider.

36 Doniger O’Flaherty, Other Peoples’ Myths, chapter 3.

37 There are also more good books about the Mughals and the British, hot topics and topics for which there is more reliable data, than about the ancient period.

38 Jamison, Sacrificed Wife, 14; Patton, “If the Fire Goes Out, the Wife Shall Fast.”

39 The Mimamnsa school. Julia Leslie, The Perfect Wife 3, citing Shabda 10.8.10.22: praptipurvakah pratishedah bhavati.

40 Wayne Booth’s term, in The Rhetoric of Fiction.

41 Doniger, The Implied Spider.

42 Ramanujan, “Towards a Counter System.”

43 Hiltebeitel, Rethinking the Mahabharata, 166-67.

44 For this and other definitions of people beyond the Aryan pale in ancient India, see Doniger O’Flaherty, “The Origins of Heresy in Hindu Mythology” and “The Image of the Heretic in the Gupta Puranas.”

45 Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, Androgynes, and Other Mythical Beasts.

46 Trautmann, cited by Bryant, The Quest, 261.

47 Trautmann, ibid., queried this: “It has yet to be determined why exactly India has never been self-sufficient in horses. Climate? A relative scarcity of pasture?” In a word, yes.

48 Gommans, “The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire,” 70-73.

49 Trautmann, cited by Bryant, The Quest, 261.

50 Doniger, “Pluralism and Intolerance in Hinduism”; “Hindu Pluralism and Hindu Intolerance of the Other”; “Tolstoi’s Revenge”; “Do Many Heads Necessarily Have Many Minds?”

51 Festinger, When Prophecy Fails and Cognitive Dissonance.

52 Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, Androgynes, 5-7.

53 Forster, Hill of Devi, 199.

54 Doniger O’Flaherty, Other Peoples’ Myths, final chapter.

55 Mistry, Such a Long Journey, 183.

56 Orr, “Identity and Divinity.”

57 Stewart, “Satya Pír: Muslim Holy Man and Hindu God,” 578.

58 Katherine Ulrich’s wonderful term.

59 Doniger, “The Origins of Heresy.”

60 Sen, Identity and Violence.

61 Joh, Heart of the Cross, 53-55; Bhabha, The Location of Culture 7, 277, 168-69, 256, 19, 296, 360, 240, 322.

62 This phrase is Kristin Bloomer’s.

63 Pangborn, Zoroastrianism: A Beleaguered Faith, 8; “Sugar in the Milk: A Parsi Kitchen Story,” NPR, March 20, 2008:http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=88505980 & sc=emaf.

64 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 318.

CHAPTER 2 . TIME AND SPACE IN INDIA

1 Forster, A Passage to India, chapter 12.

2 Matthiessen, The Snow Leopard, 29.

3 This is my paraphrase of the scientific data. Knipe tells a slightly different version of it, Hinduism, 2.

4 Wolpert, A New History, 6. This was the civilization of the northern Soan River valley.

5 Witzel, “Indocentrism,” 348.

6 Suess, Das Antlitz der Erde [The Face of the Earth].

7 Personal communication from Jim Masselos, Sydney, Australia, May 2006.

8 Sclater, “The Mammals of Madagascar.”

9 Macleane, Manual of the Administration of the Madras Presidency, 1885.

10 Frederick Spencer Oliver, A Dweller on Two Planets, wrote the book in 1883-86, died in 1899, and his mother published it in 1905.

11 Sumathi Ramaswamy, “Home Away from Home?,” 151 and 155.

12 Forster, A Passage to India, 12.

13 Keay, India, 4.

14 Mahabharata 3.12.13; 16.8.40 ; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 261-62.

15 Keay, India, 4.

16 Harivamsha 86.35-53.

17 Lorenzen, Kabir Legends, 49, citing Paramananda’s Kabir Manshur.

18 Vishnu Purana 5.38.9-28.

19 Bhagavata Purana 11.3.1-28.

20 Kuiper, “The Bliss of Asa,” 113.

21 S. R. Rao, The Lost City of Dvaraka.

22 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 88, 100. For the identification of the horse with the sacrificer and with Prajapati, see Shatapatha Brahmana 13.1.1.1 and 13.2.1.1. For the many variants of the story of Indra’s theft of the sacrificial horse of King Sagara, seeMahabharata 3.104-08;Ramayana 1.38-44; Vishnu Purana 4.4.1-33, etc. For a discussion of these stories, see Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, 220-22.

23 Ramayana 1.37-43; Shiva Purana 5.38; Linga Purana 1.66 ; Vayu Purana 88; Brahmanda Purana 3.46-53; Vishnu Purana 4.4; Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 230, and fn. 88.

24 Mahabharata 3.105-8.

25 Janaki, “Parasurama,” citing chapters 51-56 of the Brahmanda Purana.

26 Ibid., citing the Keralamahatmya.

27 Rig Veda 2.12.2, Maitrayani Samhita 1.12.13, Mahabharata 1.21.5. 2.

28 The legend of the cankams is first expressed in Nakkiranar’s commentary on the seventh-century Irayaiyanar Akapporul.

29 Das Gupta, Malabar Nation Trade.

30 Frontline, May 7-20, 2005.

31 T. S. Subramanian, in Frontline, 22: 2, (Jan., 15-28, 2005).

32 Keay, India, 3-5.

33 Dundes, The Flood Myth.

34 Shatapatha Brahmana 1.8.1.1-6 ; Doniger O’Flaherty, Hindu Myths, 180.

35 Matsya Purana 1.11-34; 2.1-19; Doniger O’Flaherty, Hindu Myths, 181-4.

36 Mahabharata 3.56.4-6, 1.169.16-26 ; 1.170.1-21; 1.171.1-23.

37 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva.

38 Mahabharata 10.18.21.

39 Matsya Purana 175.23-63; Harivamsha 1.45.20- 64; Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, 226-72.

40 Skanda Purana 7.1.32.1-128, 33.1-103; Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, 228-33; Siva, 289-92.

41 The idea of a submarine fire is pre-Vedic, Indo-Iranian (West, Indo-European Poetry, 270).

42 Sumathi Ramaswamy, The Lost Land of Lemuria , 233. According to the note on p. 276, this research was carried out by the Institute of Geophysics at UT-Austin and MIT.

43 MIT Professor Fred Frey, quoted in the MIT news office bulletin, “Team Finds Surprising Volcanic Clues to Indian Ocean Formation,” Deborah Halber, News Office, December 8, 1999.

44 Thomas Babington Macaulay in 1835; Keay, India, 431.

45 Jonathan Z, Smith, Map Is Not Territory.

46 Wolpert, India, 5.

47 Ibid., 19-20.

48 Ramanujan, Speaking of Siva, 24.

49 Doniger, Splitting the Difference, 204-31.

50 Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger.

51 Woody Allen, “Fabulous Tales and Mythical Beasts,” 193.

CHAPTER 3 . CIVILIZATION IN THE INDUS VALLEY

1 Klostermaier, A Survey, 34-35.

2 Neumayer, Prehistoric Indian Rock Paintings; Vatsyayan, “Prehistoric Paintings.”

3 Wolpert, India, 10.

4 Flood, Introduction, 25.

5 McEvilley, The Shape of Ancient Thought.

6 Farmer, “Mythological Functions”; Erdosy, ed., The Indo-Aryans.

7 Knipe, Hinduism, 22; Parpola, Deciphering the Indus Script, 248-50.

8 W. Norman Brown, “The Indian Games of Pachisi, Chaupar, and Chausar,” 32-35.

9 Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro, pl. CLIII, 7-10 and 551-52.

10 Dales, “Of Dice and Men,” 17-18. 11. Keay, India, 9

12 Mitter, Indian Art, 8.

13 Keay, India, 10.

14 Kenoyer, “Socio-Economic Structures of the Indus Civilization”; “Harappan Craft Specialization and the Question of Urban Segregation and Stratification”; “Specialized Crafts and Culture Change.”

15 Knipe, Hinduism, 20.

16 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition, 6.

17 Possehl, The Indus Age.

18 Witzel, cited in Bryant, The Quest, 184.

19 Farmer, Sproat, and Witzel, “The Collapse of the Indus-Script Thesis.”

20 Keay, India, 16.

21 Farmer, “Mythological Functions.”

22 Keay, India, 26.

23 Ibid., 13

24 K. M. Sen, Hinduism,14.

25 Wolpert, India, 16.

26 Thapar, Early India, 92.

27 Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro, 351.

28 Knipe, Hinduism, 21.

29 Wolpert India, 20.

30 Ibid, 11.

31 Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro, 348.

32 Ibid., 352.

33 Bollee, Gone to the Dogs, 7.

34 Wolpert, India, 20.

35 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition, 5-6.

36 Ibid, 5-8.

37 Ibid., 5.

38 Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro, 355.

39 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition, 7.

40 Bollee, Gone to the Dogs, 8, citing Marshall.

41 Keay, India, 17, quoting Shireen Ratnagar.

42 Thapar, Early India, 85.

43 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition, 6.

44 Farmer, “Mythological Functions.”

45 Wolpert, India, 23, citing M. S. Vats, who directed the latter phase of the Harappan dig.

46 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition, 6-7.

47 Ibid.

48 Wolpert, India, 18.

49 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition, 7.

50 Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro, 52-56.

51 Keay, India, 14.

52 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva.

53 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition, 8.

54 Flood, Introduction, 29.

55 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition, 9-10.

56 Knipe, Hinduism, 22.

57 Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro, 129.

58 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva.

59 A good summary appears in Bryant, The Quest, 162-64. I am indebted to Brian Collins for rounding up this list and more of them for me.

60 Sullivan, “A Re-examination.”

61 Hiltebeitel, “The Indus Valley ‘Proto-Shiva’ Reexamined.”

62 Krishna Rao, Indus Script Deciphered.

63 Singh, “Rgvedic Base of the Pasupati Seal of Mohenjo-Daro,” citing RV 1.64.

64 S. R. Rao, Dawn and Devolution of the Indus Civilization, 288.

65 Fairservis, The Harappan Civilization and Its Writing.

66 Parpola, “Deciphering the Indus Script,” 248-50.

67 Richter-Ushanas, The Indus Script and the Rigveda.

68 Keay, India, 14.

69 Thapar, Early India, 86.

70 But against this, see Flood, Introduction, 28.

71 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition, 6-7.

72 Keay, India, 14.

73 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition, 5.

74 Ibid., 9.

75 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 238.

76 Keay, India, 14.

77 Farmer, “Mythological Functions.” Seal H-180-A-B.

78 Ibid.

79 Knipe, Hinduism, 21.

80 Thapar, Early India, 86.

81 Flood, Introduction, 28.

82 Ibid.

83 Wolpert, India, 21.

84 Thapar, Early India, 94.

85 Ibid.

86 Keay, India, 15.

87 Wolpert, India, 17.

88 Mitter, Indian Art, 8.

89 Keay, India, 15.

90 Flood, Introduction, 28.

91 Knipe, Hinduism, 21.

92 Flood, Introduction, 28.

93 Michaels, Hinduism, 31.

94 Thapar, Early India, 86.

95 Ibid., 85.

96 Wolpert, India, 16.

97 Keay, India, 14.

98 Michaels, Hinduism, 31.

99 Debiprasanna Chattopadhyaya, Lokayata.

100 Farmer, Sproat, and Witzel, “The Collapse of the Indus-Script Thesis.”

101 Wolpert, India, 20.

102 Thapar, Early India, 87.

103 Knipe, Hinduism, 23

104 Keay, India, 5.

105 Metcalf, A Concise History, 3.

106 Thapar, Early India, 86.

107 Ibid., 88.

108 Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition, 8.

109 Thapar, Early India, 85.

110 Wolpert, India, 17.

CHAPTER 4 : BETWEEN THE RUINS AND THE TEXT

1 Kurma Purana 1.9.

2 Sir William Jones, “On the Gods of Greece, Italy, and India.”

3 West, Indo-European Poetry and Myth, 388.

4 Ibid., 386.

5 Ibid., 1.

6 Lincoln, “The Indo-European Cattle-Raiding Myth,” 24; also Priests, Warriors and Cattle.

7 West, Indo-European Poetry and Myth, 191.

8 Ibid., 2.

9 Ibid., 9 and 10.

10 Ibid., 2.

11 But cf. Bryant, The Quest, 60-62.

12 Witzel, “Rgvedic History,” 325.

13 Thapar, Early India, 86-88.

14 Ibid.

15 West, Indo-European Poetry, 388.

16 Thapar, Early India, 89.

17 West, Indo-European Poetry, 447.

18 Witzel, “Indocentrism,” 347.

19 Klostermaier, Hinduism, 38.

20 Thapar, Early India, 86-87.

21 West, Indo-European Poetry; Witzel, “Indocentrism.”

22 Knott, Hinduism, 7, and Flood, Introduction, 31, report, but do not endorse, the theory.

23 Hasenpflug (“a retired German defense ministry linguist”), The Inscriptions of the Indus Civilization.

24 Klostermaier, Hinduism, 36.

25 Hasenpflug, The Inscriptions of the Indus Civilization.

26 Subhash C. Kak, cited by Klostermaier, Hinduism, 38.

27 David Frawley, cited in ibid.

28 Klostermaier, Hinduism, 36.

29 Bryant, The Quest, 195.

30 Thapar, Early India, 110.

31 Ibid., 109.

32 Keay, India, 25.

33 Elst, “Linguistic Aspects,” 260 and 262.

34 Ibid., 260.

35 Keay, India, 24.

36 Thapar, Early India, 109, 113.

37 Flood, Introduction, 34.

38 Bryant, The Quest, 15, 120.

39 Thapar, Early India, 85, 88, 92, 95-96, 107.

40 B. B. Lal, cited by Bryant, The Quest, 173.

41 Aasko Parpola, cited by Flood, Introduction, 34.

42 Flood, Introduction, 34.

43 Keay, India, 25.

44 Bryant, The Quest, 119-20, 174, 228.

45 Keay, India, 25.

46 Elst, cited by Bryant, The Quest, 119.

47 Bryant, The Quest, 116.

48 West, Indo-European Poetry, 467

49 Ibid., 465.

50 Thapar, Early India, 109; Flood 34.

51 Thapar, Early India, 85.

52 Jha and Rajaram, The Deciphered Indus Script.

53 Witzel and Farmer, “Horseplay in Harappa,” Frontline, October 13, 2000.

54 Subhash C. Kak, cited by Klostermaier, Hinduism, 38

55 Flood, Introduction, 31.

56 Klostermaier, Hinduism, 39.

57 Staal, Agni.

58 Thapar, Early India, 130.

59 Keay, India, 5.

60 Klostermaier, Hinduism, 31.

CHAPTER 5 : HUMANS, ANIMALS, AND GODS IN THE RIG VEDA

1 Thapar, Early India, 109. All translations are from Doniger O’Flaherty, The Rig Veda and Hindu Myths, unless otherwise noted.

2 Keay, India, 24.

3 Mitter, Indian Art, 9.

4 Doniger O’Flaherty, Other Peoples’ Myths, chapter 3.

5 Aitareya Aranyaka 5.5.3, cited by Staal, “The Concept of Scripture,” 122-23.

6 For a discussion of the oral transmission of the Rig Veda, see Louis Renou, The Destiny of the Veda in India, 25-26 and 84.

7 For a fuller discussion of the relationship between shruti and smriti, see Brian K. Smith, “Exorcising the Transcendent: Strategies for Defining Hinduism and Religion” and “The Unity of Ritual: The Place of the Domestic Sacrifice in Vedic Ritualism.”

8 Müller, The Rig Veda, ix.

9 Taittiriya Samhita 7.5.25.2.

10 West, Indo-European Poetry, 161.

11 Thapar, Early India, 113.

12 Romila Thapar’s phrase, after George Michell’s “portable temple.”

13 Jamison, Sacrificed Wife, 9.

14 Heesterman, The Broken World.

15 William Buck’s apt phrases, in his translation of the Mahabharata, 9.

16 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 96.

17 Chandogya Upanishad 8.7-12.

18 West, Indo-European Poetry, 246.

19 Ibid.

20 Jamison, Ravenous Hyenas, 258-59.

21 RV 10.148.5; 10.94.14; 8.9.10 ; cf. 1.112.13; 10.123.1-5, 5.52.16 1.84.10-11; 8.6.19, 2.34.2, 5.60.5, 34-36 ; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 322.

22 Mahabharata 12.59.99-128; Atharva Veda 8.10.22-29; etc. Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 321-48.

23 Doniger O’Flaherty, Women; West, Indo-European Poetry, 417.

24 Thapar, Early India, 115.

25 Gommans, “The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire,” 71.

26 Ibid., 69.

27 Thapar, Early India, 114.

28 Shatapatha Brahmana 14.1.1.18-24; Doniger O’Flaherty, Hindu Myths, 56-59.

29 Schmidt, “The Origin of Ahimsa.”

30 West, Indo-European Poetry, 469

31 Ibid., 467.

32 Ibid., 490.

33 Thapar, Early India, 116.

34 Parpola, “The Coming of the Aryans to Iran and India.”

35 Thapar, Early India, 112.

36 Ibid., 122.

37 Ambatta Sutta of the Sutta Nikaya.

38 Lincoln, Myth, Cosmos and Society.

39 West, Indo-European Poetry, 100.

40 Flood, Introduction, 79.

41 Witzel, “Early Sanskritization.”

42 Such as the vratyastoma; Atharva Veda 15; Nath, Puranas and Acculturation, 41.

43 Scheuer, “Rudra-Siva et la destruction du sacrifice.”

44 Doniger O’Flaherty, “The Post-Vedic History of the Soma Plant.”

45 U.S. Patent and Trademark Office appeal no. 2005-1337, application no. 10/227,006.

46 Wasson, Soma; Flood, Introduction, 41.

47 As R. Gordon Wasson called it.

48 Shatapatha Brahmana 5.5.4.10 ; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 153.

49 Jamison, Sacrificed Wife, 256.

50 Ghosha as the author of 10.40, Apala as the author of 8.91; Doniger O’Flaherty, The Rig Veda, 246-46, 256.

51 Jamison, Sacrificed Wife.

52 Ibid., 92.

53 For sibling incest, see Yami’s unsuccessful attempt to seduce her brother Yama in Rig Veda 10.10.

54 West, Indo-European Poetry, 500, citing J. P. Mallory, in a section labeled “Suttee.”

55 Ibid., citing Atharva Veda 18.3.1.

56 Doniger O’Flaherty, The Rig Veda, 245-63.

57 RV 10.135, 10.51, 10.124, 4.26-7, 10.108, 10.28, etc.

58 Yami, the twin sister of Yama, in 10.10; Lopamudra, the wife of Agastya, in 1.179.

59 Pururavas, the husband of Urvashi, in 10.95; Doniger O’Flaherty, The Rig Veda, 245.

60 Yami is rejected by Yama, Lopamudra by Agastya, Pururavas by Urvashi.

61 Doniger O’Flaherty, The Rig Veda, 312. For the porcupine, see Atharva Veda 6.13, Shaunaka recension, Bloomfield ed.

62 Doniger, Splitting the Difference.

63 Doniger O’Flaherty, Women.

64 RV 10.9, 7.49, 10.146, 10.71, 10.125; Doniger O’Flaherty, The Rig Veda, 61-63, 179-182, 199-200, 231-32, 242-45.

65 West, Indo-European Poetry, 139.

66 Flood, Introduction, 179; West, Indo-European Poetry, 139.

67 Bolon, Forms of the Goddess Lajja Gauri in Indian Art, figure 52; Kramrisch, “An Image of Aditi-Uttanapad,” 259-70.

68 RV 10.72.1-5; O’Flaherty, The Rig Veda, 30, 37- 40 ; Sayana on, citing Yaska’s Nirukta 11.23.

69 Doniger O’Flaherty, Textual Sources, 28-29.

70 Dorson, “The Eclipse of Solar Mythology.”

71 Staal, Agni.

72 Lincoln, “The Indo-European Cattle-Raiding Myth,” 18.

73 Thapar, Early India,130.

74 Ibid.

75 Jurewicz, “Prajapati, the Fire and the pancagnividya ,” 188; Gombrich, “Thought on Karma.”

CHAPTER 6: SACRIFICE IN THE BRAHMANAS

1 The date is sometimes said to be 3102 BCE or 1400 BCE. West, Indo-European Poetry, 13; Brockington, The Sanskrit Epics.

2 Jaiminiya Brahmana 2.182-83; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 40-42.

3 Aitareya Brahmana 3.21.

4 Shatapatha Brahmana 1.1.1.6: idam aham ya evaasmi so ‘smi.

5 Sayana’s commentary on the Rig Veda 1.121.

6 Erdosy, The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia.

7 Bhandarkar, Ancient History of Índia, 153-54, citing Kautilya and the Lalita Vistara.

8 Stein, A History of India, 51.

9 Flood, An Introduction, 53

10 Mitter, Indian Art, 13; Thapar, Early India, 109.

11 Thapar, Early India, 112

12 Ibid., 89-90.

13 Flood, An Introduction, 33; Keay, India, 41.

14 Flood, An Introduction, 80-81.

15 Witzel, “The Development of the Vedic Canon,” 313, 321, 333.

16 Thapar, Early India, 130.

17 Maitrayani Samhita 4.8.1; Kathaka Samhita 30.1.

18 Aitareya Brahmana 2.19 (8.1); Kaushitaki Brahmana 12.3.

19 Manu 7.130-31.

20 Shatapatha Brahmana 13.2.9.6-9; Doniger O’Flaherty, Textual Sources, 17-18.

21 Thapar, Early India, 129.

22 Heesterman, The Inner Conflict of Tradition.

23 Jaiminiya Brahmana 3.94-96; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 81-84.

24 Dumézil, The Destiny of the Warrior.

25 Brihaddevata; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 83; Sieg, Sagenstoffe,

26 RV 10.119-2-3, 9, 11-12.

27 Katha Upanishad 3.3-6.

28 Jaiminiya Brahmana 3.94-96; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 81-84.

29 Jamison, Sacrificed Wife.

30 Thapar, Early India, 122.

31 Shatapatha Brahmana 13.3.8.1-6; Doniger O’Flaherty, Textual Sources, 18-19.

32 Shatapatha Brahmana 13.2.9.9 and 13.5.2.10; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 17-18. The mantra is from RV 4.39, a prayer to a racehorse named Dadhikravan.

33 Debroy, Sarama and Her Children.

34 Taittiriya Brahmana 3.8.4.2; Doniger O’Flaherty, Textual Sources, 14-17.

35 Jamison, Sacrificed Wife, 78, 99, citing Maitrayani Samhita 2.1.19-23 and 3.12.1.

36 White, “Dogs Die,” 283-303.

37 Jaiminiya Brahmana 2.440-42; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 97-98.

38 Kathaka Samhita 29.1; Maitrayani Samhita 3.10.6; Aitareya Brahmana 2.22.10.

39 Jaiminiya Brahmana 1.161-2; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 101-02.

40 Kaushitaki Brahmana 23.4.

41 Jaiminiya Brahmana 1.161-3, Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 101-02.

42 Jaiminiya Brahmana 1.42-44, Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 32-34.

43 Kaushitaki Brahmana 11.3; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 39.

44 Shatapatha Brahmana 12.9.1.1; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 40.

45 Nandy, Exiled at Home, 47 and 63; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 36-37.

46 Thapar, Early India, 115.

47 Shatapatha Brahmana 11.7.1.3; cf. 12.8.3.12.

48 D. N. Jha, The Myth of the Holy Cow, 30-36; Keith, Religion and Philosophy, 324-26; Heesterman, The Broken World, 194, 283, n. 32; Renou, Vedic India, 109.

49 D.N. Jha, The Myth of the Holy Cow, 47; Taittiriya Samhita 5.6.11-20.

50 Cf. Ashvalayana Grihya-sutra 1.24, 31-33, for the ritual of killing a cow on the arrival of a guest.

51 Apastamba Dharmasutra 1.17.30 31.

52 Thapar, Early India, 90.

53 Shatapatha Brahmama 3.1.2.21.

54 Thapar, Early India, 115.

55 See the introduction, by Wendy Doniger and Brian K. Smith, to The Laws of Manu. See also the conflict between sacrifice and nonviolence in Doniger O’Flaherty, Other Peoples’ Myths, chapter 4.

56 Atharva Veda 11.2.9 and 3.10.6, with Sayana’s commentary.

57 Doniger O’Flaherty, Other Peoples’ Myths, chapter 4.

58 Shatapatha Brahmana 13.6.1-2; Vajasaneyi Samhita 30.1-22; Taittiriya Brahmana 3.4.1.1 ff.

59 Sharma, The Excavations at Kausambi, 87ff.; Schlinghoff, “Menschenopfer in Kausambi.”

60 Sauve, “The Divine Victim”; Willibald Kirfel, “Der Asvamedha und der Purusamedha.”

61 Flood, Introduction, 41; Heesterman, The Broken World, 10.

62 Lincoln, Myth, Cosmos, and Society, 183 n.

63 For men as the sacrificial beasts of the gods, see Doniger O’Flaherty, The Origins of Evil, 169-73.

64 Shatapatha Brahmana 11.7.1.3; Taittiriya Brahmana 3.9.17.4-5.

65 See the discussion of human sacrifice in Parpola, “The Pre-Vedic Indian Background,” 49-53; Weber, “Purusamedakandha” and “Ueber Menschenopfer”; Wilson, “On the Sacrifice of Human Beings”; Mitra, “On Human Sacrifices.”

66 Shatapatha Brahmana 1.2.3.6-7; Aitareya Brahmana 2.8; Levi, La doctrine, 136-37.

67 Eggeling, Shatapatha Brahmana, I, 49.

68 Aitareya Brahmana 7.13-18; Doniger O’Flaherty, Textual Sources, 20-25.

69 Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10; Shatapatha Brahmana 14.4.2.21-22; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 91.

70 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 171-73.

71 Shatapatha Brahmana 13.2.8.1-4.

72 Doniger O’Flaherty, Textual Sources 14-19.

73 Taittiriya Samhita 7.4.19; Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, 154-61; Textual Sources, 15-19.

74 Shatapatha Brahmana 1.9.9.

75 Grottanelli, “Yoked Horses.”

76 Doniger O’Flaherty, The Rig Veda, 257-263; Jamison, Sacrificed Wife, 77-88, further developed this connection between the horse sacrifice and RV 10.86, and showed that the monkey is a mock horse and the poem a mock horse sacrifice.

77 Shatapatha Brahmana 13.2.9.6-9; Doniger O’Flaherty, Textual Sources, 17-18.

78 Jaiminiya Brahmana 3.199-200; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 75-76.

79 Doniger, Splitting the Difference.

80 Doniger O’Flaherty, The Rig Veda, 253-56.

81 Shatapatha Brahmana 11.5.1.1-17; Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, 180-81.

82 Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, 180-81.

83 Doniger O’Flaherty, Textual Sources, 12-13.

84 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 216-19.

85 Shatapatha Brahmana 10.2.6.190.

86 Ibid, 11.1.6.6; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 217; Textual Sources, 29-30.

87 Shatapatha Brahmana 10.4.4.1-3. Doniger O’Flaherty, The Origins of Evil, 217.

88 Shatapatha Brahmana 11.1.6.6; Doniger O’Flaherty, The Origins of Evil, 217.

89 Tull, The Vedic Origins of Karma.

90 Shatapatha Brahmana 10.4.4.1-3; Doniger O’Flaherty, The Origins of Evil, 217.

91 Tull, The Vedic Origins of Karma.

92 Taittiriya Brahmana 3.11.8.1-6.

93 Katha Upanishad 1-2, 6.18.

94 Tale Type 369, 465C, 466, 812.

95 Thompson, Motif Index A 1715.

96 Jamison, Ravenous Hyenas.

97 Julius Eggeling, cited in Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 4-5.

98 Aitareya Brahmana, Maitrayani Samhita, Kathaka Samhita; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 12.

99 Doniger O’Flaherty, “The Post-Vedic History.”

100 Wasson, Soma.

101 Jaiminiya Brahmana 2.369-70; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 140.

102 Shatapatha Brahmana 5.5.4.10; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 153.

103 Taittiriya Samhita 2.5.1.

104 Tale Type 3.2.8.9-12; Taittiriya Samhita 4.1.9; Atharva Veda 6.113.

105 Shatapatha Brahmana 1.2.3.2-4.

106 Jaiminiya Brahmana 1.97-98; Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence, 51-52. Cf. Chandogya Upanishad 1.2.1-6.

107 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil.

CHAPTER 7. RENUNCIATION IN THE UPANISHADS

1 Chandogya Upanishad 4.4; Doniger O’Flaherty, Textual Studies, 31-32.

2 Keay, India, 52.

3 Ibid., 63.

4 Thapar, Early India, 138.

5 Ibid., 148.

6 Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism, 51-58.

7 Derrett, Dharmasastra and Juridical Literature, 4-5, 11-12

8 This page, and indeed much of my discussion of the history of India during this period, owes much to conversations with Laura Desmond.

9 Gombrich, “Dating the Buddha.”

10 Joel Brereton and Patrick Olivelle have argued, fairly convincingly, that it should rather be translated, “And that’s how you are.” Olivelle, Early Upanishads.

11 Manu 3.100; cf. 4.201: The same karmic transfers results from bathing in another man’s tank without his permission.

12 Doniger O’Flaherty, introductions to Karma and Rebirth and to 2nd ed. Origins of Evil.

13 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 248-71.

14 Keay, India, 49.

15 Fairservis, Roots; Zimmerman, The Jungle.

16 Roth, I Married a Communist, 72.

17 Flood, Introduction, 83.

18 Doniger O’Flaherty, Karma, 4.

19 Thapar, Early India, 130.

20 Ibid., 132.

21 Heesterman, The Broken World.

22 Doniger O’Flaherty, Karma, introduction.

23 Thapar, Early India, 132

24 Olivelle, Samnyasa Upanishads, 116, 123,132-33, 137-39, 152, 157-61.

25 Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams, 149-58.

26 Flood, Introduction, 87-88, citing Heesterman.

27 Ibid., 53.

28 Thapar, Early India, 132.

29 Maitrayani Samhita 4.8.1; Kathaka Samhita 30.1

30 Flood, Introduction, 87.

31 Obeyesekere, Imagining Karma.

32 Thapar, Early India, 128.

33 Garbe, “Lokayata.”

34 Olivelle, The Ashrama System, 9-16.

35 Flood, Introduction, 81-82; Doniger O’Flaherty, “The Origins of Heresy.”

36 Patanjali, cited by Flood, Introduction, 82; cf. Thapar, Early India, 63.

37 Flood, Introduction, 148.

38 Thapar, Early India, 131.

39 Klostermaier, Hinduism, 34; cf. Flood, Introduction, 86.

40 Insler, “The Shattered Head.”

41 Skanda Purana 1.2.13.62.

42 Thapar, Early India, 262.

43 In the Pali canon, the story is preserved in Anguttara Nikaya 8.51 and in the Cullavagga section of the Vinaya.

44 My insights into early sutras in general, and this paragraph in particular, come from Laura Desmond.

45 Ramayana 5.20.3.

46 Olivelle, Early Upanishads, 356.

47 West, Indo-European Poetry, 22.

48 Biardeau, Hinduism, 31.

49 Aitareya Brahmana 2.8-9.

50 Heesterman, The Inner Conflict.

51 Aitareya Brahmana 7.13-18.

52 Madan, Non-renuncation.

53 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 44-68.

54 Ernst, “Situating Sufism and Yoga.”

55 Narayan, Storytellers, Saints and Scoundrels.

56 Jamison, Sacrificed Wife, 16-17.

57 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva.

CHAPTER 8. THE THREE (OR IS IT FOUR?) AIMS OF LIFE IN THE HINDU IMAGINARY

1 Ashvaghosha, Buddhacarita, 2.14.

2 V. Shekhawat, “Origin and Structure of Purush-artha Theory.”

3 Larson and Bhattacharya, eds., Samkhya; Larson, “India Through Hindu Categories.”

4 . Larson, Classical Samkhya.

5 . Larson and Bhattacharya, eds., Samkhya.

6 Gamkrelidze and Ivanov, Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans, 408-11.

7 Cf. religion as the model of and the model for, in Geertz, “Religion as a Cultural System.”

8 Olivelle, Dharmasutras, xxxiii-iv.

9 Cf. M 8.52-57 and AS 3.1.19; M 7.102 and AS 1.4.5; M 7.105 and AS 1.15.60; M 9.280 and AS 4.11.7

10 Olivelle, “Manu and the Arthasastra” and Olivelle, Introduction to Manu, xx.

11 Divyavadana, Ashokavadana, and others.

12 Wilhelm, “The Concept of Dharma in Artha and Kama Literature.”

13 Brian K. Smith, Classifying the Universe.

14 Harsha, Priyadarshika, act 2.

15 Mandukya Upanishad 3-7.

16 Erdman, “The Empty Beat.”

17 Organ, “Three into Four.”

18 Olivelle, The Ashrama System.

19 Organ, “Three into Four.”

20 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva.

21 Doniger, “Three (or More) Forms.”

22 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 76-77.

23 Dumont, Homo Hierarchicus.

24 Heesterman, The Inner Conflict of Society.

25 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva.

26 Mahabharata 1.187 (three variants of this verse occur at 1.App. I.1.35-36, 1.App. I.5.18-19, and 18.App. I.3.31-32).

27 Krishna, Indian Philosophy, chapters 4, to 11.

28 Doniger O’Flaherty, The Origins of Evil, 94-97 and 128-31.

CHAPTER 9. WOMEN AND OGRESSES IN THE RAMAYANA

1 Chakravarti, Themes in Indian History, 53.

2 Ibid., 68.

3 Michell, Hindu Art and Architecture, 40.

4 Thapar, Early India, 148.

5 Heesterman, The Ancient Indian Royal Consecration.

6 Thapar, Early India, 143.

7 Mitter, Indian Art, 13.

8 Bosworth, “Calanus and the Brahman Opposition.”

9 Mitter, Indian Art, 24.

10 Keay, India, 78.

11 Ibid., 70.

12 Thapar, Early India, 194.

13 Ibid., 200.

14 Mathur, Art and Culture, 1-3.

15 Flood, Introduction, 51.

16 Bana, Harshahcarita.

17 Mann, The Sources of Social Power, 359.

18 Keay, India, 103.

19 Thapar, Early India, 210-12. The inscription is at the Elephant’s Cave (Hathigumpha).

20 Hiltebeiteil, Rethinking.

21 Ruben, Ueber die Frage der Objectivität, 114, cited by Hiltebeitel, Rethinking, 177.

22 Pollock, Ramayana, vl. 2, 32-33, but cf. Stein, A History of India, 51.

23 West, Indo-European Poetry, 469.

24 Ibid., 63; Shatapatha Brahmana 13.1.5.6.

25 Lord, The Singer of Tales.

26 Chakravarti, Themes in Indian History, 74.

27 Dalrymple, “Homer in India: Rajasthan’s Oral Epics,” 54.

28 Flood, Introduction, 105.

29 Nath, Puranas and Acculturation, 66.

30 Pollock “Atmanam Manusam Manye,” 234-35, citing Tryambaka.

31 Ibid., 242, citing Govindaraja.

32 Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams, 92; Hindu Myths, 198-204.

33 R, after 7.88, appendix I, no. 13, 21-25; cf. Doniger, Splitting the Difference, 9-27.

34 Doniger, Splitting the Difference.

35 Grottannelli, “The King’s Grace and the Helpless Woman.”

36 Grottanelli, “Yoked Horses, Twins, and the Powerful Lady”; Cornelia Dimmitt, “Sita: Fertility Goddess and Shakti.”

37 R 1.65.11-14, using the alternative lines rejected by the critical edition, including five lines omitted after verse 13ab; Doniger O’Flaherty, Textual Sources, 58-59.

38 R, between 6.9 and 6.10, appendix I, no. 3, verses 278-80.

39 Doniger, Splitting the Difference, 88-110.

40 Shulman. “Sita and Satakantharavana.”

41 Ibid.

42 Masson, “Fratricide and the Monkeys.”

43 Lutgendorf, Hanuman’s Tale.

44 The term “side shadows” was coined by Gary Saul Morson (after Bakhtin), in Narrative and Freedom.

45 Jones, On the Nightmare. Freud (in The Interpretation of Dreams) also wrote about this.

46 Doniger, The Bedtrick, 118-22.

47 Ramayana passage rejected by critical edition at 2.32, appendix 1, 14, 36-54. Cf. Jataka #386 (the Kharaputta Jataka) about a cobra woman and talking animals.

48 Masson, “Who Killed Cock Kraunca?”

49 Ramayana 7, appendix 1, no. 8, lines 332-465.

50 Nath, Puranas and Acculturation, 102.

51 Pollock, Ramayana, vol. 3, 69-70, citing Talboys-Wheeler, The History of India from the Earliest Ages (1869).

52 Goldman, Ramayana, vol. 1, 26, citing Gorresio.

53 Nath, Puranas and Acculturation, 39, 103.

54 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva.

55 Pollock, Ramayana, vol. 2, 403-04, 470, notes.

CHAPTER 10. VIOLENCE IN THE MAHABHARATA

1 13th Major Rock Edict, trans, Thapar, Ashoka, 255-56; Nikam and McKeon, Edicts, 27-29; Sircar, Inscriptions of Asoka, 50-52.

2 Second separate rock edict; Thapar, Ashoka, 258; Nikam, Edicts, 53; Sircar, Inscriptions, 41-42.

3 2nd Pillar Edict; Thapar, Ashoka, 262; Nikam, Edicts, 41; Sircar, Inscriptions, 62-63.

4 Irwin, “Ashokan Pillars.”

5 Mitter, Indian Art, 14-15.

6 Kandahar bilingual rock inscription; Thapar, Ashoka, 261.

7 4th Major Rock Edict, trans. Thapar, Ashoka, 251; Nikam McKeon, Edicts, 31; Sircar, Inscriptions, 42-43.

8 11th Major Rock Edict, Sircar, Inscriptions, 48.

9 1st Major Rock Edict, trans. Thapar, Ashoka, 250. Nikam and McKeon add “daily,” to the last line, 55; Sircar, 41, does not.

10 Thapar, Ashoka, 203, “his personal preference.”

11 5th Pillar Edict. Nikam and Mckeon, Edicts, 56; Sircar, Inscriptions, 64-65.

12 9th Major Rock Edict, Nikam and McKeon, Edicts, 46; Sircar, Inscriptions, 46-47.

13 Thapar, Ashoka, 202.

14 12th Major Rock Edict, Thapar, Ashoka, 255; Nikam and McKeon, Edicts, 51-52; Sircar, Inscriptions, 49.

15 9th Major Rock Edict, trans. Thapar, Ashoka, 254; Nikam and McKeon, Edicts, 46; Sircar, Inscriptions, 46-47.

16 Fourth Major Rock Edict, trans. Thapar, Ashoka, 251; Nikam and McKeon, Edicts, 31; Sircar, Inscriptions, 42-43.

17 Thapar, Ashoka, 203.

18 Keay, India, 104.

19 Ibid., 91.

20 Thapar, Early India, 275.

21 Mann, The Sources of Social Power, 359.

22 Thapar, Early India, 228.

23 Flood, Introduction, 103.

24 Nath, Puranas and Acculturation, 104.

25 Michell, Art and Architecture, 40-43.

26 Mahabharata 7.173, 10.18.1-23, 12.343, 13.76.

27 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 278.

28 Flood, Introduction, 218-19.

29 Keay, India, 108.

30 Flood, Introduction, 119

31 Thapar, Early India, 139; Chakravarti, Themes in Indian History, 74B.

32 Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Danger.

33 Kulke and Rothermund, A History of India, 45.

34 Gonzalez-Riemann, The Mahabharata and the Yugas.

35 Scharf, Ramopakhayana.

36 Harold Bloom, The Anxiety of Influence.

37 The Raghavapandaviya of Dhananjaya.

38 Hiltebeitel, The Ritual of Battle, 14-15.

39 Singer, When a Great Tradition Modernizes, 75-76.

40 Also Mahabharata 1.56.34; cf. 18.5.38: “Whatever is here about dharma, profit, pleasure, and Release . . .”

41 Hermann Oldenberg, as quoted in Sukthankar, On the Meaning of the Mahabharata, 1; Hopkins, Great Epic of India, 58; John D. Smith, “Old Indian (The Two Sanskrit Epics),” 50.

42 Reich, A Battlefield of a Text; “Sacrificial Violence and Textual Battles.”

43 Collins, “Violence, Power and Sacrifice in the Indian Context.”

44 Fitzgerald, The Mahabharata, v. 7, 123.

45 Doniger O’Flaherty, “Horses and Snakes.”

46 Van Buitenen, The Mahabharata, book 1, 4.

47 Hiltebeitel, Rethinking the Mahabharata, 171.

48 Ibid., 200-02.

49 I owe this realization to Lorraine Daston, Berlin, 2002.

50 Houben et al. and Tull, “The Killing That Is Not Killing.”

51 Tilak, Srimad BhagavadGita-Rahasya, 44.

52 Biardeau, Hinduism, 31.

53 Hiltebeitel, Rethinking the Mahabharatas, 202-14.

54 Fitzgerald, The Mahabharata, 112.

55 Strong, Ashokvadana.

56 Selvanayagam, “Asoka and Arjuna.”

57 Fitzgerald, The Mahabharata, 122.

58 Also in passages rejected, and not even printed as appendices, in the critical edition. See Ulrich, Divided Bodies.

59 Jataka 499 and Jatakamala #2.

60 Collins, “Violence, Power and Sacrifice in the Indian Context.”

61 RV 1.117.22; Shatapatha Brahmana 14.1.1.18-24; Doniger O’Flaherty, Hindu Myths, 56-60.

62 Allen, “Why Did Odysseus Become a Horse?,” 148.

CHAPTER 11. DHARMA IN THE MAHABHARATHA

1 Apastamba Dharma Sutra 1.7.20.6.

2 Apastamba and Gautama were probably third century BCE, Baudhayana second century BCE, and Vasistha first century CE; Olivelle, Dharmasutras, xxxiii.

3 Selvanayagam, “Ashoka and Arjuna.”

4 Flood, Introduction, 148.

5 Thapar, Early India, 278.

6 Chakravarti, The Social Dimensions of Early Buddhism; Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism.

7 Thapar, Early India, 279

8 Nath, Puranas and Acculturation, 27.

9 Thapar, Early India, 124.

10 Thapar, From Lineage to State, 170.

11 Thapar, Early India, 125.

12 Ibid., 124.

13 Ghurye, The Scheduled Tribes; Srinivas, Social Change in Modern India.

14 Thapar, Early India, 126.

15 Keay, India, 189.

16 Turner, The Forest of Symbols; Brian Smith, Classifying the Universe.

17 Brodbeck, “Ekalavya and Mahabharata 1.121-128.”

18 Hemavijayagani, Katharatnakara 185.20,” story no. 163, “The Story of the Bhilla,” pp. 185-86.

19 Doniger, Bedtrick, 248-54.

20 Doniger and Spinner, “Misconceptions.”

21 Doniger, Splitting the Difference.

22 Naishadiyacarita 17.132.

23 For Yavakri in the Jaiminiya Brahmana and Mahabharata , see Doniger O’Flaherty, Tales of Sex and Violence.

24 Bulcke, “La naissance de Sita”; Dubuisson, “La déesse chevelue.”

25 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi.

26 . Kinsley, Hindu Goddesses, 107-09, 151-02.

27 Mahabharata 12, appendix 1, no. 28, lines 72-75.

28 Kinsley, The Sword and the Flute; Hiltebeitel, The Ritual of Battle.

29 . Thapar, Early India, 228.

30 Mitter, Indian Art, 16.

31 Thapar, Early India, 193.

32 Pathak, “The Things Kings Sing.”

CHAPTER 12. ESCAPE CLAUSES IN THE SHASTRAS

1 Much of the background material and a number of insights in this chapter were provided by Laura Desmond. See also Desmond, Disciplining Pleasure.

2 Derrett, Dharmasastra and Juridical Literature, 4-5, 11-12.

3 Keay, India, 101, 104.

4 Thapar, Early India, 261

5 Keay, India, 102.

6 Ibid., 125.

7 Mitter, Indian Art, 45.

8 Thapar, Early India, 279

9 AS 2.30.29, 13.2.20, 39-43.

10 Keay, India, 104.

11 Thapar, Early India, 219.

12 Keay, India, 112 .

13 Flood, Introduction, 51.

14 Mitter, Indian Art, 46-47.

15 Keay, India, 112.

16 Thapar, Early India, 223.

17 Ibid., 224; Keay, India, 131.

18 Kosambi, An Introduction to the Study of Indian History, 286.

19 Thapar, Early India, 223.

20 Chakravarti, Themes in Indian History, 63.

21 Mitter, Indian Art, 27.

22 Keay, India, 125.

23 Ibid., 127.

24 Thapar, Early India, 279.

25 Pollock, “From Discourse of Ritual to Discourse of Power in Sanskrit Culture.”

26 Pollock, “India in the Vernacular Millennium.”

27 Thapar, Early India, 258; Zysk, Asceticism and Healing.

28 Gautama Dharma-sutra 4.16-18; Baudhayana Dharma-sutra 1.16.6-16, 17.1-14.

29 Deliege, The Untouchables of India.

30 Manu 2.108-16, 3.8-11, 3.127-86, 236-50, 4.205-23, 8.61-88, 9.143-47, 10.5-61, 11.55-71, 12.54-72.

31 Amar Chitra Katha, Mahabharata #3, “The Advent of the Kuru Princes,” 13, paraphrasing the Sanskrit text, Mahabharata 1.111.31, which in turn paraphrases, and indeed reverses the point of, Manu 9.158-60.

32 Galanter, Competing Equalities.

33 Gautama Dharmasutra 22.14.

34 Manu 8.370-71, 9.30, 8.34, 11.109-15.

35 Manu 4.205-223, 5.5-44, 6.229-240, 8.296-298, 8.324-8, 11.132-44, 10.896-89, 11.54-227.

36 Brian K. Smith, Reflections on Resemblances, Ritual, and Religion, 198-99.

37 Veena Das, Structure and Cognition, 29, citing the Dharmaranya Purana.

38 Doniger and Smith, “Sacrifice and Substitution.”

39 Biardeau, Hinduism, 64.

40 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 223.

41 Heesterman, The Ancient Indian Royal Consecration.

42 Tyagi, Women Workers, 181.

43 Chand, Liquor Menace in India, 3.

44 Wilson, Charming Cadavers.

45 Dandin, “The Adventures of the Ten Princes,” 13.63-69, trans. Onians.

46 Thapar, Early India, 262.

47 Doniger, The Implied Spider, chapter 5.

48 Gold, “The ‘Jungli Rani’ and Other Troubled Wives.”

49 Apastamba Dharmasutra 2.11.17-20, 2.12.1.

50 Doniger, Splitting the Difference.

51 Sweet and Zwilling, “The First Medicalization.”

52 Keay, India, 154.

CHAPTER 13. BHAKTI IN SOUTH INDIA

1 Blake Wentworth provided the chronology as well as much of the background material on South Indian history and Tamil literature in this chapter. See also Wentworth, Yearning for a Dreamed Real: The Procession of the Lord in the Tamil Ulas.

2 Cuntarar, Patikam 14, on Tiruppaccilacciramam, verse two (of fourteen), trans. David Shulman, in Doniger O’Flaherty, Textual Sources, 170.

3 Julius Lipner used this metaphor in his book Hindus. Others have used it too, and for good reason.

4 Kulke and Rotermund, History of India, 93.

5 Keay, India, 119.

6 Thapar, Early India, 243.

7 Keay, India, 121, 123.

8 Thapar, Early India 235.

9 Keay, India, 223.

10 Ibid., 168.

11 Mitter, Indian Art, 49.

12 Nath, Puranas and Acculturation, 176.

13 Keay, India, 219.

14 Ibid., 120.

15 Flood, Introduction, 128.

16 Thapar, Early India, 234.

17 Flood, Introduction, 113.

18 Ramanujan, Interior Landscape, 110.

19 Flood, Introduction, 169.

20 Ramanujan and Cutler, “From Classicism to Bhakti,” 244.

21 Flood, Introduction, 131. Cf. Narayanan, “The Ramayana in the Theology.”

22 Ramanujan, “Varieties of Bhakti,” 330.

23 Ramanujan and Cutler, “From Classicism to Bhakti,” 232.

24 Ibid., 253.

25 Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams, 286, citing Pen-rose, “In Praise of Illusion,” 274.

26 Ramanujan, “The Myths of Bhakti,” 298.

27 Keay, India, 169. It is also the earliest dated reference to Kalidasa.

28 Mitter, Indian Art, 48.

29 Tantrakhyana tale no. 1, cited in Doniger and Smith, trans., The Laws of Manu, 92.

30 Rabe, “The Mahamallapuram Prasasti.”

31 Ibid., 216-18.

32 Ibid., xxviii, 221.

33 Mitter, Indian Art, 57-58. It was called Gangaikondacolapuram.

34 Inden, Imagining India, 259.

35 Wujastyk, “Change and Continuity.”

36 Mitter, Indian Art, 45.

37 Ibid., 58-59; Orr, Donors, Devotees, and Daughters of God.

38 Doniger O’Flaherty, Animals in Four Worlds, 6-7, 8.

39 Sesser, Travels in Southeast Asia.

40 Keay, India, 216, 220, 223.

41 Carman, Theology of Ramanuja, 27.

42 Keay, India, 213, 218 quoting G. W. Spencer.

43 Mitter, Indian Art, 57-58.

44 Ibid., 54.

45 Ibid., 48; Flood, Introduction, 113.

46 Ramanujan and Cutler, “From Classicism to Bhakti,” 234, 236.

47 Keay, India, 174.

48 Ramanujan and Cutler, “From Classicism to Bhakti,” 238-40.

49 Keay, India, 219.

50 Ali, Courtly Culture.

51 Eck, Darshan.

52 Gombrich, “The Buddha’s Eye.”

53 Dalrymple, “Homer in India,” 52.

54 Doniger, Splitting the Difference.

55 Ashokavadana 27.

56 Shulman, Songs of the Harsh Devotee.

57 Ramanujan, Speaking of Siva, 131.

58 Hawley and Juergensmeyer, Songs of the Saints, 120.

59 Flood, Introduction, 131, says she was the daughter of a Brahmin priest; other traditions make her of low caste.

60 Mangaiyarkkarasi was the queen; Isainani Ammaiyar, the mother. Prentiss, “Joyous Encounters,” 76.

61 Indira Peterson places her in the fifth century (“Tamil Saiva Hagiography,” 194).

62 Cekkiyar Periya Puranam, 157-62.

63 Karaikkalammaiyar, Tiruvalankattumutta-tiruppatikam , trans. Cutler, Songs of Experience, 121.

64 Ramanujan, “On Women Saints,” 274.

65 Ibid., 271-74.

66 Ibid.

67 Nammalvar, Tiruvaymoli 9.9.10; Ramanujan, Hymns for the Drowning, 32.

68 Nammalvar, Tiruvaymoli 2.4.10; Ramanujan and Cutler, “From Classicism,” 249.

69 Basavanna, trans. Ramanujan, Speaking of Siva, 71.

70 Shulman, Tamil Temple Myths, 314-15, cited by Ramanujan (“Myths of Bhakti,” 298-99), who calls it the legend of Matrbhuteshvara (or, in Tamil, Tayumanavar), “he who even became a mother.”

71 The story is retold in the Sanskrit Skanda Purana, Kedara Khanda 5.111-97, 22.1-64; see Doniger, “The Scrapbook,” 66-70.

72 Periya Purana 16 (650-830), McGlasham trans. 71-86.

73 Ramanujan, “Myths of bhakti,” 306.

74 Keay, India, 219.

75 Ibid.

76 Ramanujan, “On Women Saints,” 271.

77 Periya Purana 24 (1041-1077), McGlasham trans., 103-06.

78 Ebeling, “Another Tomorrow for Nantanar.”

79 K. M. Sen, Hinduism, 79.

80 Ibid., 81.

81 Flood, Introduction, 131.

82 Ramanujan, Hymns for the Drowning, xi.

83 Shulman, Tamil Temple Myths, 158; The Hungry God.

84 M. G. S. Narayanan, Cultural Symbiosis in Kerala, xi.

85 Keay, India, 219; Flood, Introduction, 170.

86 Keay, India, 194.

87 Flood, Introduction, 131.

88 Keay, India, 219

89 Ulrich, “Food Fights.”

90 This is part of the guru lineage in the Vadagali tradition and in the hagiography of Tamil saints known as the Divyasuricharitam. See Monius, Imagining a Place for Buddhism.

91 Tiruvatavurar Purana, canto 6, cited by Pope, The Sacred Kurral, xxx-xxxii, lxvii-lxxii.

92 Periya Purana 34, 2497-2540, 2780-2824, McGlasham trans., 240-243.

93 Ibid., 34, 2576-2753, McGlasham trans.

94 Thapar, Cultural Transaction, 17; Marr, “The ‘Periya Puranam’ Frieze,” 278.

95 Marr, “The ‘Periya Puranam’ Frieze,” 268.

96 Monius, “Love, Violence, and the Aesthetics of Disgust,” 117, 126, 155.

97 Marr, “The ‘Periya Puranam’ Frieze,” 279.

98 Ibid., 278.

99 Thapar: Cultural Transaction, 17-18, citing P. B. Desai, Jainism in South India, 82-83, 401-02.

100 Ibid., 18.

101 Goel, Hindu Temples, 413, citing the inscription reproduced in Epigraphica Indica, vol., 255.

102 Thapar, Cultural Transaction, 18; cf. Bukka I and the Jainas, in Verghese, Religious Traditions at Vijayanagara, 121.

103 Davis, Lives of Indian Images.

104 Pidana, mardana, khandana, and dvesha. Ulrich, “Food Fights.”

105 This Syriac version of the Acts of Thomas is available in Wright, Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles, 146 -49.

106 Thapar, Early India, 25.

107 M. G. S. Narayanan, Cultural Symbiosis in Kerala, x, 4.

108 Ibid., 23-30.

109 Keay, India, 181.

110 Bhagavata Mahatmya, verses 48-49 of chapter 1, citing the Padma Purana. See Prentiss, The Embodiment of Bhakti, 35.

111 Doniger O’Flaherty, “The Origins of Heresy.”

112 Prentiss, The Embodiment of Bhakti, 35.

113 Ramanujan, “The Myths of Bhakti,” 307.

CHAPTER 14. GODDESSES AND GODS IN THE EARLY PURANAS

1 Kalidasa, Shakuntala 3.2 (alternative verse).

2 Mitter, Indian Art, 28.

3 Keay, India, 145, citing the third Jungadh inscription.

4 Ibid., citing Beal, Si yu ki xxxvii-xxxviii.

5 Keay, India, 144.

6 Mitter, Indian Art, 2.

7 Ibid., 28.

8 Thapar, Early India, 287.

9 Keay, India, 139.

10 Ibid., 144.

11 Flood, Introduction, 113.

12 Mitter, Indian Art, 2.

13 Hein, “A Revolution in Krsnaism,” 309-10.

14 Keay, India, xx.

15 Mitter, Indian Art, 30.

16 Ibid., 31.

17 Thapar, Early India, 281.

18 Thapar, Sakuntala, 256.

19 Doniger, “Jewels of Rejection.”

20 Goldman, “Karma, Guilt, and Buried Memories,” 423.

21 Thapar, Sakuntala, 41.

22 Keay, India, 136-37.

23 Doniger O’Flaherty, “The Image of the Heretic.”

24 Ramanujan and Cutler, “From Classicism to Bhakti,” 232.

25 Thapar, Early India, 244.

26 Ibid., 275.

27 Mitter, Indian Art, 45-47.

28 Keay, India, 158.

29 Thapar, Early India, 287.

30 Ben Shonthal’s vivid formulation.

31 Nath, Puranas and Acculturation, 8.

32 Thapar, Early India, 275.

33 Mitter, Indian Art, 56.

34 Nath, Puranas and Acculturation, 67.

35 Thapar, Early India, 275.

36 Redfield, The Little Community.

37 www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/rural.aspx

38 Narayana Rao, “Hinduism: The Untold Story.”

39 Nath, Puranas and Acculturation.

40 Narayana Rao, “Hinduism: The Untold Story.”

41 Narayana Rao, “Purana as Brahminic Ideology,” 91-92.

42 Markandeya Purana 135.7, 136.36.

43 Nath, Puranas and Acculturation, 57, citing Atri-smirti (373-83) and Mitakshara.

44 Hess, The Bijak of Kabir, 67.

45 Brahmanda Purana 1.2.26.10-61.

46 Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, Androgynes, 130-48.

47 Vamana Purana S.17.2-23.

48 Kinsley, Hindu Goddesses.

49 Markandeya Purana 82-83.

50 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi.

51 Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, Androgynes, 90-91.

52 Shvetashvatara Upanishad 6.23.

53 Skanda Purana 1.3.1.10.1-69; Doniger O’Flaherty, Hindu Myths, 243.

54 Markandeya Purana 85-90.

55 Frederick Smith, The Self Possessed.

56 Varaha Purana 33.4-15, 25-34; Doniger O’Faherty, Hindu Myths, 122.

57 This is the story that Kalidasa alludes to: “Shiva’s wife, Sati, the daughter of Daksha, was devoted to her husband and outraged when her father dishonored him. She discarded her body through yoga.” Kumarasambhava 1.21

58 Mahabharata 12.183.10.3-5; cf. 13.17.98, and Nilakantha on 13.17.101.

59 Fleet, Corpus, no. 18, 81, pl. XI, 11.21-23.

60 Brahmanda Purana 4.11.1-34, 5.30.30-99; cf. Vamana Purana 6.26-27, 25.1-20, 31.1-18.

61 Brahmavaivarta Purana 4.41.20-26.

62 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 226-32.

63 Shiva Purana 2.3.20.1-23; Doniger O’Flaherty, Hindu Myths, 160.

64 Böhtlingk, Indische Spruche, 1, 25, no. 130; Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 371, n. 220.

65 Courtright, Ganesha.

66 Padma Purana 1.46.1-32, 47-108,119-21. The same text, with some variations, appears in the Skanda Purana 1.2.27-29 (the version translated in Doniger O’Flaherty, Hindu Myths, 251-61, and discussed by Doniger, Bedtrick, 69-75) and in the Matsya Purana154-57 (the version translated by Shulman in God Inside Out, 156).

67 www.specials.rediff.com/getahead/2004/sep/16ga-ganesh.htm.

68 Commentary on Ramayana 1.29.6 (Bombay ed.); Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 100.

69 Harivamsha 118.11-39.

70 Commentary cited by Kangle, Arthasastra, 12.

71 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, chapter 9.

72 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 84-89.

73 Naishadiyacarita, canto 17, verse 201.

74 Dirks, “Political Authority and Structural Change,”125-57.

75 Markandeya Purana 10.47-87; 12.3-48; 10.88-97; 11.22-32.

76 Lewis Carroll, “Wool and Water,” Through the Looking Glass.

77 Kurma Purana 1.34.5-18.

78 Markandeya Purana 6.

79 Manu 10.1.1-13.

80 Sanford, “Holi Through Dauji’s Eyes.”

CHAPTER 15. SECTS AND SEX IN THE TANTRIC PURANAS AND THE TANTRAS

1 Mahanirvana Tantra 14.117-21.

2 Thapar, Early India, 261.

3 Keay, India, 161.

4 Ibid., citing Bana’s Harsha-charita.

5 Bana, Kadambari, trans. Gwendolyn Layne, 174-75.

6 Lévi, Le théâtre, 184-95. The Kashmiri historian Rajashekhara, in the ninth century, identified him as a Chandala. Sylvain Lévi identifies him as a Jaina, but his name betrays his low-caste origin.

7 Harsha, Ratnavali.

8 Beal, Si-yu-ki, 89.

9 Devahuti, Harsha: A Political Study, 154-57.

10 Keay, India, 182.

11 Mitter, Indian Art, 48.

12 Thapar, Early India, 275.

13 Ingalls, “Cynics and Pashupatas,” 284, citing the Mathara pillar inscription of Chandragupta II, Epigraphica Indica, vol. 21, 1-9.

14 Flood (Introduction, 155-57) dates the Pashupata Sutra to about the ninth century, but Ingalls thought it was the work of Lakulisha, about 100 CE.

15 Mitter, Indian Art, 48.

16 Flood, Introduction, 165.

17 Pashupata Sutra 3.3-19; Ingalls, “Cynics.”

18 Lorenzen, Kabir Legends, 102, 31-32; Kapalikas, 187-88.

19 Flood, Introduction, 157.

20 Shiva Purana, Jnana Samhita, 49.65-80; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 280.

21 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 123-28.

22 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 146-59.

23 Ibid., 277-86.

24 Ibid., 281; Shiva Purana 3.8-9.

25 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 124.

26 Siva Purana 2.2.16.30-36; cf 2.3.24.60-75; 2.4.4.5.

27 Mahabhagavata Purana 22.38-39; Skanda Purana 1.1.21.15.

28 Varaha Purana 97.2-8; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 279.

29 Skanda Purana 1.1.1.20-40; Shiva Purana 2.2.26-27.

30 Doniger O’Flaherty, The Origins of Evil, 272ff.

31 Shiva Purana 2.2.26.15-40.

32 Saura Purana 7.38-39; Markandeya Purana 49.13; Kurma Purana 1.15.29-33.

33 Devibhagavata Purana 7.30.

34 Doniger and Smith, “Sacrifice and Substitution.”

35 Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 123-29.

36 Flood, Introduction, 192.

37 Devi-bhagavata Purana 7.30.27-37, 40-50; Brahmavaivarta Purana 4.42-43; Maha-bhagavata Purana 11-23; Skanda Purana, Kedara Khanda 162; Doniger O’Flaherty, Hindu Myths, 249-51.

38 Markandeya Purana 85-90.

39 Markandeya Purana 80.21-44; cf. Skanda Purana 3.1.6.8-42; Doniger O’Flaherty, Hindu Myths, 240-49.

40 Skanda Purana 1.3.1.10.1-60.

41 Devi-Bhagavata Purana 5.2-11; Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, Androgynes, 82.

42 Skanda Purana 1.3.2.18-21.

43 White, Kiss of the Yogini, 21.

44 Flood, Introduction, 158.

45 White, Kiss of the Yogini, 9, 123, 159.

46 Flood, Introduction, 158.

47 Ibid., 154.

48 Ibid., 155.

49 Kripal, “Hinduism and Popular Western Culture.”

50 Kurma Purana 1.16.109-20; Doniger O’Flaherty, The Origins of Evil, 310.

51 Devi-bhagavata Purana 7.39.26-32.

52 Woodruffe, Shakti and Shakta, 570; Doniger O’Flaherty, The Origins of Evil, 318.

53 White, Kiss of the Yogini, 254, 211.

54 Mahayoga Tantra, cited by Wedemeyer, “Beef, Dog,” 385.

55 White, Kiss of the Yogini, 253.

56 Wedemeyer, “Beef, Dog.”

57 Mahanirvana Tantra 6.1-20.

58 Flood, Introduction, 189.

59 White, Kiss of the Yogini, 220.

60 Ibid., 254.

61 Ibid., xiii.

62 Ibid., 72.

63 Markandeya Purana 85-90.

64 Vamana Purana 44.30-38; Markandeya Purana 88.39-61; Matsya Purana 179.1-86; O’Flaherty, Women, 34.

65 Padma Purana 1.46.1-32, 47-108, 119-21; Skanda Purana 1.2.27-29 (Doniger O’Flaherty, Hindu Myths, 251-61); Matsya Purana 154-57.

66 Urban, “Matrix of Power.”

67 White, Kiss of the Yogini, 68.

68 Ibid., 220.

69 Ibid., 7-8.

70 Ibid., 67.

71 Ibid., 235

72 Flood, Introduction, 166.

73 White, Kiss of the Yogini, 235.

74 Ibid., 159.

75 Ibid., xii.

76 Mahanirvana Tantra 6.20.

77 Ibid., 11.110-20.

78 White, Kiss of the Yogini, 77, 268-71.

79 Sanjukta Gupta, “The Domestication of a Goddess,” 62.

80 Mahanirvana Tantra 6.1-20.

81 Wedemeyer, “Beef, Dog,” 392-93.

82 Urban, “What’s in It.”

83 Flood, Introduction, 191.

84 White, Kiss of the Yogini, 82.

85 Yoni Tantra 7.16b-17b.

86 Bharati, “Making Sense out of Tantrism and Tantrics,” 53.

87 Urban, The Economics of Ecstasy, 82-90; Magia Sexualis, 91-92; Tantra, 9-10, 41, 229.

88 Urban, “Matrix of Power.”

89 Flood, Introduction, 195-96.

90 White, Kiss of the Yogini, 253-54.

91 Flood, Introduction, 191-92.

92 As the historian Kshemendra reports, in Kashmir in the tenth or eleventh century CE.

93 Flood, Introduction, 161.

94 Skanda Purana 1.8.18-19.

95 Mahanirvana Tantra 14.180-89.

96 Skanda Purana 4.2.87-89.

97 Bipradas, Manasabijay, 235, cited by Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva, 227.

98 Banerjea, The Development of Hindu Iconography.

99 Mahanirvana Tantra 6.104-19.

100 Ibid., 11.120-30.

101 Ibid., 11.130-43.

102 Mitter, Indian Art, 56.

103 Ibid., 48; cf. Dehejia, Indian Art, 128.

104 Mitter, Indian Art, 48; cf. Dehejia, Indian Art, 128-31.

105 Keay, India, xxviii.

106 Mitter, Indian Art, 53-54.

107 Dehejia, Indian Art, 132-33.

108 Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams, 94-95.

109 Mitter, Indian Art, 66-67

110 Devangana Desai, Religious Imagery, 153.

111 Keay, India, 278.

112 Ibid.

113 Michell, Hindu Art and Architecture, 30.

114 Mitter, Indian Art, 79, citing Michael Meister.

115 Ibid., 68.

116 Flood, Introduction, 158.

117 Devangana Desai, Religious Imagery.

118 Dehejia, Yogini, Cult and Temples.

119 Mitter, Indian Art, 81.

120 White, Kiss of the Yogini, 12.

121 Mitter, Indian Art, 42-43.

122 Keay, India, 213.

123 Michell, Hindu Art and Architecture, 29.

124 Keay, India, 213.

125 Rushdie, “Introduction” to the Baburnama.

126 Keay, India, 278.

CHAPTER 16. FUSION AND RIVALRY UNDER THE DELHI SULTANATE

1 Hess and Singh, The Bijak of Kabir, 42.

2 Keay, India, 279.

3 Chattopadhyaya, Representing the Other, 29, 43, 89-90.

4 Rajatarangini 7.1090-95.

5 Chattopadhyaya, Representing the Other, 71

6 Ibn Batuta, Travels, A.D. 1325-1354 , written in the fourteenth century, trans. H. A. R. Gibb.

7 Keay, India, 180.

8 Ibid., 167.

9 Ibid., 181.

10 Ibid., 182.

11 Schimmel, The Empire, 107.

12 Keay, India, 185.

13 Mitter, Indian Art, 85.

14 Keay, India, 207.

15 Ibid., 209.

16 Ibid., 235, citing Ibn Asir.

17 Mitter, Indian Art, 85.

18 Keay, India, 245.

19 Ibid., 247.

20 Ibid., 245-47.

21 Ibid., 240.

22 Ibid., 259.

23 Ibid., 255.

24 Ibid., 60.

25 Ibid., 266.

26 Ibid., 270.

27 Ibid., 266, 270-71.

28 “Jains and Hindus Befriended,” in Husain’s Tughluq Dynasty.

29 Keay, India, 266.

30 Ibid., 272.

31 Ibid., 274.

32 Ibid., 271-72, 274.

33 Ibid., 181.

34 Ibid., 275.

35 Ibid., 211.

36 Eaton, The Rise of Islam, 268-90.

37 Keay, India, 235.

38 Ibid., 242.

39 Ibid., 235.

40 Ibid., 225.

41 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 248-71.

42 Chattopadhyaya, Representing the Other, 52, 55, 57, 60, 84, 88.

43 West, Indo-European Poetry, 467.

44 Digby, Warhorse and Elephant.

45 Babur, Baburnama, 335.

46 Keay, India, 211.

47 Ibid., 189.

48 Ibid., 275.

49 Encyclopaedia Britannica, s. v. “polo.”

50 Keay, India, 240.

51 Ibid., 276-77.

52 Gommans, The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire, 71.

53 Ibid., 78.

54 Keay, India, 277.

55 Stephen Inglis, personal communication, March 26, 1985.

56 Pusalker, The Struggle for Empire, 523.

57 Nagaswamy, “Gateway to the Gods.”

58 Mookerji, The History of Indian Shipping, 195.

59 Leshnik, “The Horse in India,” 56.

60 Keay, India, 306.

61 Ibid., 306.

62 Subrahmanyam, “The Political Economy of Commerce”; C. Gupta, “Horse Trade in North India.”

63 Keay, India, 277.

64 Abu’l Fazl, Ain-i-akbari, vol. 1, 142.

65 Gommans, The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire, 72.

66 Ibid., 73.

67 Ibid., 72-73, quoting J. L. Kipling, Beast and Man in India, 167-68.

68 Keay, India, 276-77.

69 Gommans, The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire, 74.

70 Polo, The Travels, 357; Marco Polo: The Description of the World, 174.

71 Gommans, The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire, 74.

72 Keay, India, 288.

73 Eaton, “Temple Desecration in Pre-modern India.”

74 Keay, India, 288.

75 Mitter, Indian Art, 85.

76 Keay, India, 188.

77 Ibid.

78 Ibid., 187.

79 Ibid., 207.

80 Ibid., 209.

81 Davis, Lives of Images, 90-112.

82 Thapar, Somanatha.

83 Keay, India, 237.

84 Ibid., 241, citing Ferishta.

85 Mitter, Indian Art, 75.

86 Keay, India, 257.

87 Thapar, Somanatha.

88 Sarkar, Beyond Nationalist Frames, 255

89 Davis, Lives of Images, 113, citing Amir Khusraw,

90 Keay, India, 258, citing Barani.

91 Davis, Lives of Indian Images, 133-35.

92 Eaton, “Temple Desecration in Pre-modern India.”

93 Keay, India, 242.

94 Schimmel, The Empire, 107.

95 Keay, India, 202.

96 Ibid., 278, 286.

97 Metcalf, A Concise History, 3.

98 Ibid., 275, 278.

99 Keay, India, 242.

100 Eaton, “Temple Desecration in Pre-Modern India,” 303.

101 Ibid., 285, 287, citing Tod, Annals, vol. 1, 23.

102 Ernst, “Situating Sufism and Yoga,” 24-25, citing Buzurg ibn Shahriyar, The Book of the Marvels of India, 132.

103 Ibid., citing Taranatha’s History of Buddhism in India, 320.

104 Schimmel, The Empire, 128.

105 Keay, India, 235.

106 Schimmel, The Empire, 109.

107 Behl and Weightman, Madhu Malati, xiii.

108 Ernst, “Islamization of Yoga,” 107.

109 Ibid.

110 Doniger, “The Clever Wife in Indian Mythology.”

111 Keay, India, 189.

112 Schimmel, The Empire, 107.

113 Keay, India, 285.

114 Mitter, Indian Art, 87-89.

115 Flood, Introduction, 144.

116 Amartya Sen, Foreword to K. M. Sen, Hinduism, xix, citing K. M. Sen, Medieval Mysticism of India, 146-52.

117 Flood, Introduction, 142.

118 Ibid., 145.

119 Lorenzen, Kabir Legends, 26-27, citing Anantadas, 7, 43-44, 47, citing contemporary oral tradition.

120 Hess, The Bijak, 4-5.

121 Lorenzen, Kabir Legends, 43-45, 47, citing contemporary oral tradition.

122 Ibid., 3.

123 Ibid., 18-19.

124 Ibid., 50, from the Dabistan-i-Mazahib.

125 Nandy, “Sati as Profit Versus Sati as a Spectacle,” 136.

126 Kabir, The Weaver’s Songs, trans. Dharwadkar, 162.

127 Ibid., 10.

128 Hess, The Bijak, no. 30, 51.

129 Ibid., no. 84, 69-70.

130 Ibid., no. 75, 67.

131 Flood, Introduction, 145.

132 Lorenzen, Kabir Legends, 29, citing Anantadas, Kabir parachai, 1693 ms. 4.10-15.

133 Ibid., 65, citing Paramananda-das, Kabir Manshur.

134 Hess, The Bijak, no. 41, 55.

135 Hess, A Touch of Grace, xxi.

136 Keay, India, 280.

137 Narayana Rao et al. Textures of Time.

138 Ajay Rao, “Othering Muslims or Srivaisnava-Saiva Contestation?”

139 Pollock, “Ramayana and Political Imagination in India,” 278.

140 Ajay Rao, Srivaisnava Hermeneutics.

141 Ajay Rao, “Othering Muslims or Srivaisnava-Saiva Contestation?

142 Verghese, Religious Traditions at Vijayanagara, 121.

143 Chattopadhyaya, Representing the Other, 60

144 Wagoner, “Sultan among Hindu Kings,” 851-80.

145 Keay, India, 303, 305, 307.

146 Mitter, Indian Art, 62.

147 Narayana Rao et al., Textures of Time, 44-52, 73-77.

148 Ibid.

149 Michell, Art and Architecture, 133.

150 Keay, India, 179, 212.

151 Mitter, Indian Art, 3.

152 Ibid., 86.

153 Ramanujan, Speaking of Siva.

154 Flood, Introduction, 171.

155 Ramanujan, Speaking of Siva, 28.

156 Ibid., 88; “The Myths of Bhakti,” 99.

157 Ibid., 297.

158 Davis, The Lives of Indian Images.

159 Shulman, untitled review of Siva’s Warriors, 313.

160 Ibid.

161 Narayana Rao, Siva’s Warriors, 235.

162 Ibid., 196-201.

163 Ramanujan, “Varieties of Bhakti,” 324-31; Speaking of Siva, 111-42.

164 Mahadevyyakka 328; Ramanujan, Speaking of Siva, 141; “Varieties of Bhakti,” 324.

165 Ramanujan, “Varieties of Bhakti,” 326.

166 Ramanujan, Speaking of Siva, 127.

167 Ibid., 114.

CHAPTER 17. AVATAR AND ACCIDENTAL GRACE IN THE LATER PURANAS

1 Padma Purana 2.1.5.1-35; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 136-37.

2 Pollock, “Sanskrit Literary Culture from the Inside Out,” 102.

3 Hess, The Bijak, no. 8, 45-46.

4 Kirfel, Kosmologie.

5 Thapar, Early India, 276.

6 Killingley, “Hinduism, Darwinism and Evolution.”

7 Vayu Purana 2.36.74.

8 Taittiriya Samhita 7.1.5.1; Shatapatha Brahmana 14.1.2.11.

9 Vishnu Purana 1.4.

10 Mitter, Indian Art, 47.

11 Hawley, Krishna, The Butter Thief.

12 Rank, The Myth of the Birth of the Hero; Dundes, “The Hero Pattern.”

13 Harivamsha 47-48.

14 Wadley, Raja Nal, 193.

15 Bhagavata Purana 10.6.

16 Ibid. 10.7.37, 10.13.44.

17 Brahmavaivarta Purana 4.15; Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, 103-04.

18 Beck, “Krishna as Loving Husband,” 71, citing Charlotte Vaudeville.

19 Behl and Weightman, Madhu Malati.

20 Brahmavaivarta Purana 4.15.

21 Whaling, The Rise of the Religious Significance of Rama, 138; Hess, “Rejecting Sita.”

22 Adhyatma-ramayana 3.7.1-10.

23 Ibid., 6.8.21.

24 Brahmavaivarta Purana 2.14.1-59.

25 Mahabharata 1.175.

26 The earliest texts that allude to the Buddha avatar may antedate the Mahabharata (Banerjea, The Development of Hindu Iconography, 392; Schrader, Introduction, 43-47), but this has yet to be proved (Klostermaier, Hinduism, 58-59).

27 Kumbhakona ed. of Mahabharata, 2.348.2; 12, appendix 1, no. 32, lines 1-17; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 188.

28 Bhavisya Purana 3.1.6.35-421; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 203.

29 Hazra, Studies in the Puranic Records, 88.

30 Krishna Sastri, “Two Statues of Pallava Kings,” 5; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 188.

31 Vishnu Purana 3.17-18.

32 Garuda Purana 1.32.

33 Bhuridatta Jataka, no. 543, esp. verses 210-11.

34 Kalika Purana 78.206.

35 Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, 80-129.

36 Bhagavata Purana 6.8.19.

37 Varaha Purana 48.22.

38 Matsya Purana 47.24, 54.19.

39 Kshemendra, Dashavatarcharita 9.1-74.

40 Gita Govinda 1.1.9.

41 Krishna Sastri, “Two Statues of Pallava Kings,” 5-7.

42 Devibhagavata Purana 10.5.13, dushta-yajnavighataya.

43 Glasenapp, Von Buddha zu Gandhi, 113.

44 Hess, The Bijak, no. 8, 45-46.

45 Basham, The Wonder, 309.

46 Anagatavamsa, 33-54.

47 Personal communication from Prof. Richard F. Gombrich, Oxford, U.K., 1973.

48 Holt, The Buddhist Vishnu.

49 Huntingon, A Study of Puranic Myth, 33.

50 Doniger O’Flaherty, The Origins of Evil, 179.

51 Ibid., 204-05.

52 Goetz, Studies in the History and Art, 77-80, discussing a frame in Srinagar Museum, of Shankara-varman (r. 883-902).

53 Thapar, Early India, 277.

54 Basham, The Wonder, 309.

55 Revelation 19.11-15.

56 Mahabharata 3.188.86-93, 189.1-13.

57 Vishnu Purana 4.24.98.

58 Ibid., 5.17.11; 5.18.1-6; cf. Bhagavata Purana 6.18.19.

59 Banerjea, The Development, 424.

60 Kalki Purana 1.1.14-39; 2.6-7, 3.6-7.

61 Sternbach, reveiw of R. C. Hazra.

62 Michell, Art and Architecture, 101.

63 Bhagavata Purana 12.2.19.

64 Ivanow, “The Sect of Imam Shah in Gujurat,” 62-64.

65 Bhagavata Purana 8.24.7-57; Agni Purana 2.1-17.

66 Vishnu Purana 5.17.11; Bhagavata Purana 5.18.1-6.

67 Devibhagavata Purana 1.5.1-112; Doniger O’Flaherty, Women, 224.

68 Vishnu Purana 5.6.

69 Michell, Art and Architecture, 51.

70 Doniger, Splitting the Difference, 204-16.

71 Goldman, “Fathers, Sons, and Gurus.”

72 Shatapatha Brahmana 1.2.5.1-9.

73 Vayu Purana 2.36.74-86.

74 Taittiriya Brahmana 1.5.9.1; Mahabharata 12.160.26-28.

75 Harivamsha 71.48-72, Vamana Purana 51, Matsya Purana 244-46.

76 Devibhagavata Purana 4.15.36-71.

77 Skanda Purana 1.1.18.121-29.

78 Vishnu Purana 1.15-20; Bhagavata Purana 7.1-10.

79 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 248-71.

80 Vamana Purana 15-16.

81 Èliade, Briser le toit de la maison.

82 Vamana Purana S. 24.6-17.

83 Skanda Purana 1.1.31.1-78.

84 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 248-72.

85 Doniger O’Flaherty, “Ethical and Non-Ethical Implications,” 196-98.

86 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 231-36.

87 Skanda Purana, Kedara Khanda, 5.101.

88 Ibid., 8.1-13.

89 Shiva Purana 2.1.17.48-2.1.18.39.

90 Shiva Purana Mahatmya 2.1-40.

91 Skanda Purana 1.1.18.53-120; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 127-28.

92 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 308-09.

93 Hazra, Studies in the Puranic Records, 99n.

94 Bhagavata Purana 7.1.29-30; 10.44.39.

95 Skanda Purana, Kedara Khanda, 5.92-95.

96 Ibid., 33.1-64.

97 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 321-31.

98 Vamana Purana S. 26.4-62; 27.1-23.

99 Skanda Purana 7.1.336.95-253; cf. Garuda Purana 6.4-8.

CHAPTER 18. PHILOSOPHICAL FEUDS IN SOUTH INDIA AND KASHMIR

1 Rushdie, Haroun, 40.

2 Purva-mimamsa-sutra 6.1.8 and 6.1.25-38.

3 K. M. Sen, Hinduism, 67. He called them ardhavainashika, punning on vai-sheshika (people who make distinctions) and vai-nashika (people who make extinctions—of religion).

4 Ibid., 69.

5 Ibid., 66.

6 Flood, Introduction, 238-46.

7 Ibid., 132.

8 Klostermaier, Hinduism, 60; see also the Sarvadarsanasamgraha of Madhava (not to be confused with Madhva), a fourteenth-century Advaitia philosopher.

9 Schimmel, The Empire, plate 75.

10 Keay, India, 194.

11 Kripal, “Hinduism and Popular Western Culture.”

12 Shankara’s commentary on the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (iii.5.1 and iv.5.15); Lorenzen, Who Invented Hinduism?, 121.

13 Ramanuja’s commentary on Badarayana’s Brahmasutra (Shribhashya 2.2.27); Isayeva, Shankara and Indian Philosophy, 14.

14 Grierson, “Madhvas,” 235.

15 Shankara-dig-vijaya of Madhava, 1.28-43.

16 Shankara-dig-vijaya of Madhava, chapter 9; Shankara-vijaya of Anandagiri, 58-59; Ravicandra’s commentary on Amaru; Siegel, Fires of Love, 4-5.

17 Flood, Introduction, 240.

18 Gopinatha Rao, Elements, 1.1.266; Narayana Rao and Shulman, Classical Teluga Poetry 143-44.

19 Carman, Theology of Ramanuja, 43, n. 37.

20 Davis, Lives of Indian Images, 133.

21 Carman, Theology of Ramanuja, 44, n. 38, 39.

22 Ibid., 45.

23 Narayana Panditacarya, Madhva-vijaya 10.8- 10.18, 10.27-10.32

24 Encyclopaedia Britannica on Madhva.

25 Varaha Purana 71.48-62.

26 Madhva, Brahma-sutra-bhashya 1.1.1, citing Varaha Purana 1.228; cf. Klostermaier, Hinduism, 59-60.

27 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 70-72.

28 Narayana Panditacarya, Manimanjari 5-8.

29 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 210.

30 Flood, Introduction, 166.

31 Ibid., 164.

32 Ibid., 170.

33 Ibid.,162.

34 Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 168-73.

35 Lubin, “Veda on Parade,” 398.

36 Agni Purana 27.17-28.

37 Beck, “Krishna as Loving Husband of God,” 70.

38 Flood, Introduction, 137.

39 Appadurai, “Kings, Sects and Temples.”

40 Prashna Upanishad 4.5.

41 Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams, Illusion.

42 Cox, “Saffron in the Rasam.”

43 Flood, Introduction, 166.

44 Schimmel, The Empire, 137.

45 Ibid. 328 and 114; a copy of the gorgeously illustrated translation is one of the treasures of the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin.

46 Personal communication from Muzaffar Alam, Chicago, December 2007.

47 Yoga-vasishtha 1.10-11; Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams, 131, 139-40.

48 Yoga-vasishtha 6.1.85-08; Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams, 280-81.

49 Yoga-vasishtha 3.104-09, 120-21; Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams, 134-35.

50 Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams, 140-45.

51 Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 2.1.18.

52 Markandeya Purana 8.128.

53 Gombrich and Cone, The Perfect Generosity, xxv-xxvi; Jataka 547.

54 Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams.

55 Yoga-vasishtha 5.44-49; Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams 135-36.

CHAPTER 19. DIALOGUE AND TOLERANCE UNDER THE MUGHALS

1 Cited by Schimmel, The Empire, 113.

2 Ibid., 94-95.

3 Keay, India, 322.

4 Ibid., 274, 289.

5 Schimmel, The Empire, 24.

6 Babur, Baburnama, 353.

7 Ibid., 52, 442, 415, 342.

8 Keay, India, 295,

9 Babur, Baburnama, 394.

10 Mukhia, The Mughals, 18.

11 Schimmel, The Empire, 30-31.

12 Keay, India, 309.

13 Gascoyne, The Great Moguls, 57.

14 Schimmel, The Empire, 31.

15 Keay, India, 315.

16 Schimmel, The Empire, 33.

17 Keay, India, 316-17.

18 Amartya Sen, The Argumentative Indian, 288, citing Abu’l Fazl.

19 Keay, India, 312, citing Abu’l Fazl, Akbar Nama, 2, 271-72.

20 Schimmel, The Empire, 131.

21 Ibid., 113, citing Akbar.

22 Khan, “Akbar’s Personality Traits,” 22.

23 Ibid., 36.

24 Amartya Sen, Foreword to K. M. Sen, Hinduism, x-xi.

25 Schimmel, The Empire, 36, 94, 120-21.

26 Keay, India, 317

27 Ibid.

28 Schimmel, The Empire, 38.

29 Keay, India, 318.

30 Ibid., 312-13.

31 Schimmel, The Empire, 111.

32 Wujastyk, “Change and Creativity,” 107, 109-10.

33 Mukhia, The Mughals, 23.

34 Ibid., 30.

35 Abu’l Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari, vol. 3, 181.

36 Schimmel, The Empire, 111.

37 Dalrymple, “The Most Magnificent Muslims,” 26.

38 Keay, India, 327.

39 Findly, “Jahangir’s Vow,” 249.

40 Schimmel, The Empire, 95-96, 109, 148, 328.

41 Mukhia, The Mughals, 19, 23-24.

42 Schimmel, The Empire, 114.

43 Mukhia, The Mughals, 24.

44 Mitter, Indian Art, 87.

45 Richards, The Mughal Empire, 152.

46 Schimmel, The Empire, 116.

47 Ibid., 50.

48 Gascoigne, The Great Moghuls, 227.

49 Dalrymple, White Moghuls, 110.

50 Keay, India, 344-45

51 Ibid., 343.

52 Ibid., 342-43, 349, 356.

53 Mukhia, The Mughals, 25.

54 Keay, India, 342.

55 Mukhia, The Mughals, 24.

56 Ibid., 26.

57 Keay, India, 336, 343.

58 Schimmel, The Empire, 52.

59 Keay, India, 342

60 Schimmel, The Empire, 139.

61 Eaton, Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, 305.

62 Keay, India, 364

63 Schimmel, The Empire, 196.

64 Ibid., 103, 196.

65 Babur, Baburnama, 298.

66 Ibid., 276.

67 Schimmel, The Empire, 277.

68 Babur, Baburnama, 300.

69 Ibid., 301.

70 Keay, India, 295.

71 Babur, Baburnama, 380-82.

72 Schimmel, The Empire, 196; cf. Babur-nama, 436.

73 Babur, Baburnama, 413, 439.

74 Forster, “The Emperor Babur.”

75 Schimmel, The Empire, 30, 40, 146, 196.

76 Ibid., 41, 45, 96, 198.

77 Findly, “Jahangir’s Vow,” 247.

78 Schimmel, The Empire, 195.

79 Ibid., 12, 128, 137.

80 Babur, Baburnama, 372-74.

81 Abu’l Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari. vol. 1, 301, 203-4.

82 Karen Rosenberg, “An Emperor’s Art: Small, Refined, Jewel Toned,” reviewing an exhibition at the Sackler Gallery. New York Times, Friday, July 18, 2008.

83 Mukhia, The Mughals, 14, citing Thomas Coryat, English Traveler to India, 1612-17.

84 Abu’l Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari, 292-300.

85 Findly, “Jahangir’s Vow,” 250, citing Humayun’s memoirs.

86 Schimmel, The Empire, 10, 36, citing Akbar-nama 3 and Bayazid Bayat, Tarikh-i-Humayunwa-Akbar, 74.

87 Abu’l Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari, vol. 3 446, 164.

88 Ibid., 202.

89 Findly, “Jahangir’s Vow,” 247-48.

90 Ibid., 247, 250, 253.

91 Mukhia, The Mughals, 26-27.

92 Keay, India, 331, 351.

93 Ibid., 338, 350, 398, 533, 354.

94 Ibid., 356, 363

95 Eaton, Temple Desecration, 304.

96 Schimmel, The Empire, 112.

97 Eaton, The Rise of Islam, 183.

98 Mukhia, The Mughals, 30

99 Ibid., 30-31, 37.

100 Schimmel, The Empire, 112.

101 Mukhia, The Mughals, 31.

102 Schimmel, The Empire, 114

103 Mukhia, The Mughals, 31-32, 35, 28-29.

104 Eaton, The Rise of Islam, 180-82.

105 Schimmel, The Empire, 113.

106 Haberman, Bhaktirasamritasindhu.

107 Mukhia, The Mughals, 23-24.

108 N. K. Sen, Hinduism, 89, citing the seventeenth-century Sufi Bawr Saheb, his Hindu disciple Biru Saheb, and his Muslim disciple Yari Shah.

109 Schimmel, The Empire, 111.

110 Petievich, “Dakani’s Radha-Krishna Imagery.”

111 Schimmel, The Empire, 137.

112 Stewart, “Satya Pir”; Fabulous Females.

113 Schimmel, The Empire, 17.

114 Narayana Rao, “Multiple Literary Cultures.”

115 Keay, India, 336.

116 Schimmel, The Empire, 238, 241.

117 Michell, Art and Architecture, 136-37.

118 Schimmel, The Empire, 238, 229.

119 Behl, Madhu Malati, xiii.

120 Keay, India, 336.

121 Michell, Art and Architecture, 141-42.

122 Babur, Baburnama, 365.

123 Keay, India, 316, 320.

124 Michell, Art and Architecture, 138-39.

125 Bakker, Ayodhya.

126 Michell, Art and Architecture, 134

127 Schimmel, The Empire, 282.

128 Ibid., 300.

129 Keay, India, 322, 334.

CHAPTER 20. HINDUISM UNDER THE MUGHALS

1 Amitav Ghosh, cited by Rushdie, Introduction to the Baburnama, ix.

2 Wujastyk, “Change and Creativity,” 110, citing P. V. Kane.

3 Ibid.

4 Olivelle, Renunciation in Hinduism: A Medieval Debate.

5 Lutgendorf, Hanuman’s Tale, 121, citing Bernard S. Cohn.

6 Haberman, Acting, 41.

7 Schimmel, The Empire, 237.

8 Lutgendorf, The Life of a Text, 99.

9 Lamb, “Personalizing the Ramayana,” 237.

10 Tulsi, Ramcaritmanas (The Holy Lake), 7.53; Hawley and Juergensmeyer, Songs of the Saints of India, 153.

11 Ramacaritamanasa of Tulsi Das, 3.23-24, 6.107-108.

12 Ibid., 6.108.7.

13 Beck, “Krishna as Loving Husband,” 71.

14 Bhattacharya, Love Songs of Chandidas, 107.

15 Flood, Introduction, 141.

16 Ibid., 139.

17 Dimock, Place of the Hidden Moon.

18 Mukhia, The Mughals, 39.

19 Sanford, “Holi Through Dauji’s Eyes,”109.

20 Openshaw, Seeking Bauls of Bengal.

21 Beck, “Krishna as Loving Husband,” 72-73.

22 Ibid., 78.

23 Haberman, Acting.

24 Beck, “Krishna as Loving Husband,” 76, quoting J. Farquhar in 1917.

25 Nathan and Seely, Grace and Mercy in Her Wild Hair.

26 McLean, Devoted to the Goddess; McDermott, Mother of My Heart.

27 Dilip Chitre, Introduction to Tukaram, Says Tuka, ix.

28 Ibid., xix, xiv, 119.

29 Tukaram, Says Tuka, 80.

30 Ibid., 86-87.

31 Gommans, The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire, 82.

32 Digby, Warhorse and Elephant.

33 Babur, Baburnama, 446 and 463 (trans. Beveridge).

34 Keay, India, 325.

35 Abu’l Fazl, Ain-i-akbari, vol. 1, 140.

36 Schimmel, The Empire, 203.

37 Abu’l Fazl, Ain-i-akbari, vol. 1, 140.

38 Ibid.

39 Kelly, Marwari.

40 Doniger, “ ‘I Have Scinde.’ ”

41 Schimmel, The Empire, 52-53.

42 Crooke, The Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India, vol. 2, 206; citing Rousselet, “India and Its Native Princes,” 116.

43 Asutosh Bhattacarya, Folklore of Bengal, 49. Crooke, The Popular Religion and Folk-lore, vol. 2, 206.

44 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, vol. 1, Mythologies, 101-102.

45 Ibid., 118, 122.

46 Sontheimer, “The Mallari/Khandoba Myth,” 155, 163.

47 Personal communication from Jack Stanley, Chicago, 1980.

48 Sontheimer, “Folk Hero, King and God.”

49 Sontheimer, “Some Incidents in the History of the God Khandoba,” 116.

50 Vinakaya, Sri Mallari Mahatmya.

51 Sontheimer, “The Mallari/Khandoba Myth,” 161.

52 Ibid., n. 16, citing the Sri Martanda Vijaya of Gandgadhara, 34.51 ff.

53 Vinakaya, Sri Mallari Mahatmya, 13.24.

54 Erndl, Victory to the Mother, 46. The story is found in oral tradition and numerous popular pamphlets.

55 Ibid., 96. From a Hindi oral version collected in Chandigarh, 1982-83.

56 Erndl notes, of her contemporary story: ”There is a controversy over whether he is the same as King Hariscandra of Ayodhya, an ancestor of Rama, or a local king of Haripur in District Kangra, H.P. [Himachal Pradesh].”

57 Crooke, The Popular Religion and Folk-lore, vol. 2, 206; citing Indian Antiquary, vol. 11, 325 ff; Panjab Notes and Queries, vol. 2.

58 Hiltebeitel, Rethinking the Mahbharata, 2.

59 Ibid., 121.

60 Ibid., 45, citing A. K. Ramanujan.

61 Ibid., 299.

62 Temple, Legends of the Punjab, vol. 1, 121-209.

63 Steel, “Folklore in the Panjab,” 35.

64 Crooke, The Popular Religion and Folk-lore, vol. 1, 211-13, citing Indian Antiquary, vol. 11, 33 ff; Cunningham, “Archaeological Reports,” vol. 17, 159; “Panjab Notes and Queries,” vol. 2, 1; John Campbell Oman, Cults, Customs, and Superstitions (1908), 68-82.

65 Rose, A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes, 179. From Nabha State, a princely Sikh state near the Punjab.

66 Subrahmanyam, “Friday’s Child,” 80.

67 Ibid., 81, quoting a French eyewitness account of 1714.

68 Ibid., 92-106, citing Arunachalam, Peeps into Tamil Literature; Desingu Rajan Kathai, 138 ff.

69 Subrahmanyam, “Friday’s Child,” 108-09.

70 Dalrymple, “Homer in India,” 51.

71 Ibid., 54

72 Joshi, Painted Folklore and Folklore Painters of India, 52.

73 Kramrisch, Unknown India, 87.

74 Agravat, Satyavadi Vir Tejapala.

75 Lopez, Religions of India in Practice.

76 Eaton, The Rise of Islam, 180-82.

77 Schimmel, The Empire, 156, 158, 161.

78 Ibid., 164.

79 Ibid., 144-15, 155-56.

80 Ibid., 143.

81 Ibid., 143, 147-49, 156.

82 Ibid., 151, 153.

83 Ibid., 155.

84 Dalrymple, White Moghuls, 34.

85 Schimmel, The Empire, 155.

86 Hawley and Juergensmeyer, Songs of the Saints of India, 126-27, 120, 132.

87 Ibid., 137.

88 Hawley, Three Bhakti Voices, 111.

89 Flood, Introduction, 143-44.

90 Nandy, “Sati as Profit,” 139, citing V. N. Datta, Sati, 13-14.

91 Abu’l Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari, vol. 1, 216.

92 Ibid., vol. 3, 449.

93 Nandy, “Sati as Profit,” 140.

94 Mukhia, The Mughals, 32, citing the Tuzuk-I Jahangiri, trans. Alexander Rogers, vol. 2, 180-81.

95 Ibid., 36.

96 Nandy, “Sati as Profit,” 140.

97 Schimmel, The Empire, 113.

98 Nau’i, Burning and Melting.

99 Sangari, “Perpetuating the Myth,” 27.

100 Schimmel, The Empire, 166.

101 Ramanujan et al., When God Is a Customer.

102 Ibid., 23.

103 Ibid., 24.

104 Ibid., 117-18.

CHAPTER 21. CASTE, CLASS, AND CONVERSION UNDER THE BRITISH RAJ

1 Kipling, Kim, 191.

2 Keay, India, 372.

3 Dirks, The Scandal of Empire, xiii.

4 Keay, India, 435

5 Ibid., 8, citing Magnus, King Edward the Seventh, 217-18.

6 Ibid., 18.

7 Dube, Untouchable Pasts, 11, quoting Nick Dirks, The Hollow Crown.

8 Keay, India, 447

9 Metcalf, A Concise History, 483.

10 Cannadine, Ornamentalism.

11 Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, 135.

12 Keay, India, 376, 382.

13 Dalrymple, White Moghuls, 33-34.

14 Keay, India, 402, 407, 425,

15 Jasanoff, Edge of Empire.

16 Keay, India, 432

17 Forster, A Passage to India, chapter 5.

18 Mukherjee, The Rise and Fall of the East India Company, 300-03.

19 Bolts, Considerations on Indian Affairs, 194.

20 Ranjit Roy, The Agony of West Bengal, 17.

21 Ibid., 389, 392.

22 Ibid., 414.

23 Kipling, Kim, chapter 11.

24 Keay, India, 450.

25 Klostermaier, Hinduism, 291.

26 Ibid., 428-29, 445.

27 Hardiman, The Coming of the Devi, 163; Eaton, “Conversion to Christianity Among the Nagas, 1876-1971,” 8, 32-33.

28 Spear, A History of India, 140.

29 Keay, India, 432, 434.

30 James, Raj, 237.

31 An anonymous tract called the Sadsat Jagannatha Brtanta, cited in Ignatius Soreng, Odisare o odiya sahitya re Christa dharma [Christianity in Orissa and in Oriya Literature]; Berhampur: Dipti Prakashani, 1998). I am indebted to Siddharth Satpathy for this reference.

32 Keay, India, 427,

33 Surendra Nath Sen, Eighteen Fifty Seven, 40-45.

34 Gubbins, An Account of the Mutinies in Oudh, 24-25.

35 Kaye, A History of the Sepoy War in India.

36 Metcalf, A Concise History of India, 100.

37 Keay, India, 438.

38 Metcalf, A Concise History of India, 100.

39 Keay, India, 438

40 Ibid., 443.

41 James, Raj, 237.

42 Ibid.

43 Rudrangshu Mukherjee, Mangal Pandey.

44 Forbes-Mitchell, Reminiscences of the Great Mutiny.

45 James, Raj, 251.

46 Keay, India, 441-42

47 Ibid., 446.

48 Ibid., 445.

49 Ibid., 429, 445-46.

50 Ibid., 425

51 Dalrymple, White Moghuls, 166.

52 Powell, Muslims and Missionaries, 117. I am indebted to Catherine Adcock for this citation.

53 Sutton, Orissa and its Evangelization, 40.

54 I owe this insightful comment, as well as the Sutton citation itself, to Siddharth Satpathy.

55 James, Raj, 237.

56 Keay, India, 419.

57 Gautama, Dharma-sutra 20.10.

58 Moon, The British Conquest, 427.

59 Southey, The Curse of Kehama, 9.

60 Ibid., 429, 431.

61 Forster, A Passage to India, chapter 18.

62 Jaffrelot, The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India, 35.

63 Uma Mukherjee, Two Great Indian Revolutionaries, 16-17.

64 Urban, Tantra, 156-58.

65 Carnegy, A Historical Sketch of Tehsil Fyzabad; Narain, The Ayodhya Temple/Mosque Dispute, 8-9.

66 Van der Veer, Religious Nationalism, 153.

67 Forster, A Passage to India, 287.

68 Ernst, “Situating Sufism,” 24-25, citing the Dabistan, 149-50; translation, 239-40.

69 Dabistan, 147, 157; translation, 235, 251.

70 Ernst, “Situating Sufism,” 24-25, citing a letter of David DuBois, June 4, 2003.

71 Sheldon Pollock’s term; see “Deep Orientalism?: Notes on Sanskrit and Power Beyond the Raj.”

72 Buruma and Margalit, Occidentalism: The West in the Eyes of Its Enemies.

73 Nandy, The Intimate Enemy, 52; Hwang, M. Butterfly.

74 Ramachandra Guha, “Sixty Years in Socks,”15.

75 Trautmann, Aryans and British India.

76 Keay, India, 431.

77 Rocher, Ezourvedam, 3, 19. The text was published in Asiatic Researches, Royal Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1822.

78 Kapil Raj, “Refashioning Civilities.”

79 Flood, Introduction, 124.

80 Partha Mitter, “Rammohun Roy and the New Language of Monotheism.”

81 Nandy, The Intimate Enemy; Doniger, The Woman Who Pretended.

82 Keay, India, 431.

83 Sumit Sarkar, Modern India.

84 Dalrymple, “India: The Place of Sex.”

85 McConnachie, The Book of Love, 198.

86 Ibid., 197-98.

87 Figueira, ”To Lose One’s Head for Love.”

88 Published in Goethe, Werke, 1840, 1.200; here cited from the English translation by Edgar Alfred Bowring, The Poems of Goethe.

89 Yourcenar, “Kali Beheaded.”

90 Ibid., 146.

91 Doniger, Splitting the Difference, 235.

92 Kulkarni, “Darstellung des Eigenen im Kostum des Fremden”; Schulz, “Hindu Mythology in Mann’s Indian Legend”; Mahadevan, “Switching Heads and Cultures.”

93 Doniger, “ ‘I Have Scinde.’ ”

94 Moon, The British Conquest, 567-75.

95 The Whig Morning Chronicle, cited by Priscilla Napier, I Have Sind, 197.

96 Priscilla Napier, I Have Sind, xvi.

97 Mehra, A Dictionary, 496-97.

98 George Daniel, Democritus in London, 51.

99 Priscilla Napier, I Have Sind, xv, 160, 197.

100 Keay, India, 421.

101 Rowley, More Puniana, 166-67.

102 Rushdie, Shame, 88.

103 Gould, “To Be a Platypus,” 269.

104 Priscilla Napier, I Have Sind, 160.

105 Mehra, A Dictionary, 497.

106 William Napier, The Life and Opinions of General Sir Charles James Napier, vol. 4, 38.

107 David, The Indian Mutiny, 34-44; Edwardes, Red Year: The Rebellion of 1857, 21-22.

108 Charles Napier, cited in Ball, The History of the Indian Mutiny, 36.

109 William Napier, The Life and Opinions, vol. 2, 275.

110 Lifton and Mitchell, Hiroshima in America, 176.

111 Keay, India, 453.

112 Cited by Bryant, The Quest for the Origins, 324.

113 Gommans, The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire, 98.

114 Alder, Beyond Bokhara, 50-51.

115 Schimmel, The Empire, 101.

116 William Napier, The Life and Opinions, vol. 1, 164-66, 186, 346, 351, 385; Priscilla Napier, I Have Sind, 58.

117 Gommans, The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire, 99.

118 Yang, Bazaar India, 116.

119 Alder, Beyond Bokhara, 105, 209.

120 Yang, Bazaar India, 116.

121 Alder, Beyond Bokhara, 107, 209, 341, 357-58, 367.

122 Kipling, Kim, 161.

123 Ibid., 191.

124 Said, “The Pleasures of Imperialism,” 45.

125 Orwell, “Rudyard Kipling,” 135.

126 Rushdie, “Kipling,” 80; italics added.

127 Shakespeare, Henry V, 5.2.182-83.

128 Trautmann, Aryans, 15, 18.

129 Gandhi, Selected Political Writings, 89.

CHAPTER 22. SUTTEE AND REFORM IN THE TWILIGHT OF THE RAJ

1 Cited by Mani, Contentious Traditions, 172.

2 Cited by Weinberger-Thomas, Ashes of Immortality, 99.

3 Vessantara Jataka, 495 (PTS text); Gombrich and Cone, The Perfect Generosity.

4 Dehejia, “The Iconographies of Sati,” 52.

5 Mani, Contentious Traditions, 22.

6 Hawley, Sati, 13.

7 Doniger, “Why Did They Burn?”

8 Courtright, “The Iconographies of Sati,” 42.

9 Hawley, Sati, 26. Some legal texts (Shankha and Angiras Smritis) use Arundhati instead; Kane, History, 2.1, 631.

10 K. M. Sen, Hinduism, 95-96.

11 Killingley, Rammohun Roy, 61.

12 K. M. Sen, Hinduism, 95-96.

13 Ibid.

14 Killingley, Rammohun Roy.

15 Mani, Contentious Traditions, 54-55.

16 Nandy, “Sati as Profit,” 137.

17 Keay, India, 457.

18 Weinberger-Thomas, Ashes, 89.

19 Spivak, “Can the Subaltern Speak?,” 297.

20 Allan Bloom, The Closing, 26.

21 Woodruff, The Men Who Ruled India, 66, 74.

22 Mani, Contentious Traditions, 53.

23 Kane, History, 2.1.631-33.

24 Mani, Contentious Traditions, 21.

25 Weinberger-Thomas, Ashes of Immortality, 202-07.

26 Keay, India, 429.

27 Figueira, “Die flambierte Frau,” 69, citing Roger, 220-21.

28 Ibid., 58, 61.

29 Ibid., 65, citing Wagner, Gesammelte Schriften und Dichtung, vol. 6, 255-56.

30 Lubin, “Veda on Parade,” 389, citing Samskaravidhi 289-95.

31 Ghai, Shuddhi Movement in India, and Jordens, “Reconversion to Hinduism, the Shuddhi of the Arya Samaj.”

32 Lubin, “Veda on Parade,” 389.

33 Jaffrelot, Hindu Nationalism, 2007, 31.

34 Van der Veer, Religious Nationalism, 91-92.

35 Adcock, Religious Freedom and Political Culture.

36 Keay, India, 475.

37 Gandhi, in Young India, January 5, 1924, 145.

38 Keay, India, 492.

39 Ibid., 471.

40 Scott, Weapons of the Weak.

41 Nandy, The Intimate Enemy, 52 ff.

42 Gandhi, An Autobiography, 20-21.

43 Ibid.

44 Hardiman, The Coming of the Devi, 209.

45 Gandhi, The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi, 265-99.

46 Gandhi, “The Message of the Gita,” in Mitchell, The Bhagavad Gita, 218-19.

47 Keay, India, 487, 514.

48 Ibid., 448.

49 P. J. Marshall, Bengal, xiv-xv, 5.

50 Forbes-Mitchell, Reminiscences of the Great Mutiny.

51 Hardiman, The Coming of the Devi, 1, 33, 46.

52 Nath, Puranas and Acculturation, 145.

53 The material in the next six paragraphs is taken from Hardiman, The Coming of the Devi, particularly 40, 53-54, 82, 99, 104-05, 129, 134, 139-40, 147, 154, 159, 164, 179, 203.

54 Ibid., 41; Kirin Narayan, Mondays on the Dark Side of the Moon.

55 Hardiman, The Coming of the Devi, 42, 175, 216.

56 Ibid., 169, 189-90, 200-01.

57 Keay, India, 486.

58 Hardiman, The Coming of the Devi, 4, 51-52, 170.

59 Harlan, “Perfection and Devotion,” 84-85.

60 Keay, India, 447.

61 Dube, Untouchable Pasts, 115, 260-61,

62 Ibid., 115-16.

63 Ibid., 15.

64 Keay, India, 532.

65 Tartakov, “B. R. Ambedkar,” 38.

66 Ambedkar, Why Go for Conversion?, 10.

67 Omvedt, 43, citing Ambedkar, Towards an Enlightened India.

68 Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams, Illusion.

69 Ambedkar, The Buddha and His Dhamma; Tartakov, B. R. Ambedkar and the Navayana Diksha.

70 Keer, Dr. Ambedkar, 499.

71 Isaacs, India’s Ex-Untouchables, 46.

72 Justin Huggler, “India’s Untouchables Turn to Buddhism in Protest at Discrimination by Hindus,” Independent, October 13, 2006.

CHAPTER 23. HINDUS IN AMERICA

1 Baker, A Blue Hand, 214-15.

2 Stephen Prothero of Boston University, cited in “Poll Finds a Fluid Religious Life in U.S.,” New York Times, February 26, 2008. Reported by Neela Banerjea. Report of the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, http://religions.pewforum.org.

3 Brenda Goodman, “In a Suburb of Atlanta, a Temple Stops Traffic,” New York Times, June 5, 2007, B1.

4 Siegel, Net of Magic.

5 Lamont, The Rise of the Indian Rope Trick, 81

6 Kripal, “Western Popular Culture, Hindu Influences On.”

7 Vivekananda, Swami Vivekananda and His Guru, 25.

8 Huffer, Guru Movements in a Globalized Framework.

9 Stephen Kinzer,“Art on Streets Til the Cows Come Home,” New York Times, August 20, 2001.

10 Vasquez and Marquardt, Globalizing the Sacred, 92, 117.

11 Baker, A Blue Hand, 146.

12 Ibid., 146, 214-15.

13 Kripal, “Western Popular Culture, Hindu Influences On.”

14 O’Brien, “Sweetheart,” 110.

15 www.tantricgoddesskali.com.

16 anniesprinkle.org.

17 Rajesh Priyadarhi, on BBC News, June 9, 2004.

18 Rama Lakshmi, “In India, Gods Rule the ‘Toon’ Universe; Hindu Myth a Fount of Superheroes,” Washington Post Foreign Service, January 9, 2008, A11.

19 Mr. Boffo cartoon by Joe Martin, Inc., distributed by Universal Press Syndicate, published in the September 29, 2000, Chicago Tribune.

20 Tolputt, The Cartoon Kama Sutra, and Manara’s Kama Sutra.

21 “Tantric Sex Class Opens Up Whole New World of Unfulfillment for Local Couple,” Onion (March 30-April 5, 2000), 8.

22 Spayde, “The Politically Correct Kama Sutra,” 56.

23 The musical was conceived by Terry Abraham-son and directed by Arnie Saks, with music by Stephen Joseph.

24 Britt, “Avatar.”

25 American School of Laughter Yoga, e-mail advertisement, June 2, 2005.

26 White, Kiss of the Yogini, xi.

27 Ibid., xii.

28 Ibid., xii, 109.

29 Statements made in public hearings before the California Board of Education and the Fairfax County School Board between 2000 and 2005.

30 Kripal, “Western Popular Culture, Hindu Influences On.”

31 Ibid.

32 Huffer, Guru Movements.

33 Exemplified in Krishnan Ramaswamy et al., Invading the Sacred.

34 Kripal, “Western Popular Culture, Hindu Influences On.”

35 Jason Overdorf, “Saving the Raja’s Horse: British Horsewoman Francesca Kelly Brings India’s Fiery Marwari to the United States in Hopes of Reviving the Breed.” Smithsonian, June 2004. See also www.horsemarwari.com and Kelly and Durfee, Marwari: Legend of the Indian Horse.

CHAPTER 24. THE PAST IN THE PRESENT

1 Gough, “Harijans in Thanjavur,” 234.

2 Lubin, “Veda on Parade,” 398.

3 Ibid., 394.

4 Frederick M. Smith, “Indra Goes West,” 259-60, citing Madhava.

5 Lubin, “Veda on Parade,” 394.

6 Ibid., 393-94; in Solapur in 1978 and in Pune in 1955.

7 Smith, “Indra Goes West,” 259.

8 Lubin, “Veda on Parade,” 394.

9 K. M. Sen, Hinduism, 47.

10 Kosambi, Myth and Reality, 91-92.

11 Doniger, ”A Burnt Offering.” review of D. N. Jha, The Myth of the Holy Cow.

12 J. L. Kipling, Beast & Man in India, vol. 6, 116.

13 Biardeau, Hinduism, 36.

14 Appadurai, “Gastro Politics,” 506.

15 White, “Dogs die.”

16 Personal communication from Nagaraj Paturi, Chicago, January 2007.

17 Sontheimer, “King of Warriors,” 52-53.

18 Elison, “Immanent Domains.”

19 BBC news, November 8, 2007.

20 CNN.com Europe, November 13, 2007.

21 New York Times, March 7, 2008, “Kashmir: City Plans to Poison 100,000 Dogs”; March 8, 2008, “Kashmir: Strays Saved from Poisoning.”

22 Gold, Fruitful Journeys, 5.

23 Cohn, “The Changing Status of a Depressed Caste,” 285.

24 Dube, Untouchable Pasts, 8.

25 Forster, Hill of Devi, 176.

26 Ann Grodzins Gold, personal conversation, August 2007.

27 I owe this concern, and much of its wording, to Arshia Sattar, personal communication, August 13, 2006.

28 BBC News, December 7, 2007. The judge was Sunil Kumar Singh.

29 He bought it from New York dealer Ben Heller for David L. Shirey. “Norton Simon Bought Smuggled Idol,” New York Times, May 12, 1973.

30 Davis, Lives of Indian Images, 252, citing N. Vidyasagar, “Back Home—but Not Yet,” Aside, August 31, 1991.

31 Bakker, Ayodhya.

32 S. Balakrishnan, “Ayodhya: The Communal Tinderbox,” Illustrated Weekly of India, vol. 11, no. 5 (1989), 30.

33 Forster, Hill of Devi, 202.

34 Gopal, ed., Anatomy of a Confrontation.

35 Keay, India, 532.

36 Dalrymple, “India: The War over History.”

37 BBC News, September 12, 2007.

38 Romila Thapar, “Opinion,” in The Hindu, September 28, 2007; reprinted in Economic and Political Weekly (September 29, 2007).

39 eol.jsc.nasa.gov/scripts/sseop /photo.pl?mission= STS067&roll=718A&frame=60.

40 Doniger O’Flaherty, The Implied Spider.

41 Seely, The Slaying of Meghanada.

42 Richman, “E. V. Ramasami’s Reading of the Ramayana.”

43 Omvedt, Dalit Visions, 100-01, citing Madhu Kishwar, in the Times of India, January 28, 1993.

44 Van der Veer, Gods on Earth, 14.

45 Upasni Baba, The talks of Sadguru Upasani-Baba Maharaj, vol. 2B, 542-54.

46 Shiva Purana 2.4.13.4, 4.27.23-24; cf. Ramayana 7.4.3-4, 7.16.44.

47 Padma Purana 2.1.5.1-35; Doniger O’Flaherty, Origins of Evil, 136-37.

48 Elwin, Myths of Middle India, 65-67.

49 Hindu Janajagruti Samiti, January 18, 2008. See http://www.hindujagruti.org/news/3819.html.

50 Yahoo News, February 26, 2008.

51 Raghu Karnad, “Unlikely Arrows in Ram’s Quiver,” Tehelka Magazine, New Delhi (March 15, 2008).

52 Mahesh Rangarajan, “Enemies of Open Society Threaten the Idea of India,” Economic and Political Weekly, February 23, 2008; Ramachandra Guha, “Devotions Destructive and Divine,” The Hindu, March 2, 2008.

53 Pratap Bhanu Mehta, “Our Freedoms, Your Lordships,” Indian Express, March 4, 2008.

54 Omvedt, Dalit Visions, 31, 101.

55 Kishwar, “Yes to Sita, No to Ram,” 300 ff.

56 Omvedt, Dalit Visions, 101-02.

57 Tharoor, The Great Indian Novel, 141.

58 Omvedt, Dalit Visions, 28, translating Tarabai Shinde, Stri-Purush Tulna, 6.

59 Ibid.

60 Sumanta Banerjee, “Women’s Popular Culture in Nineteenth Century Bengal,” in Sangari and Vaid, Recasting Women, 138-39.

61 Chakravarti, Themes in Indian History, 78, citing the short story entitled “Kunti O Nishadi” by Mahashweta Devi.

62 Omvedt, Dalit Visions, 98.

63 Ibid., 78, quoting an untitled poem by Waman Nimbalkar (called “Just Poem”), Vagartha, 12 (January 1976), trans. Graham Smith.

64 Ibid., 8, citing Shashikant Hingonekar, “Ekalavya,” Asmitadarsh, no. 12 (April-May-June 1989), trans. Gail Omvedt and Bharat Patankar.

65 Anand and Zelliot, Anthology of Dalit Literature, 152. This poem (from Surung) was translated by Eleanor Zelliot.

66 Surekha Bhagat, “The Lesson.” Personal communication from Eleanor Zelliot, 2005.

67 Jaffrey, The Invisibles; Nanda, Neither Man nor Woman.

68 Associated Press, November 9, 2006.

69 davidgodman.org/interviews/ttimes.shtml.

70 “Detect Eye Defects Early to Avoid Blindness,” The Hindu, September 8, 2006.

71 Personal communication from William Dalrymple, January 6, 2008.

72 Hudson, “Siva, Minaksi, Visnu.”

73 Indian Express, October 18, 2007.

74 Kurtz, All the Mothers Are One, 18; Lutgendorf, “Who Wants to Be a Goddess? Jai Santoshi Maa Revisited.”

75 Ritter, “Epiphany in Radha’s Arbor,” 181-84, 199, 201.

76 Omvedt, Dalit Visions, 19-20, citing Jotiba Phule, Gulamgiri (in Marathi, with an English introduction), 1885.

77 Ibid., 85.

78 Youngblood, “Cultivating Identity,” 275, 319-20.

79 Shekhar Gupta, “Lopsided Lessons,” India Today, July 31, 1990.

80 Vinay Lal, Introducing Hinduism, 93.

81 P. N. Oak, Tajmahal: The True Story (1989).

82 Hari Kumar, “After Clashes, Curfew Is Set in Taj Mahal Area,” New York Times, August 30 2007.

83 Huyler, Village India, 162.

84 Asutosh Bhattacarya, Folklore of Bengal, 48-49.

85 Inglis, “Night Riders,” 298, 302, 304.

86 Kramrisch, Village India, 57.

87 Personal communication from Stephen Inglis, January 8, 1987.

88 Inglis, “The Craft of the Velar,” 14-19.

89 Shulman, The King and the Clown, 3-4.

90 Lynn Hart, paper presented at the South Asian Conference at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, November 8, 1986.

91 Vequaud, Women Painters of Mithila.

92 Brown, “Contested Meanings.”

93 Vequaud, “The Colors of Devotion.”

94 Szanton and Bakshi, Mithila Painting: The Evolution of an Art Form, 3-17.

95 Ibid., 31-37.

96 Ibid., 61-67; Szanton, “Mithila Painting: The Dalit Intervention.”

97 Ibid., 69-71.

98 “Renuka’s Revenge,” Reuters report from Bangalore, March 7, 1995; “Naked Worshippers Lay Bare Dignity of Police and Press,” Times of London, March 15, 1986; cited in full in Doniger, Splitting the Difference, 214-216.

CHAPTER 25. INCONCLUSION, OR, THE ABUSE OF HISTORY

1 Golwalkar, We, Our Nationhood Defined, 48-49.

2 Gandhi, The Collected Works, vol. 25, 178.

3 Tendulkar, Mahatma, vol. 2, 286.

4 Keay, India, 533

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