Exam preparation materials

Notes

1. Introduction

1.     Selig S. Harrison, India—The Most Dangerous Decades, Madras, 1960, p. 338.

2.     Quoted in Norman D. Palmer, ‘India’s Fourth General Election’, Asian Survey, Vol. 7, No. 5, May 1967, p. 277.

3.     W.H. Morris-Jones, Politics Mainly Indian, Bombay, 1978, pp. 131–32.

4.     Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, New Delhi, 1958–84, (hereafter Gandhi, CW), Vol. 88, p. 2.

5.     Jawaharlal Nehru, Letters to Chief Ministers, 1947–64, 5 Volumes, New Delhi, (hereafter LCM), Vol. 4, p. 124.

6.     Ibid., p. 188.

7.     S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru—A Biography, 3 Volumes, Vol. 2, London, 1979, p. 317.

8.     Verrier Elwin, The Tribal World of Verrier Elwin, Bombay, 1964, p.327.

9.     G.K. Gokhale, Speeches, Madras, 1916, p. 1113.

3. The National Movement and its Legacy

1.     Kesari, 16 June 1908, quoted in Ashis Kumar Dhuliya, ‘Aspects of Tilak’s Strategy and His Struggle for Civil Liberties’, M.Phil. dissertation, Centre for Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 1984, p. 269.

2.     Gandhi, CW, Vol. 22, p. 142, and Vol. 69, p. 356.

3.     Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru, general editor S. Gopal, 15 volumes, New Delhi, 1972–82; Gandhi, CW, Vol. 76, Vol. 7, p. 414 (hereafter Nehru, SW).

4.     National Planning Committee Report (NPC), edited by K.T. Shah, Bombay, 1949, p. 47.

5.     Pattabhi Sitaramayya, The History of the Indian National Congress (1885–1935), no place, 1935, p. 782.

6.     NPC, p. 40.

7.     Pattabhi Sitaramayya, The History of the Indian National Congress (1885–1935), p. 779.

8.     Gandhi, CW, Vol. 76, p. 367.

9.     Pattabhi Sitaramayya, The History of the Indian National Congress (1885–1935), p. 780.

10. Gandhi, SW, Vol. 76.

11. Gandhi, The Way to Communal Harmony, compiled and edited by U.R. Rao, Ahmedabad, 1963, p. 398.

12. Gandhi, CW, Vol. 68, p. 138.

13. Nehru, SW, Vol. 7, p. 173.

4. The Evolution of the Constitution and Main Provisions

1.     Mahatma Gandhi, in an article titled ‘Independence’ published in Young India, 5 January 1922, in Gandhi, CW, Vol. 22, pp. 140–42.

2.     Editor’s Note to ‘The Constitution of India Bill, 1925’, in B. Shiva Rao, ed., The Framing of India’s Constitution: Select Documents, Vol. 1, New Delhi, 1966, p. 5.

3.     Text of Congress–League Scheme, in ibid., p. 26.

4.     Text of Resolution, in ibid., p. 31.

5.     Text of authentic summary of the bill issued by the National Convention in 1925, in ibid., p. 44.

6.     Text of Indian Leaders’ Memorandum to the Government of Britain on the Commonwealth of India Bill, in ibid., p. 50.

7.     Text of Resolution, in ibid., p. 35.

8.     Indian Quarterly Register, 1925, Vol. 1, p. 344, cited in B. Shiva Rao, ed., The Framing of India’s Constitution: A Study, New Delhi, 1968, p. 12.

9.     Cited in Editor’s Introduction to the Nehru Report, in B. Shiva Rao, ed., The Framing of India’s Constitution: Select Documents, Vol. 1, p. 58.

10. For the text of the Nehru Report and the quotes in this para, see ibid., pp. 59–75.

11. Text of Resolution, in ibid., p. 77.

12. All quotes in this paragraph are from Nehru’s Presidential Address to the National Convention of Congress Legislators, March 1937, in ibid., pp. 86–91.

13. Text of Resolution in ibid., p. 93.

14. Text of Speech, in ibid., p. 101.

15. The article, written on 19 November at Allahabad, was published in the Harijan weekly of 25 November 1939. See Gandhi, CW, Vol. 70, pp. 362–65.

16. For a full report on the discussions, see Gandhi, CW, Vol. 72, pp. 4–7.

17. For the text of Viceroy Linlithgow’s statement making the ‘August Offer’, see Sir Maurice Gwyer and A. Appadurai, eds, Speeches and Documents on the Indian Constitution: 1921–47, London, 1957, Vol. 11, pp. 504–05.

18. Cripps Mission, Draft Declaration, published on 30 March 1942, in ibid., pp. 520–21.

19. Statement of the Cabinet Mission and the Viceroy, 16 May 1946, in V.P. Menon, The Transfer of Power in India, Princeton, 1957, Appendix IV, p. 471.

20. Jawaharlal Nehru, in Constituent Assembly Debates (CAD), 11, p. 3, p. 326, cited in Granville Austin, The Indian Constitution: Cornerstone of a Nation, Oxford, 1966, p. 26.

21. Austin, The Indian Constitution, p. 13.

22. Ibid., p. 22.

23. Ibid., pp. 8–9.

24. Ibid., p. 43.

25. CAD, XI, p. 9, p. 835, cited in ibid., p. 46.

26. Ibid.,

27. K.M. Panikkar, Hindu Society at Cross Roads, Bombay, 3rd edition, 1961, p. 96.

28. Austin, The Indian Constitution, p. 144.

29. Subhash C. Kashyap, ‘The Framing of the Constitution and the Process of Institution Building’, in B.N. Pande, general editor, A Centenary History of the Indian National Congress: Vol. IV 1947– 1964, editor, Iqbal Narain, New Delhi, 1990, p. 85.

30. Austin, The Indian Constitution, p. 50.

31. W.H. Morris-Jones, The Government and Politics of India, New York, 1967, first published in 1964, p. 72.

32. Vallabhbhai Patel’s speech at the first meeting of the Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, 27 February 1947, in B. Shiva Rao, ed., The Framing of India’s Constitution: Select Documents, Vol. 11, p. 66.

33. Jawaharlal Nehru, while moving for reference of Constitution (First) Amendment Bill, 1951, to Select Committee, Parliamentary Debates (16 May 1951), Vol. XII, cols. 8820–22, cited in Kashyap, ‘Framing of the Constitution,’ in Pande, A Centenary History, p. 94.

34. Austin, The Indian Constitution, p. 50.

35. Jawaharlal Nehru, cited in Mahajan, Select Modern Governments, p. 61.

36. S. Radhakrishnan, cited in ibid.

5. The Architecture of the Constitution: Basic Features and Institutions

1.     All India Reporter (AIR) 1973 Supreme Court (SC) 1461.

2.     D.D. Basu, Introduction to the Constitution of India, p. 151.

3.     In the case of Indira Nehru Gandhi vs. Raj Narain, AIR 1975 SC 2299.

4.     D.D. Basu, Introduction to the Constitution of India, p. 153.

5.     AIR 1980 SC 1789.

6.     D.D. Basu, Introduction to The Constitution, of India, p. 152.

7.     Austin, The Indian Constitution, p. 186.

8.     Ibid., p. 187.

9.     Ambedkar, cited in S.C. Kashyap, Our Constitution, New Delhi, 1994, p. 44.

10. Basu, Introduction to the Constitution of India, p. 62.

11. Ambedkar, in CAD, VII, p. 32, cited in M.V. Pylee, Constitutional Government in India, New Delhi, 4th edition, 1984, p. 265.

12. Rajendra Prasad, in CAD, X, p. 956, cited in Pylee, Constitutional Government in India, p. 265.

13. Cited in Robert L. Hardgrave and Stanley A. Kochanek, India: Government and Politics in a Developing Nation, San Diego, 1993,p. 84.

14. Jawaharlal Nehru, in CAD, cited in Mahajan, Select Modern Governments, Part 1, p. 383.

15. Cited in Mahajan, Select Modern Governments, p. 327.

16. Austin, The Indian Constitution, p. 49.

17. AIR 1986 SC 180.

6. The Initial Years

1.     Nehru, Speeches, 5 volumes, New Delhi (hereafter referred to as Speeches), Vol. 1, p. 25.

2.     Ibid., pp. 25–26.

3.     Nehru, Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru, Second Series, general editor S. Gopal, New Delhi, 1984 (hereafter Nehru, SW, S.S.), Vol. 4, p. 530.

4.     W.H. Morris-Jones, The Government and Politics of India, Wistow (England), 1987 reprint, first published in 1964, p. 72.

5.     Nehru, LCM, Vol. 4, p. 366.

6.     Ibid., p. 383.

7.     Quoted in V.P. Menon, Integration of the Indian States, Madras, 1985 reprint, first published in 1956, p. 73.

8.     Ibid., p. 91.

9.     Quoted in Norman D. Palmer, The Indian Political System, London, 1961, p. 88.

10. V.P. Menon, op. cit., p. 94.

11. Quoted in S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru—A Biography, Vol. 2, London, 1979, pp. 27–28.

12. Quoted in V.P. Menon, op. cit., p. 354.

13. Sardar Patel’s Correspondence, 10 volumes, edited by Durga Das, Ahmedabad, Vol. 7, pp. 211–12.

14. Ibid., p. 254.

15. Nehru, LCM, Vol. 2, p. 508.

16. Nehru, SW, S.S., Vol. 4, p. 118.

17. Nehru on Communalism, edited by N.L. Gupta, New Delhi, 1965,p. 217.

18. Quoted in S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru: A Biography, Vol. 2, p. 155.

19. Quoted in Rajmohan Gandhi, Patel: A Life, Ahmedabad, 1990, pp. 493, 497.

20. Sardar Patel in Tune with the Millions, Birth Centenary Vol. 3, G.M. Nandurkar, editor, Ahmedabad, 1976, pp. 166, 169.

21. Gandhi, SW, Vol. 89, p. 286.

22. Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 1, p. 42.

23. Nehru, LCM, Vol. 1, p. 33.

24. Nehru, SW, S.S., Vol. 12, New Delhi, 1991, p. 453.

25. Gyanesh Kudaisya, ‘The Demographic Upheaval of Partition: Refugees and Agricultural Resettlement in India, 1947–67,’ South Asia, Vol. XVIII, Special Issue, Armidale (Australia), 1995, p. 94.

26. Nehru, SW, S.S., Vol. 14, Part II, p. 95.

27. R.K. Karanjia, The Philosophy of Mr Nehru, London, 1966, pp. 159–60.

7. Consolidation of India as a Nation (I)

1.     Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 3, p. 193.

2.     Quoted in S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru—A Biography, Vol. 3, p. 22.

3.     Nehru, LCM, Vol. 2, p. 352.

4.     Ibid., p. 598.

5.     Nehru, SW, Vol. 8, p. 831.

6.     Gandhi, CW, Vol. 19, pp. 314–15.

7.     Ibid., Vol. 37, p. 22.

8.     Ibid., Vol. 85, p. 88.

9.     Quoted in S. Mohan Kumaramangalam, India’s Language Crisis, Madras, 1965, pp. 11–12.

10. Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 4, p. 60.

11. Jyotirindra Das Gupta, Language Conflict and National Development, Bombay, 1970, p. 162.

12. Quoted in ibid., p. 192.

13. Quoted in ibid., p. 232.

14. Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 4, pp. 54, 55, 60.

15. Ibid., p. 64.

8. Consolidation of India as a Nation (II): The Linguistic Reorganization of the States

1.     Quoted in S. Mohan Kumaramangalam, India’s Language Crisis, Madras, 1965, p. 21.

2.     Jawaharlal Nehru, SW, S.S., Vol. 4, p. 530.

3.     S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru—A Biography, Vol. 2, pp. 259–60.

4.     Quoted in Geoffrey Tyson, Nehru—The Years of Power, London, 1966, p. 149.

5.     W.H. Morris-Jones, The Government and Politics of India, London, 1987 edition, p. 100.

6.     Ibid., p. 100.

7.     Rajni Kothari, Politics in India, New Delhi, 1986 reprint, pp. 114–15.

8.     Seminar, July 1960.

9.     Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 4, p. 63.

10. Nehru, LCM, Vol. 3, p. 342.

9. Consolidation of India as a Nation (III): Integration of the Tribals

1.     Verrier Elwin, The Tribal World of Verrier Elwin, Bombay, 1964, p.103.

2.     Verrier Elwin, A Philosophy for NEFA, Shillong, 1959, p. 46.

3.     Nehru, LCM, Vol. 3, p. 151.

4.     Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 5, p. 582.

5.     Nehru, Foreword to the 1st edition of Verrier Elwin’s A Philosophy for NEFA.

6.     Ibid.

7.     Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 2, p. 582.

8.     Nehru, Foreword to the 1st edition of Verrier Elwin’s A Philosophy for NEFA.

9.     Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 3, pp. 460, 461.

10. Nehru, Foreword to the 1st edition of Verrier Elwin’s A Philosophy for NEFA.

11. Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 2, p. 581.

12. Ibid., p. 579.

13. Nehru, LCM, Vol. 111, p. 150.

14. Ibid., p. 163.

15. Christoph von Furer-Haimendorf, ‘The Position of the Tribal Population in Modern India’, in Philip Mason, ed., India and Ceylon: Unity and Diversity, London, 1967, p. 208.

16. Quoted in S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru—A Biography, Vol. 2, p. 212.

10. Consolidation of India as a Nation (IV): Regionalism and Regional Inequality

1.     Gandhi, CW, New Delhi, 1958–1984, Vol. 9, p. 458.

2.     Quoted in Jolly Mohan Kaul, Problems of National Integration, New Delhi, 1963, p. 76.

3.     Government of India, Planning Commission, Third Five Year Plan, New Delhi, 1961, p. 142.

4.     Ajit Mozoomdar, ‘The Political Economy of Modern Federalism’, in Balveer Arora and Douglas V. Verney, eds., Multiple Identities in a Single State, Delhi, 1995, pp. 230-31.

11. The Years of Hope and Achievement, 1951–1964

1.     Nehru, SW, S.S., Vol. 22, pp. 122–23.

2.     Nehru, LCM, Vol. 4, p. 188.

3.     S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru—A Biography, Vol. 2, p. 162.

4.     Quoted in ibid., pp. 164–65.

5.     Nehru, LCM, Vol. 2, p. 508.

6.     Nehru on Communalism, edited by N.L. Gupta, New Delhi, 1965, p. 216.

7.     C.D. Deshmukh, The Course of My Life, Delhi, 1974, p. 205.

8.     Quoted in S. Gopal., op. cit., Vol. 3, p. 65.

9.     Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 1, p. 2.

10. Quoted in W.H. Morris-Jones, The Government and Politics in India, Wistow, 1987, p. 26, and in Rajmohan Gandhi, Patel, p. 501.

11. Quoted in S. Gopal, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 158–59.

12. Tibor Mende, Conversations with Mr Nehru, London, 1956, pp. 54–55.

13. Nehru, LCM, Vol. 1, p. 123.

14. Ibid., Vol. 5, p. 601.

15. Nehru, SW, Old Series, Vol. 8, p. 807.

16. Nehru, LCM, Vol. 4, p. 369.

17. Nehru, SW, Old Series, Vol. 3, p. 361.

18. Quoted in S. Gopal, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 169.

19. Nehru, LCM, Vol. 5, pp. 601 and 590 respectively.

20. Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 2, pp. 50–52, 54, 56.

21. Ibid., Vol. 3, pp. 22, 25.

22. Ibid., Vol. 5, p. 83.

12. Foreign Policy: The Nehru Era

1.     Jawaharlal Nehru, cited in V.P. Dutt, India and the World, New Delhi, 1990, pp. 28–29.

2.     K. Subrahmanyam, ‘Evolution of Indian Defence Policy (1947–1964)’, in B.N. Pande, ed., A Centenary History of the Indian National Congress, Vol. IV, New Delhi, 1990, pp. 512–13.

3.     K.P.S. Menon, ‘India and the Soviet Union’, in B.R. Nanda, ed., Indian Foreign Policy: The Nehru Years, Delhi, 1976, p. 136.

4.     Hindustan Times, 21 July 1954, cited in D.R. Sardesai, ‘India and Southeast Asia’, in ibid., p. 87.

5.     Cited in Rikhi Jaipal, ‘Ideas and Issues in Indian Foreign Policy’, in Pande, ed., A Centenary History, p. 434.

6.     K. Subrahmanyam, ‘Evolution of Indian Defence Policy (1947–1964)’, in Pande, ed., A Centenary History, pp. 546–47.

7.     K.P.S. Menon, op. cit., in B.R. Nanda, ed., Indian Foreign Policy, p. 135.

8.     Ibid., p. 142.

9.     K. Subrahmanyam, op. cit., in Pande, ed., A Centenary History, p. 550.

10. Op. cit., in Nanda, ed., Indian Foreign Policy, p. 148.

11. Speech in Lok Sabha, 27 November 1959, cited in V.P. Dutt, India and the World, pp. 42–44.

12. K. Subrahmanyam, op. cit., in Pande, ed., A Centenary History, p. 516.

13. India and the World, pp. 53–54.

14. For his views, see China and the World, New York, 1966, India’s Foreign Policy, New Delhi, 1984, India and the World, New Delhi, 1990, and India’s Foreign Policy in a Changing World, New Delhi, 1999.

15. K. Subrahmanyam, op. cit., in Pande, ed., A Centenary History, p. 567.

16. Cited in A.K. Damodaran, ‘Foreign Policy in Action’, in Pande, ed., A Centenary History, p. 469.

13. Jawaharlal Nehru in Historical Perspective

1.     Nehru, LCM, Vol. 3, pp. 380–81.

2.     Hugh Tinker, ‘Is There an Indian Nation’, in Philip Mason, ed., India and Ceylon: Unity and Diversity, London, 1967, p. 287.

3.     Nehru, LCM, Vol. 4, p. 256.

4.     Ibid., Vol. 2, p. 598.

5.     Ibid., Vol. 3, p. 368.

6.     R.K. Karanjia, The Philosophy of Mr Nehru, London, 1966, p. 123.

7.     Quoted in S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru—A Biography, Vol. 3, London, 1984, p. 170.

8.     Nehru, LCM, Vol. 2, p. 368.

9.     Quoted in S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru—A Biography, Vol. 3, p. 278.

10. R.K. Karanjia, The Mind of Mr Nehru, London, 1960, p. 48.

11. Tibor Mende, Conversations with Mr Nehru, pp. 37, 108, 105.

12. Quoted in S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru—A Biography, Vol. 2, London, 1979, pp. 192–93.

13. Nehru SW, S.S., general editor S. Gopal, Vol. 7, New Delhi, 1988, p. 384.

14. R.K. Karanjia, The Philosophy of Mr Nehru, p. 139.

15. Government of India, Planning Commission, Third Five Year Plan, New Delhi, 1961, p. 9.

16. Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 3, New Delhi, 1970 reprint, pp. 17–18.

17. Bimal Jalan, ‘Introduction’, The Indian Economy, Problems and Prospects, ed. Bimal Jalan, New Delhi, 1992, p. xiii.

18. Nehru, LCM, Vol. 2, p. 84.

19. Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 3, p. 37.

20. Geoffrey Tyson, Nehru: The Years of Power, London, 1966, p. 173.

14. Political Parties, 1947–1964: The Congress

1.     Quoted in Myron Weiner, Party Politics in India, Princeton, 1957, p. 69.

2.     Sardar Patel, Sardar Patel in Tune With the Millions, Vol. 3, edited by G.M. Nandurkar, Ahmedabad, 1976, pp. 164–169.

3.     Quoted in Rajmohan Gandhi, Patel: A Life, Ahmedabad, 1990, p. 490.

4.     Nehru, SW, S.S., Vol. 8, p. 438.

5.     Quoted in S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru—A Biography, Vol. 2, pp. 154–55.

6.     Stanley A. Kochanek, The Congress Party of India, Princeton, 1968, p. 51.

7.     Krishan Bhatia, The Ordeal of Nationhood, New York, 1971, p. 120.

8.     Myron Weiner, op. cit., p. 17.

9.     Nehru, SW, S.S., Vol. 6, p. 438.

10. Quoted in S. Gopal, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 74, 81, 92 respectively.

11. Quoted in Norman D. Palmer, The Indian Political System, London, 1961, p. 193.

12. Nehru, SW, S.S., Vol. 7, p. 382.

13. Quoted in Allan and Wendy Scarfe, J.P: His Biography, New Delhi, 1975, p. 237.

14. Quoted in S. Gopal, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 67.

15. Nehru, SW, S.S., Vol. 12, p. 455.

16. Quoted in Allan and Wendy Scarfe, op. cit., pp. 245, 246.

17. Quoted in S. Gopal, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 205.

18. Quoted in ibid., Vol. 3, pp. 21–22.

19. Ibid., p. 22.

20. All India Congress Committee, Resolutions on Economic Policy and Programme 1955–56, New Delhi, 1956, p. l.

21. Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 3, p. 96.

22. Government of India, Planning Commission, Third Five Year Plan, p. 5.

15. Political Parties, 1947–1965: The Opposition

1.     Quoted in Myron Weiner, Party Politics in India, Princeton, 1957, p. 61.

2.     Quoted inibid.,p. 106.

3.     Lewis P. Fickett, Jr., ‘The Praja Socialist Party of India—1952–1972: A Final Assessment’, Asian Survey, Vol. 13, No. 9, September 1973, p. 829.

4.     CPU Programme, 1964, p. 25.

5.     M.S. Golwalkar, We or Our Nationhood Defined, Nagpur, 1947 edition, first published in 1939, p. 6.

6.     Ibid., pp. 52–56, 62 f.n.

7.     Ibid., p. 19.

8.     Organiser, 17 November 1991, p. 9.

9.     Krishan Bhatia, The Ordeal of Nationhood, New York, 1971, p. 103.

10. Quoted in Myron Weiner, op. cit., p. 193.

11. Quoted in Donald E. Smith, India as a Secular State, Princeton, 1963, p. 471.

12. Resolution passed by Bharatiya Jan Sangh at its session held at Lucknow from 30 December 1960 to 1 January 1961, quoted in Motilal A. Jhangiani, Jana Sangh and Swatantra: A Profile of the Rightist Parties in India, Bombay, 1967, p. 48.

13. Bharatiya Jan Sangh Election Manifesto, 1962, p. 18, quoted in Jhangiani, op. cit., p. 77.

14. Quoted in Norman D. Palmer, The Indian Political System, London, 1961, p. 200.

16. From Shastri to Indira Gandhi, 1964–1969

1.     Krishan Bhatia, The Ordeal of Nationhood, New York, 1971, p. 150.

2.     Quoted in Geoffrey Tyson, Nehru: The Years of Power, London, 1966, p. 191.

3.     Indira Gandhi, My Truth, New Delhi, 1982, p. 116.

4.     President Johnson, quoted in Lloyd I. Rudolph and Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, The Regional Imperative, Delhi, 1980, p. 38.

5.     Quoted in Zareer Masani, Indira Gandhi—A Biography, London, 1975, p. 168.

6.     Ibid., pp. 179–80.

7.     W.H. Morris-Jones, Politics Mainly Indian, Madras, 1978, p. xii.

8.     Rajni Kothari, Politics in India, New Delhi, 1986 reprint, p. 183.

17. The Indira Gandhi Years, 1969–1973

1.     Kuldip Nayar, India: The Critical Years, revised and enlarged edition, Delhi, 1971, pp. 31–32.

2.     Zareer Masani, Indira Gandhi—A Biography, London, 1975, p. 181.

3.     Quoted in ibid., p. 209.

4.     Quoted in ibid., p. 241.

5.     Quoted in Lloyd I. Rudolph, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, et al., The Regional Imperative, Delhi, 1980, p. 46.

6.     Indira Gandhi, The Years of Endeavour, New Delhi, 1975, p. 654–56.

18. The JP Movement and the Emergency: Indian Democracy Tested

1.     Quoted in Statesman, 10 April 1974, cited in Francine R. Frankel, India’s Political Economy, 1947–1977, Delhi, 1978, p. 528.

2.     Quoted in Inder Malhotra, Indira Gandhi, London, 1989, p. 165.

3.     Morarji Desai to Oriana Fallaci, New Republic, quoted in Francine R. Frankel, op. cit., p. 544.

4.     Inder Malhotra, op. cit., pp. 173, 182.

5.     Mary C. Carras, Indira Gandhi: In the Crucible of Leadership, Bombay, 1980, p. 100.

6.     Tariq Ali, The Nehrus and the Gandhis: An Indian Dynasty, London, 1985 p. 194.

7.     Quoted in Francine R. Frankel, op. cit., p. 576.

19. The Janata Interregnum and Indira Gandhi’s Second Coming, 1977–1984

1.     Quoted in Pupul Jayakar, Indira Gandhi—A Biography, New Delhi, 1992, p. 474.

20. The Rajiv Years

1.     Quoted in Nicholas Nugent, Rajiv Gandhi: Son of a Dynasty, New Delhi, 1991, p. 54.

2.     The official figure is 2,733, but unofficial figures are as high as 3,870.

3.     Quoted in S.S. Gill, The Dynasty: A Political Biography of the Premier Ruling Family of India, New Delhi, 1996, p. 401.

4.     S.S. Gill, who served as Secretary, Information and Broadcasting, in Rajiv Gandhi’s government, testifies to this. See ibid., pp. 406–07.

21. Run-up to the New Millennium and After

1.     Seema Mustafa, The Lonely Prophet: V.P. Singh, A Political Biography, New Delhi, 1995, p. 120.

2.     Ibid., p. 129.

3.     See Chapter 37 on Caste and Dalit Politics in this volume.

4.     A very useful recent collection of studies on caste in which a number of scholars address the issue is M.N. Srinivas, ed., Caste: Its Twentieth Century Avatar, New Delhi, 1996. See particularly the essay by A.M. Shah.

5.     Dreze and Sen, for example, show the strong link between disparities in education and social inequality and argue that a policy of universal and compulsory education is likely to lead to elimination of social inequalities. They stress that leaders of the freedom struggle were well aware of this and Dr Ambedkar himself saw education as the cornerstone of his strategy for liberation of oppressed castes, as he was conscious how in his own case his scholarship enabled him to overcome the stigma of untouchability. They also point to a common finding of village studies and household surveys that education is widely perceived by members of socially or economically disadvantaged groups as the most promising chance of upward mobility for their children. Jean Dreze and Amartya Sen, India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity, Delhi, 1996, especially pp. 96–97, 109–10.

6.     In South India, there was no strong reaction because state governments had been implementing different levels of reservations for Backward Castes for many years. The caste structure in South India, with far more extreme forms of Brahmin domination, was quite different. Also, there was a long history of caste-based reservations which were introduced by the British in the 1920s and also by the princely states, as well as a long tradition of the non-Brahmin movement since the 1910s.

7.     In 1993 the Congress government implemented the Mandal report, without much furore taking place, as by then people had got more used to the idea, thus proving the point that in a democracy you cannot ram decisions down people’s throats but have to work through consensus.

8.     V.P. Dutt, India’s Foreign Policy in a Changing World, New Delhi, 1999, p. 15

9.     Times of India, 23 June 1999.

10. Quoted in V.P. Dutt, op. cit., pp. 368–69.

11. V.P. Dutt, India’s Foreign Policy Since Independence, New Delhi, 2007, pp. 97–98.

12. The Indian Express, 28 July 2007.

13. The Hindustan Times, 28 July 2007.

23. Politics in the States (II): West Bengal and Jammu and Kashmir

1.     Quoted in Atul Kohli, Democracy and Discontent: India’s Growing Crisis of Governability, New Delhi, 1992, p. 289.

2.     Ibid., p. 288; Atul Kohli, ‘Parliamentary Communism and Agrarian Reform—The Evidence from India’s Bengal’, Asian Survey, Vol. 23, No. 7, July 1983, pp. 780, 800.

3.     Quoted in Geoffrey Tyson, Nehru—The Years of Power, London, 1966, p. 79.

24. The Punjab Crisis

1.     Quoted in K.P.S. Gill, The Knights of Falsehood, New Delhi, 1997, p. 35.

2.     Baldev Raj Nayar, ‘Sikh Separatism in the Punjab’, in Donald E. Smith, ed. South Asian Politics and Religion, Princeton, 1966, p. 168.

3.     Quoted in K.P.S. Gill, p. 81.

4.     Ibid., p. 12.

25. Indian Economy, 1947–1965: The Nehruvian Legacy

1.     See for details Bipan Chandra, et al., India’s Struggle for Independence, New Delhi, 1989, chapter 29.

2.     Aditya Mukherjee, Imperialism, Nationalism and the Development of Indian Capitalism: The Making of the Indian Capitalist Class 1920–47 (forthcoming) and Aditya Mukherjee and Mridula Mukherjee, ‘Imperialism and the Growth of Indian Capitalism in the Twentieth Century’, EPW, 12 March 1988.

3.     N.R. Sarkar, Presidential speech, FICCI, Annual Report, 1934, New Delhi, pp. 3–67. M. Visveswarayya was among the first to give a call for planned development in the 1920s.

4.     Indian National Congress (INC), Economic Resolutions, p. 8.

5.     A Plan of Economic Development for India, Parts 1 & 2, London, 1945, pp. 9–10. The authors of this plan were Purshottamdas Thakurdas, J.R.D. Tata, G.D. Birla, Ardeshir Dalai, Sri Ram, Kasturbhai Lalbhai, A.D Shroff and John Mathai.

6.     INC Economic. Resolutions, p. 29. Emphasis added.

7.     Second Five Year Plan, 1956, p. 44.

8.     K.N. Raj, Indian Economic Growth: Performance and Prospects, New Delhi, 1965, p. 2.

9.     A. Vaidyanathan, ‘The Indian Economy Since Independence (1947– 70)’, in Dharma Kumar, ed., The Cambridge Economic History of India, Delhi, 1983, p. 961. Emphasis added.

10. J. Bhagwati and P. Desai, India: Planning for Industrialisation, London, 1970, table 10.6, pp. 185–87.

11. Business Standard, 9 January 1998.

12. Sukhamoy Chakravarty, Development Planning: The Indian Experience, Oxford, 1987, pp. 4, 81.

26. Indian Economy, 1965–1991

1.     C. Rangarajan, ‘Development, Inflation and Monetary Policy’, in Isher J. Ahluwalia and I.M.D. Little, eds, India’s Economic Reforms and Development: Essays for Manmohan Singh, Delhi, 1998, p. 59.

2.     See E.J. Hobsbawm, Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, Harmondsworth, 1994, for a brilliant analysis of the changes in world capitalism since the Second World War and pp. 261, 277 and 280 for the statistics in this paragraph.

3.     The East Asian Miracle: Economic Growth and Public Policy, World Bank, New York, 1993, p. 38.

4.     Vijay Joshi and I.M.D. Little, India: Macroeconomics and Political Economy 1964–1991, Washington, 1994, p. 58.

27. Economic Reforms Since 1991

1.     For example, in his D. Phil. dissertation at Oxford in 1961 and his book India’s Export Trends, London, 1964.

2.     Ajit Singh, ‘Liberalisation, the Stock Market, and the Market for Capital Control’, in Isher Ahluwalia and I.M.D. Little, eds, India’s Economic Reforms and Development, Delhi, 1998.

3.     See Economic Survey 1998–99, Government of India, tables 10.6 and 10.7, p. 146,

4.     Vijay Joshi and I.M.D. Little, India’s Economic Reforms, 1991– 2001, Oxford, 1996, pp. 222, 225.

5.     Suresh D. Tendulkar, ‘Indian Economic Policy Reforms and Poverty: An Assessment’, in Ahluwalia and Little, eds, India’s Economic Reforms, 1998, tables 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, pp. 290–294.

6.     C.H. Hanumantha Rao, ‘Agriculture: Policy and Performance’, in Bimal Jalan, ed., The Indian Economy, New Delhi, 1992, p. 132.

7.     Economic Survey, pp. 11, 18. Emphasis added.

28. The Indian Economy in the New Millennium

1.     Economic Survey (hereafter ES), Government of India, 2002–03, pp. 155 ff., 2003–04, table 8.5, pp. 153–55 and 2006–07, table 1.2, p. 3.

2.     Dani Rodrik and Arvind Subramanian, ‘Why India Can Grow at 7 Per Cent a Year or More: Projections and Reflections’, Economic and Political Weekly (hereafter EPW), 17 April 2004.

3.     Jeffrey D. Sachs, The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities of Our Time, New York, 2005. Emphasis added.

4.     See, for example, Bibek Debroy, Indian Express, 2 June 2007.

5.     Angus Maddison, The World Economy: Vol. I A Millennial Perspective, Vol. II Historical Staistics, OECD, 2006, Indian edition, New Delhi, 2007, table 8b, pp. 639–43.

6.     ES, 2006–07. p. 106, table 6.1.

7.     Bimal Jalan, India ‘s Economy in the New Millennium, New Delhi, 2002, pp. 25–26.

8.     Calculated from table 1.5, S-8, ES, 2006–07.

9.     Dani Rodrik and Arvind Subramanian, EPW, 17 April 2004, p. 1592.

10. Note that figures used here for the 1990s are different from those used in the previous chapter as different base years have been used by the CSO over time. See ES 1996–97, p. 19, 1998–99, p. 21 and 2006–07 p. 19 The previous chapter used the older figures.

11. ES, 2006–07, table 2.1, p. 19, table 2.11, p. 44, table 2.12, p. 48.

12. ES, 2006–07, table 2.3, p. 23.

13. Dani Rodrik and Arvind Subramanian, EPW, 17 April 2004.

14. ES, 2006–07, table 2.2, p. 21, p. 28.

15. Ibid.

16. ES, 2006–07, p. 3, table 1.2 and S-10, table 1.6.

17. See ES, 2006–07, p. 1, S-10, table 1.6.

18. Figures for 1951 are not strictly comparable as the figures include mining and quarrying in the primary sector while in 1971 mining and quarrying are included in the secondary sector. Yet the trend is clear enough. See Ruddar Dutt and K.P.M. Sundharam,Indian Economy, New Delhi, 2007, p. 84, table 5.

19. The figures are from a persuasive argumentative work on India’s reform process by Baldev Raj Nayar, India’s Globalisation: Evaluating the Economic Consequences, New Delhi, 2007, pp. 15–17, first published, Washington, 2006.

20. See ES, 2006–07, pp. 113–14, table 7.1a, S-78 and Baldev Nayar, 2007, p. 18.

21. ES, 2006–07, p. 108, table 6.2, p. 119, table 6.9.

22. Ibid., p. 21

23. ES, 2004–05, p. 112 and ES, 2005–06, pp. 116-117

24. Jeffrey Sachs, The End of Poverty, 2005, p. 186.

25. ES, 2004–05, p. 111, 2005–06, p. 206, 2006–07, p. 108 and Baldev Nayar, 2007, p. 21.

26. ES, 2005–06, p. 105.

27. ES, 2007, pp. 6, 131, 135 and table 6.1b, S-69.

28. The Hindustan Times and The Times of India, 18 June 2007.

29. Report of Ernst and Young and Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry cited in The Times of India and The Hindustan Times, 18 June 2007,

30. Quoted in Baldev Nayar, 2007, p. 45.

31. ES, 2006–07 p. 228 and p. 7.

32. ES, 2006–07, pp. 131–32, 2005–06, p. 130, 2003–04, p. 128.

33. See the chapter The Post Colonial Indian State, pp. 465–66, for a discussion of this aspect and Prabhat Patnaik, ‘Political Strategies of Economic Development’, in Partha Chatterjee, ed., Wages of Freedom: Fifty Years of the Indian Nation-State, Delhi, 1998 and Prabhat Patnaik, The Retreat to Unfreedom: Essays on the Emerging World Order, New Delhi, 2003.

34. This argument is made effectively by Baldev Nayar, 2007, pp. 39– 41. The figures are cited by Nayar from a study by Nagesh Kumar, ‘Liberalization, Foreign Direct Investment Flows, and Economic Development: The Indian Experience in the 1990s’, RIS discussion paper 65/2003, Research and Information System for the Non-Aligned and Other Developing Countries, New Delhi, 2003.

35. ES, 2006–07, p. 139.

36. R. Nagaraj, ‘Industrial Growth in China and India : A Preliminary Comparison’, EPW, 21 May 2005, quoted in Baldev Nayar, 2007, pp. 85–86, f.n. 4.

37. Baldev Nayar, 2007, p. 41. The figures are from UNCTAD cited by Nayar in table 10, p. 42.

38. ES, 2006–07, p. 207 and ES, 2002–03, table 10.6, p. 213.

39. ‘Prices and Poverty in India, 1987–2000’, EPW, 25 January 2003.

40. K Sundaram and Suresh D. Tendulkar, ‘Poverty Has Declined in the 1990s’, EPW, 25 January 2003.

41. Himangshu, ‘Recent Trends in Poverty and Inequality: Some Preliminary Results’, EPW, 10 February 2007, and S. Mahendra Dev and C. Ravi, ‘Poverty and Inequality: All-India and States, 1983– 2005’, EPW, 10 February 2007.

42. Himangshu, 2007, p. 499.

43. Dev and Ravi estimate it as 1.02 per cent per annum, 2007, p. 111.

44. Himangshu, 2007, p. 501.

45. Dev and Ravi, 2007, p. 511.

46. Ibid., p. 510.

47. Ibid. pp. 510–11.

48. Focus on Children Under Six, Abridged Report, Right to Food Campaign, New Delhi, 2006.

49. See National Family Health Survey (NFHS3) 2005–06, National Factsheet (Provisional Data), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.

50. UNDP Human Development Report, 2002 and 2006 cited in ES, 2006–07, table 10.1, p. 205.

51. See G.S. Bhalla, Indian Agriculture Since Independence, New Delhi, 2007, p. 295.

52. See, for example Times of India, 14 June 2007 and also Report to the People: UPA Government 2004–07.

53. The Hindu, 29 September 2007.

54. ES, 2005–06, p. 204.

55. Bimal Jalan, 2002, p. 25.

29. Land Reforms (I): Colonial Impact and the Legacy of the National and Peasant Movements

1.     See Louis J. Walinsky, ed., Agrarian Reform as Unfinished Business, The Selected Papers of Wolf Ladejinsky, OUP, 1977, p. 371 (hereafter Ladejinsky Papers).

2.     See Bipan Chandra et al., India’s Struggle for Independence, Penguin, New Delhi, 1988, 40th impression, 2006, Chapters 11 and 27 (hereafter Bipan Chandra, et al., India’s Struggle).

3.     See S.J. Patel, Essays on Economic Transition, Bombay, 1965, p. 76, and Bipan Chandra, ‘Peasantry and National Integration in Contemporary India’, in Nationalism and Colonialism in Modern India, Orient Longman, New Delhi, 1979, p. 333.

4.     See, for example, Resolution of Economic Planning Conference attended by Chief Ministers and Congress Presidents from the States, April 1950, and Indian National Congress, Economic Programme, Delhi Congress, October 1951, in Indian National Congress, Resolutions on Economic Policy Programme and Allied Matters 1924–1969, AICC, New Delhi, 1969, pp. 50, 66 (hereafter INC Econ. Resolutions)

5.     See Bipan Chandra, ‘Colonial India: British versus Indian Views of Development’, Review (Fernand Braudel Center), vol. xiv, No. 1, Winter 1991, p. 85. For this section, see also Bipan Chandra, Rise and Growth of Economic Nationalism in India, 1880–1905, New Delhi, 1966, and Bipan Chandra, 1979.

6.     See, for example Resolutions of Indian National Congress, 1888, 1889 and 1893 in A.M. Zaidi and S.G. Zaidi, The Foundations of Indian Economic Planning, New Delhi, 1979.

7.     See Daniel Thorner, The Shaping of Modern India, New Delhi, 1980, p. 241 and Bipan Chandra, 1979, p. 337.

8.     Bipan Chandra, 1979, p. 337.

9.     Bipan Chandra, et al., India’s Struggle, ch. 3.

10. For details, see, ibid. ch. 16.

11. For details, see, ibid. ch. 27.

12. The provisions listed above are from the slightly modified version of the Karachi resolutions which was issued by the AICC in Bombay in August 1931, INC Econ. Resolutions, pp. 3–9.

13. See INC Econ. Resolutions; pp.12–14

14. See Agrarian Programme, Lucknow Congress, 1936, and Election Manifesto, AICC, 1936, INC Econ. Resolutions, pp. 10–12, emphasis added.

15. This paragraph is based on Bipan Chandra, et al., India’s Struggle, ch. 26.

16. See Bipan Chandra, 1979, p. 350, and Bipan Chandra, et al., India’s Struggle, p. 528.

17. Mridula Mukherjee, in Bipan Chandra, et al., India’s Struggle, ch. 27, p. 354.

18. A.M. Khusro, ‘Land Reforms since Independence’, in V. B. Singh, ed., The Economic History of India, 1857–1956, Delhi, 1965, pp. 185– 86, emphasis added.

19. See National Planning Committee Report, Bombay, 1949, Purshottamdas Thakurdas, et al., A plan for Economic Development for India (Bombay Plan), Harmondsworth, 1945, and INC Econ. Resolutions, pp. 15–18.

20. INC Econ. Resolutions, p. 16, emphasis added.

21. ‘Objectives and Economic Programme,’ AICC, Delhi, November 1947, INC Econ. Resolutions, p. 19.

22. INC Econ. Resolutions, pp. 20–22.

23. See, example, Francine Frankel, India’s Political Economy 1947–77, Delhi, 1978, p. 68.

24. INC Econ. Resolutions, p. 22, emphasis added. Frankel (see note 23), however, maintains that compulsory membership of service cooperatives was visualized.

25. INC Econ. Resolutions, p. 23.

30. Land Reforms (II): Zamindari Abolition and Tenancy Reforms

1.     A.M. Khusro, in V.B. Singh, ed., Economic History of India 1857– 1956, Delhi, 1965, p. 189.

2.     INC Econ. Resolutions, p. 38.

3.     Planning Commission, Second Five Year Plan, 1956, p. 188.

4.     See P.S. Appu, ‘Tenancy Reform in India’, EPW, Special Number, August 1975, p. 1345.

5.     See ibid., p. 1347.

6.     D. Bandyopadhyay, ‘Land Reform in India: An Analysis’, EPW, Review of Agriculture, June 1986.

7.     L.I. Rudolph and S.H. Rudolph, In Pursuit of Lakshmi: The Political Economy of the Indian State, Chicago, 1987, p. 363.

8.     P.S. Appu, pp. 1354–55, 1375.

9.     Daniel Thorner, The Shaping of Modern India, New Delhi, 1980, p. 245.

31. Land Reforms (III): Ceiling and the Bhoodan Movement

1.     INC Econ. Resolutions, p. 23.

2.     Planning Commission, First Five Year Plan, New Delhi, 1953, pp. 188–191.

3.     Indian National Congress, Resolution on Economic Policy and Programme, 1924–54, New Delhi, 1954, p. 75.

4.     Ibid., p. 121. Emphasis added.

5.     Planning Commission, Second Five Year Plan, New Delhi 1956, pp. 196–97.

6.     Quoted in Ladejinsky Papers, p. 483

7.     C.H. Hanumantha Rao, ‘Agriculture: Policy and Performance’, in Bimal Jalan, ed., The Indian Economy: Problems and Prospects, New Delhi, p. 118.

8.     D. Bandyopadhyay, ‘Land Reforms in India: An Analysis’, EPW, Review of Agriculture, June 1986.

9.     Wolf Ladejinsky, otherwise an avid supporter of ceilings and land distribution, came to a similar conclusion in May 1972. Ladejinsky Papers, p. 513.

10. Indian Express, 16 June 1999.

11. G. Kotovsky, Agrarian Reforms in India, New Delhi, 1964, p. 119. See, for similar views, D. Bandyopadhyay, ‘Reflections on Land Reforms in India Since Independence’, in T.V. Sathyamurthy, ed., Industry and Agriculture in India Since Independence,Delhi, 1995.

12. The Hindustan Times, 4 and 9 January 1961, cited in Kotovsky, 1964, p. 125.

13. Kotovsky, 1964, p. 126, he cites E.M.S. Namboodiripad, ‘Sarvodaya and Communism’, New Age, Vol. vii, No. 1, January 1958, pp. 46– 55.

32. Cooperatives and an Overview of Land Reforms

1.     Recommendations of the Economic Programme Committee of the AICC, November 1947, INC Econ. Resolutions, p. 22. Emphasis added.

2.     INC Econ. Resolutions, pp. 41–42. Emphasis added.

3.     Ibid.

4.     Second Five Year Plan, p. 201. Emphasis added.

5.     INC Econ. Resolutions, pp. 120ff. Emphasis added.

6.     Third Five-Year Plan, p. 209. (Quoted in Ladejinsky Papers, p. 388).

7.     The figures in this paragraph are from Rudolph and Rudolph, In Pursuit of Lakshmi, table 42, p. 373.

8.     Ladejinsky Papers, pp. 505–06.

9.     The description below of the Kaira experiment is based on interviews with Verghese Kurien, Tribhuvandas Patel and others and a study of the experiment made by the authors in Anand and its neighbouring villages in July 1985. Materials provided by the NDDB, courtesy its present Managing Director, Dr Amrita Patel (whose own contribution to the movement is considerable), and Ruth Heredia, The Amul India Story, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1997, have also been used freely.

10. Wilfred Candler and Nalini Kumar, India: The Dairy Revolution, World Bank, Washington, 1998,

11. Ibid., p. 48

12. Ibid., pp. xxi, 6, 60. Emphasis added.

13. Ibid., pp. xxi, 6. Emphasis added.

14. Ibid., p. xv.

15. Daniel Thorner, The Shaping of Modern India, New Delhi, 1980, p. 245. Addition in parenthesis added.

16. The above figures are calculated from D. Bandyopadhyay, ‘Land Reforms in India: An Analysis,’ EPW, Review of Agriculture, June 1986.

17. Ibid., p. 253.

33. Agricultural Growth and the Green Revolution

1.     G.S. Bhalla, ‘Nehru and Planning—Choices in Agriculture’, Working Paper Series, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 1990, p. 29.

2.     Ladejinsky Papers, p. 494.

3.     See, for example, G.S. Bhalla and Gurmail Singh, ‘Recent Developments in Indian Agriculture: A State Level Analysis’, EPW, 29 March 1997. The statistics in the rest of the paragraph are taken from this source.

4.     Raj Krishna, ‘Small Farmers Development’, EPW, 26 May 1979, p. 913.

5.     G.S. Bhalla and G.K. Chadha, ‘Green Revolution and the Small Peasant—A Study of Income Distribution in Punjab Agriculture’, EPW, 5 and 22 May 1982.

6.     Ladejinsky Papers, pp. 436–440

7.     See C.H. Hanumantha Rao, ‘Agriculture: Policy and Performance/’, in Bimal Jalan, ed., The Indian Economy: Problems and Prospects, New Delhi, 1992, pp. 128–29.

8.     See Daniel Thorner, The Shaping of Modern India, 202 ff., 224ff.

9.     C.H. Hanumantha Rao, op. cit., pp. 129–30. Emphasis added.

10. M.S. Swaminathan, ‘Growth and Sustainability’, Frontline, 9–22 August 1997.

34. Agrarian Struggles Since Independence

1.     The best collection of essays on the subject remains A.R. Desai, ed., Agrarian Struggles in India After Independence, Delhi, 1986.

2.     P. Sundarayya, Telangana People’s Struggle and Its Lessons, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Calcutta, 1972, pp. 115–16, 239–40, 424.

3.     Interview with Baba Bachhitar Singh, cited in Mridula Mukherjee, ‘Communists and Peasants in Punjab: A Focus on the Muzara Movement in Patiala, 1937–53’, in Bipan Chandra, ed., The Indian Left: Critical Appraisals, New Delhi, 1983.

4.     See Mridula Mukherjee, ‘Peasant Resistance and Peasant Consciousness in Colonial India: “Subalterns” and Beyond’, EPW, 1988, October 8 and 15.

5.     See Staffan Lindberg, ‘New Farmers’ Movements in India as Structural Response and Collective Identity Formation: The Cases of the Shetkari Sangathana and the BKU’, in Tom Brass, ed., New Farmers’ Movements in India, Ilford, 1995, pp. 95–125, and other articles in this volume for a consideration of this issue.

35. Revival and Growth of Communalism

1.     Gandhi, CW, Vol. 76, p. 402.

36. Communalism and the Use of State Power

1.     See chapter on Revival and Growth of Communalism for a detailed discussion of this aspect.

2.     Savarkar was tried for the assassination of the Mahatma but was let off on technical grounds. Sardar Patel, being a fine criminal lawyer, was personally convinced of Savarkar’s guilt, otherwise he would not have agreed to put him up for trial. He told Jawaharlal Nehru in unambiguous terms: ‘It was a fanatical wing of the Hindu Mahasabha directly under Savarkar that [hatched] the conspiracy and saw it through.’ Sardar Patel Correspondence, 1945–50, (hereafter SPC) ed by Durga Das, Navajivan Publishing House, Ahmedabad, Vol. VI, p. 56. However, when the Commission of Inquiry set up in 1965 under Justice Jiwan Lal Kapoor, a former judge of the Supreme Court of India, gave its report, it came to the following conclusion: ‘All these facts taken together were destructive of any theory other than the conspiracy to murder by Savarkar and his group.’ Report of Commission of Inquiry into Conspiracy to Murder Mahatma Gandhi (Kapur Commission Report), New Delhi, 1970, p. 303, para 25.106.

3.     A book edited by Dina Nath Batra of the RSS, called The Enemies of Indianisation: The Children of Marx, Macaulay and Madarsa was published on 15 August 2001. The book, which was an attack on scientific secular history and historians, contained an article listing 41 distortions in the existing NCERT books. The NCERT director J.S. Rajput himself had contributed an article in the volume listing a few more distortions.

4.     See The Times of India, 5 October 2001. Emphasis added

5.     See The Hindustan Times, 4 December 2001.

6.     See the RSS mouthpiece, Organiser, 4 November 2001.

7.     The Hindustan Times, 8 December 2001.

8.     The Indian Express, 20 December 2001.

9.     ‘History and the Enterprise of Knowledge’, address delivered to the Indian History Congress by Amartya Sen, January 2001, Calcutta. See also Amartya Sen, The Argumentative Indian: Writings on Indian History, Culture and Identity, Allen Lane, Penguin, London, 2005, for a brilliant critique of the communal interpretation of Indian history.

10. Harijan, 5 December 1936, quoted in Bipan Chandra, ‘Gandhiji, Secularism and Communalism’, Social Scientist. Also reprinted in Irfan Habib, Bipan Chandra, et al., Gandhi Reconsidered: Towards a Secular and Modern India, Sahmat, New Delhi, 2004.

11. Irfan Habib, Suvira Jaiswal and Aditya Mukherjee, History in the New NCERT Textbooks: A Report and an Index of Errors, Approved and Published by the Executive Committee, Indian History Congress, Kolkata, 2003.

12. The Hindu, 3 March 2002.

13. The Hindu, 30 April 2002.

14. The Hindu, 1 May 2002.

15. Ibid.,

16. Ibid.,

17. Ibid., 2 May 2002.

18. Ibid., 30 April 2002.

19. Ibid., 3 May 2002.

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid., 17 August 2002.

22. Ibid., 3 September and 29 October 2002.

23. Ibid., 16 December 2002.

37. Caste, Untouchability, and Anti-caste Politics and Strategies

1.     For these, see Bipan Chandra, et al, India’s Struggle for Independence. 1857–1947, chapter 18.

2.     For a useful overview of Dalit politics, especially from 1957 onwards, see V. Suresh, ‘The Dalit Movement in India’, in T.V. Sathyamurthy, Social Change and Political Discourse in India, Vol. 3, Region, Religion, Caste, Gender, and Culture in Contemporary India, 1996, pp. 355–87.

3.     See Jean Dreze and Amartya Sen, India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity, Delhi, 1995, p. 97.

4.     Ibid., table 6.1, p. 112.

5.     For an interesting attempt to argue for Dalit–Backward Caste unity, especially in the context of the attempt to forge links with the Shetkari Sangathana in Maharashtra, see Gail Omvedt, ‘The Anti-Caste Movement and the Discourse of Power,’ in T.V. Sathyamurthy, op. cit., pp. 334–54, and Gail Omvedt, ‘We Want the Return of Our Sweat: The New Peasant Movement in India and the Formation of a New Agricultural Policy’, in Tom Brass, ed., New Farmers’ Movements in India, Ilford, 1995, pp. 126–64.

38. Indian Women Since Independence

1.     Based on Mridula Mukherjee’s interview with Professor Usha Mehta.

2.     The most comprehensive account of women’s movements is to be found in Radha Kumar, The History of Doing, New Delhi, 1993, and I have used it extensively.

3.     See, for example, Mridula Mukherjee, ‘Interview with Sushila Chain’, in Manushi.

4.     For a detailed account of this very interesting movement, see Ramachandra Guha, The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in the Himalaya, Delhi, 1989.

5.     For a detailed study of the agitations against dowry, the Muslim Women’s Bill and sati, see Rajni Palriwala and Indu Agnihotri, ‘Tradition, the Family and the State: Politics of the Contemporary Women’s Movement’, in T.V. Sathyamurthy, ed., Social Change and Political Discourse in India, Vol. 3, Region, Religon, Caste, Gender and Culture in Contemporary India, Delhi, 1996, pp. 503–32.

6.     For the data and much of the conclusions in this and the following paragraphs, I have relied greatly on the path-breaking work of Jean Dreze and Amartya K. Sen. See, for example, their India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity, Delhi, 1995.

39. The Post-colonial Indian State and the Political Economy

1.     For the broad theoretical framework adopted in this chapter some of the works I have been most influenced by are listed below. Bipan Chandra, Indian National Movement, The Long Term Dynamic, New Delhi, 1988, first delivered as the Presidential Address, Indian History Congress, 1985, Amritsar; Ralph Miliband, Marxism and Politics, 1977; Ernesto Laclau, Politics and Ideology in Marxist Theory, London, 1977; Nicos Poulantzas, Classes in Contemporary Capitalism, London, 1975, and the recent writings of Mohit Sen; the leading left intellectual who has been closely associated with left politics for nearly half a century.

2.     See, for example, Peter Evans, Dependent Development: The Alliance of Multinational, State and Local Capital in Brazil, Princeton, 1979, pp. 31–34, 52 and Gary Gereffi and Donald Wyman, ‘Development Strategies in Latin America and East Asia’, 1985, mimeo.

3.     See, for example, Bipan Chandra, Nationalism and Colonialism in Modern India, New Delhi, 1979, and ‘The Colonial Legacy’, in Bimal Jalan, ed., The Indian Economy: Problems and Prospects, New Delhi, 1992; K.N. Raj, ‘The Politics and Economics of Intermediate Regimes’, EPW, 1 July 1973; Sudipto Mundle, ‘State Character and Economic Policy’, Social Scientist, May 1974; Pranab Bardhan, The Political Economy of Development in India, Delhi, 1998 (expanded edition); and Aditya Mukherjee and Mridula Mukherjee, ‘Imperialism and the Growth of Indian Capitalism in the Twentieth Century’, EPW, 12 March 1988.

4.     See, for example, Aditya Mukherjee, ‘The Indian Capitalist Class: Aspects of its Economic, Political and Ideological Development in the Colonial Period’, in S. Bhattacharya and Romila Thapar, eds, Situating Indian History, Delhi, 1986 and Imperialism, Nationalism and the Development of Indian Capitalism: The Making of the Indian Capitalist Class, New Delhi (forthcoming).

5.     Prabhat Patnaik, ‘Political Strategies of Economic Development’, in Partha Chatterjee, ed., Wages of Freedom: Fifty Years of the Indian Nation-State, Delhi, 1998, pp. 58–59. Emphasis added.

6.     F.H. Cordoso, ‘Social Consequences of Globalisation’, Lecture at India International Centre, New Delhi, 27 January 1996.

7.     Amartya Sen, ‘Social Commitment and Democracy’, New Thinking Communist, 1 November 1998.

8.     Bipan Chandra, ‘The Real Danger of Foreign Domination: Peripheralization’, in his Essays on Contemporary India, revised edition, New Delhi, 1999.

41. The Dawn of the New Millennium: Achievements, Problems and Prospects

1.     C. Thomas in Geeti Sen, ed., Receiving India, New Delhi, 1993, p. 266.

2.     S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru—A Biography, Vol. 3, London, 1984, p. 301.

3.     Mohit Sen, ‘Entering the Fiftieth Year’, New Thinking Communist, 15 August 1996, p. 2.

4.     Quoted in Zareer Masani, Indira Gandhi—A Biography, London, 1975, p. 299.

5.     W.H. Morris-Jones, Politics Mainly Indian, Bombay, 1978, p. 131.

6.     Myron Weiner, The Politics of Scarcity, Bombay, 1963, p. 216.

7.     Joan V. Bondurant, Conquest of Violence: The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict, revised edition, Berkeley, 1971, pp. viii–ix.

8.     Francine R. Frankel, India’s Political Economy, 1947–1977, Delhi, 1978, p. 4.

9.     Ibid.

10. Ibid., pp. 4–6.

11. Nehru, Speeches, Vol. 3, p. 96.

12. India Development Report 1999–2000, ed., Kirit S. Parikh, New Delhi, 1999, p. 5. Most of the statistics in this and the next section are taken from this work. Economic Survey, 1998–99, UNDP’s Human Development Report, 1999, and National Council of Applied Economic Research’s India Human Development Report, 1999.

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