Exam preparation materials

Answer Key

Practice Test 1

  1. D

  2. B

  3. B

  4. D

  5. C

  6. E

  7. C

  8. A

  9. E

10. E

11. D

12. D

13. B

14. B

15. E

16. D

17. C

18. C

19. C

20. D

21. C

22. B

23. E

24. A

25. A

26. D

27. D

28. E

29. C

30. A

31. A

32. C

33. E

34. B

35. D

36. C

37. C

38. E

39. D

40. B

41. B

42. D

43. D

44. C

45. C

46. D

47. C

48. E

49. E

50. D

51. D

52. D

53. A

54. B

55. D

56. C

57. C

58. C

59. B

60. E

61. D

62. A

63. E

64. E

65. A

66. D

67. A

68. A

69. E

70. B

71. B

72. A

73. B

74. B

75. B

76. B

77. B

78. D

79. A

80. A

81. A

82. B

83. C

84. D

85. E

86. B

87. D

88. B

89. A

90. B


1.   D

The British settlers who came to the New World did not intend to build a model democratic society. They came for the reasons stated in (A), (B), (C), and (E). Primogeniture (A) refers to the medieval law by which only firstborn sons are permitted to inherit the family estate. Therefore, many second sons came to the new world in search of wealth. The growth of the English population (B) and the failure of the woolen industry (E) led people, particularly debtors, to seek a new life in the New World. The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England (C), during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, developed a spirit of nationalism that contributed to England’s decision to explore the New World.

2.   B

The Critical Period is particularly associated with the problems involved in the establishment of a new government for the newly freed colonies. The Articles of Confederation established a loose league of friendship that created a weak central government. The absence of an executive and a judiciary jeopardized the existence of the United States because of the inability of Congress to enforce and interpret laws. There were many strong leaders at the time (A). Although British troops retained a presence in the United States after the French-American victory at Yorktown in 1781, these troops were not influential in the establishment of a government for the new colonies (C). The French (D) were not a threat to American settlements at the time. Although some hostility between settlers and Native Americans did exist (E), this was not particularly pronounced or critical during this period.

3.   B

“Bleeding Kansas” refers to the Kansas Territory during a mini civil war over the fate of slavery. Popular sovereignty, allowing voters to approve or reject slavery, could not resolve the slavery question if people fought instead of voting. About 200 were killed before Kansas became a state in 1862. The first major act was the destruction of the antislavery town of Lawrence (called the sack of Lawrence). John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry (C) was in Virginia in 1859. The Fugitive Slave Law (D) was part of the Compromise of 1850 and had nothing directly to do with Bleeding Kansas. Shadrach (A) was a victim of the Fugitive Slave Law who was kidnapped in Boston in 1851 by his African American friends and spirited away before the magistrate knew what happened. The Burned-Over District (E) was in western New York, not Kansas.

4.   D

Many people were concerned over the growing power of trusts, which were a form of monopoly control in business. Trusts seemed to wield nearly limitless power. Early in the 19th century, Southern agricultural states often opposed pro-industry legislation (A), such as the protective tariff, but the cartoon is clearly not sympathetic to business. The juxtaposition of massive trusts and puny senators does not imply equal status or harmony (B). The senators are not identified by party (C). Few people were calling for the abolition of the U.S. Senate (E), although some were calling for the direct election of senators by the voters to make them more responsive to the people.

5.   C

The cowboy era ended for a number of reasons, but barbed wire played a significant part. It allowed ranchers and farmers to enclose their lands, making long cattle runs unfeasible. Barbed wire was not significant in any of the ways indicated in the other choices. Railroad companies (A) would not have gone out of their way to protect wild animals. Reservations (B) were not enclosed by barbed wire. Miners (D) used means other than barbed wire to protect their claims. Parts of the border between the United States and Mexico (E) have been fortified with fences that no doubt include barbed wire, but that is a 20th-century phenomenon.

6.   E

Dewey wanted education to move away from rote memorization and to prepare young people to be active participants in democracy. In fact, the Students for a Democratic Society cite him as an inspiration to the call for participatory democracy in the 1960s. The emphasis on science and mathematics (A) characterized Cold War initiatives of the 1950s. Progressive educators wanted education to be meaningful, not simply a means of keeping children off the street (B) and not to focus on memorization (C). Conservatives, not progressives, would want education to focus on God, country, and family (D).

7.   C

Lewis’s 1935 novel served as a warning, as fascism was gaining ground in Europe and demagogues were gaining adherents in the United States. The other answer choices were not highlighted in major American novels.

8.   A

Truman justified the dropping of the atomic bombs by stating that Hiroshima and Nagasaki were industrial cities fueling the Japanese war effort. He also argued that dropping the bombs would shorten the war and save American lives. These cities both had large populations (B). Many critics felt that the bomb was intended to send a message (C) to the Soviet Union, but Truman did not use this as a justification in public for his decision. Likewise, if Truman were interested in expanding American influence in Asia (D), he would not have publicly stated this as a justification for the atomic bombing of Japan, nor would he have cited American war-weariness as a justification (E).

9.   E

The Korean War involved direct engagement between U.S. forces and those of North Korea and China, but not the Soviet Union. The Berlin Airlift (A), the Cuban missile crisis (B), the Soviet suppression of the Hungarian revolution (C), and the construction of the Berlin Wall (D) all resulted in eyeball-to-eyeball standoffs that almost led to armed conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union, as each had specific interests that were threatened.

10.  E

The 1968 National Advisory (Kerner) Commission on Civil Disorders convened to discover why there was so much urban violence in the 1960s. Its report stated that America was “two societies separate and unequal” and that the plight of African Americans was largely unknown to whites. However, it concluded that the richest nation on earth could correct these inequalities. The commission reached liberal social and economic conclusions. Thus, it did not blame immigrants (A) or unions (B) or call for the death penalty (D). Young people (C) certainly were participants in the riots, but social and economic factors were the primary causes, according to the report.

11.  D

Indentured servants came to the New World voluntarily, agreeing, through a contract, to work a certain length of time in exchange for passage. Indentured servants (other than prisoners) were not forced to sign a contract of indenture (B). Indentured servants were not promised any financial compensation, nor did they receive any (A). In fact, some called indentured servitude “white slavery.” Although indentured servants were often promised land after the completion of their contract (C), many never received any. Many indentured servants were treated harshly by their sponsors; they were seldom considered members of their master’s family (E).

12.  D

Hamilton’s efforts at funding the U.S. government and assumption of state debts from the war of independence cemented the loyalty of wealthy individuals, states, and foreign powers to the success of the United States. Hamilton was not an advocate of strong state governments (A), and his program had the effect of binding these new states to the success of the Union. He feared rule by the common people, or “mobocracy” (B), and his program did nothing to strengthen popular control. Hamilton increased the power of the central government and established the Bank of the United States, but his economic plan did not lead to an increase in the power of the presidency itself (C). Hamilton’s financial program heightened, rather than diminished, differences between the two political parties (E).

13.  B

Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican and a strict constructionist in regard to constitutional issues, used the same justification for the Louisiana Purchase that Hamilton, a Federalist and loose constructionist, had used to justify the establishment of the Bank of the United States. Both relied on the “elastic clause” of the Constitution to justify their actions. The Bank of the United States (A) had been part of Hamilton’s economic program; Jefferson was opposed to it. Lewis and Clark’s journey (C) was not a partisan issue. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (D) were written in response to the Federalist-supported Alien and Sedition Acts, passed during the administration of John Adams, a Federalist. Nullification (E) was part of the Kentucky Resolution and was a strong statement of states’ rights, consistent with the political philosophy of the Democratic-Republicans.

14.  B

Zachary Taylor was the general whom James K. Polk sent to provoke war with Mexico in 1846. The territory between the Nueces River in Texas and the Rio Grande to the south was disputed. It was claimed by both Mexico and the United States. The Mexicans shot at Taylor, who was on the land they claimed. The provocation worked, and the war did not end until 1848. The quote in the question was by Polk, who claimed that the border of Texas was the Rio Grande so that it was “American soil.” In 1846, California (A), New Mexico (C), and Utah (E) were not “American soil”; they were territories gained after the Mexican War in the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848. There was a border dispute between New Mexico and Texas, but Taylor did not negotiate that. Taylor was a general, not an admiral in the Navy, so (D) is not correct.

15.  E

The United States would not have insisted on exclusive trading rights (E) because it supported free trade. This is evident in the Open Door Notes, written the same year in regard to China. The 1901 Platt Amendment seriously compromised Cuba’s independence following the Spanish-American War. All the other choices contributed to this compromise of independence.

16.  D

The attack on Pearl Harbor did not result in the end of segregation in the armed forces. Segregation ended after World War II. The attack did result in the U.S. declaration of war against Japan, thrusting the United States into World War II (A). The Pearl Harbor attack brought distrust and hostility towards Japanese-Americans, who were interned during World War II (B). As factories stepped up production of war equipment, women entered the workforce (C) and the unemployment rate declined, bringing the Depression to an end (E).

17.  C

Under his constitutional power as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, the president has the authority to order troops into combat. The U.S. president has no power under the U.N. Charter (A), although the U.N. Charter was used as the legal basis for the American military involvement in the Korean War. No congressional resolution was passed at the onset of the Korean War (B). The United States had no mutual security treaty with Korea (D). Korea was not a member of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (E).

18.  C

The 1972 break-in at the Watergate Hotel was the beginning of the Watergate Scandal, which forced Richard Nixon to resign. The Pentagon Papers (A) were leaked to the New York Times by the Pentagon researcher Daniel Ellsberg, an action not directly related to the Watergate break-in, although Nixon’s “plumbers” also broke into Daniel Ellsberg’s psychiatrist’s office in an attempt to discredit Ellsberg. The Reagan administration’s (B) Iran-Contra scandal came to light in 1986, a decade after Watergate. The truth about the Gulf of Tonkin Incident (D) was revealed in Senate hearings led by William Fulbright. The October Surprise (E) was an accusation that Ronald Reagan’s aides foiled negotiations between President Carter and the Iranians to free the hostages in Tehran so that Carter would lose the election of 1980. It did not involve a break-in and was not revealed in time to save Carter’s reputation.

19.  C

Only 35 state legislatures passed the ERA. To achieve passage, the amendment needed the approval of 38 state legislatures, because 38 represents the required three-fourths of the 50 states. Congress (A) passed the amendment by the required two-thirds majority of each house. If it had passed, it would have become part of the Constitution and could not be declared unconstitutional (B). Betty Friedan (D), a women’s rights advocate, was in favor of the amendment. Presidents don’t sign or veto constitutional amendments (E).

20.  D

In 1994, Clinton signed the Brady Bill, which provided for stricter gun control and other crime prevention measures. The Contract with America (A) was a Republican program, while Clinton was a Democrat. Sandra Day O’Connor (B) was the first woman appointed to the Supreme Court in 1981. She was appointed by Ronald Reagan, not Clinton. The Dayton Accords (C) were signed in 1995 to end the civil war in Bosnia. The National Rifle Association (E) is a pro-gun organization and did not support Clinton’s position.

21.  C

Although John Locke discussed individual rights as “life, liberty, and property,” the Declaration of Independence discussed the right of individual rights as “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” “Property” was omitted. The other choices were clearly stated by Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence.

22.  B

Hamilton knew that he needed Jefferson’s support to carry out his financial program, so he compromised on the location of the permanent capital, agreeing to locate it in the South on the Potomac River. Hamilton did not modify his economic program (A), including his support for excise taxes (E). He did support the candidacy of his archenemy Jefferson in the election of 1800, when that election was thrown into the House of Representatives for resolution (C), but this occurred almost a decade after he had implemented his financial program. Hamilton was pro-British, while Jefferson was more supportive of the French Revolution. Hamilton would not be conceding anything to Jefferson by working out a treaty with England (D).

23.  E

Redemption is the term Southern Democrats used to describe their return to power, with the implication that the terrible wrong of Reconstruction has finally been eradicated. The change to Democratic control signaled the end of the social programs and laws that had offered freedmen and women a degree of social equality during the Reconstruction period. The rebuilding of the South (C) is an aspect of reconstruction itself—although the term reconstruction is not restricted to the physical rebuilding of the South. Redemption, though the word has religious overtones, was a political movement; it was not a religious movement (A; B; D).

24.  A

McKinley argued that the Philippines were not ready for self-government and American control was needed to improve their situation. No vote occurred in the Philippines (B). Marxist regimes (C) became a concern for the United States later in the 20th century—especially after World War II—but not in 1898. War spoils (D) and raw materials (E) would not be justifications that McKinley would give publicly for annexation.

25.  A

This 1904 act, along with the 1903 Elkins Act, dealt with railroad regulation. Neither act went as far as some Progressives, such as Robert LaFollette, wanted, but they did strengthen the Interstate Commerce Commission. Theodore Roosevelt was closely linked with the environmental conservation movement. He expanded the acreage of the national forests, but the Forest Service had been created earlier (B). Meat inspection (C) was addressed in the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. The Clayton Antitrust Act (1914), passed during the Wilson administration, strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act (D). Child labor (E) was addressed in the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act (1916), which was later struck down by the Supreme Court.

26.  D

An open shop is a nonunion shop. Company-controlled unions and benefit plans initiated by management, which came to be known as welfare capitalism, undermined calls for a union by the workers. Both open shops and company unions weakened the labor movement, which lost ground from 1920 until the New Deal. A weakened labor movement meant that working conditions (E) did not improve and wages (and thus purchasing power) did not increase (B). The agricultural sector did become weaker as the decade wore on, but that was largely due to overproduction (A). The Democrats failed to capture the White House and remained the minority party during the conservative 1920s (C).

27.  D

The goal and slogan of “the Great Society” reflected Johnson’s hope to improve the standard of living for all Americans. Nixon’s ideas on federalism (A) were known as “New Federalism.” There is no name for Kennedy’s civil rights agenda (B) or Carter’s education agenda (E). Ford’s fight against inflation (C) was called “Whip Inflation Now.”

28.  E

The Tonkin Gulf Resolution gave the president the unrestricted right to defend American interests in Vietnam. Johnson escalated the war rapidly after his election in 1964. The war dominated his administration, influencing his decision not to run for a second full term in 1968. The term domino theory was coined by President Eisenhower, the first president to send troops—which he called “advisers” (A). Harry Truman sent money to aid the French (B) but no troops. The United States never signed the Geneva Accords of 1954 (C), which split Vietnam into North and South Vietnam and called for elections. It was President Nixon’s policy to “Vietnamize” the war (D), which was a strategy to increase the bombing and turn over the fighting on the ground to the South Vietnamese.

29.  C

“Stagflation” was an economic condition characterized by low productivity, caused by unemployment, along with inflation. Economic theory failed to explain how, in the early 1970s, the unemployment level could be high while, at the same time, prices increased at a rapid rate. Standard economic theory held that inflation (a rise in prices) was pushed by high wages: When workers have more money, they spend more, raising prices. If unemployment is high, according to this theory, the total amount of wages should be low, bringing prices down. The other answer choices do not describe the economic conditions of the early 1970s.

30.  A

The students who occupied the U.S. Embassy in Iran were angered at U.S. support of the deposed shah of Iran. One major reason Jimmy Carter was not re-elected in 1980 (B) was his inability to resolve the hostage crisis. American prestige was severely damaged (C) since the superpower was unable to rescue the hostages. Cold War tensions (D) did not increase, nor did a global oil crisis (E) develop during the hostage crisis (an oil crisis occurred earlier—in 1973).

31.  A

The charter issued by the British Crown for the settlement of the Virginia colony guaranteed to the colonists the rights of Englishmen. The colony was not autonomous (B). The policy of salutary neglect developed after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Only the Massachusetts Bay Colony charter provided for a specific place for the seat of the government to be located (C). The royal governors (D) often had limited control since the colonists possessed the power of the purse; that is, they paid the salaries of the royal governors. The government in Virginia was established under the authority of the British Crown (E).

32.  C

The nonimportation agreements were the colonists’ reactions to the Stamp Act, not a British reaction to American protests. These agreements were signed by merchants in major ports, such as Boston and New York, who agreed that they would not buy goods from the British. The British did repeal the Stamp Act (A) in response to colonial protest. However, the British also passed the Declaratory Act of 1765 (B), which reaffirmed the right of the British to legislate for the colonies. The British quartered troops (D) in the colonies in 1765, when the Quartering Act was passed in response to colonial unrest. The Intolerable Acts (1774) (E) were passed by the British government in response to the Boston Tea Party.

33.  E

David Walker was opposed to colonization. In a famous sentence often quoted in textbooks, he opposes colonization, saying he was born here and was as American as anyone and that he would fight for his freedom if denied it. Colonization was a 19th-century scheme to get rid of slavery by freeing slaves and sending them to Africa. (Not back to Africa—the people concerned were born in America for the most part.) This would reduce the black population in America and reduce the possibility of rebellion by getting rid of the “dangerous” element: free blacks. Henry Clay (A), Daniel Webster (B), and James Monroe (C) supported colonization. Marcus Garvey (D), a leader of the Back to Africa movement in the 1920s, probably would have supported colonization of Liberia too.

34.  B

Despite the hopes of Southern moderates that a “New South” would emerge in the post-Reconstruction years, the South failed, for the most part, to industrialize and develop economically until the post–World War II period. Pockets of industry did develop in the 1800s, most notably in Birmingham, Alabama. For this reason, the development of an extensive railroad network (A) and parallel economic growth (E) did not take place. Since the South had little industry, it was dependent on the rest of the country (C). Foreign cotton was not coming into the United States because domestic cotton was plentiful and cheap. There was no need for tariffs (D). The industrial North, not the South, was in favor of high tariffs on manufactured goods.

35.  D

In general, the Progressive movement accepted the prevailing racist notions about segregation. The most vivid example of this was Wilson’s resegregation of government offices. The Progressive movement made strides on all of the other issues. The Clayton Antitrust Act addressed the issues of monopolistic business practices (A). State minimum wage laws addressed the conditions (B) of factory workers. Lincoln Steffens’s Shame of the Cities exposed municipal corruption (C). The 17th Amendment provided for the direct election of senators (E).

36.  C

The graph clearly shows that European immigration, especially immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, dropped between 1921 and 1926. The cause of the drop was the antiimmigration legislation of the 1920s. The United States did not experience a drop in the economy in the 1920s (A)—industrial production expanded. Totalitarianism (B) did emerge in Russia and Italy in the 1920s, but these regimes did not implement excessively restrictive migration policies. The Soviet Union did severely limit migration later—from Stalin’s rule until Gorbachev’s glasnost policies. German submarine warfare (D) occurred during World War II not in the 1920s. Europe was rebuilding during the 1920s (E) and did not experience the same level of industrial expansion as the United States.

37.  C

The FDIC was established under the Banking (Glass-Steagall) Act of 1933 to protect depositors’ money. NIRA (A) dealt with standards of production and business practice. The SEC (B) regulated the sale of stocks and bonds. Social Security (D) was established to provide direct relief to individuals, in particular the elderly and disabled. Established in 1913 under President Woodrow Wilson, the powers of The Federal Reserve System (E) were broadened in the 1930s. The “Fed” monitors the money supply and banking practices.

38.  E

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave Lyndon Johnson permission to strike at will to protect American interests in Vietnam. However, it was not a declaration of war (C). Two senators (A) voted against it. Contrary to what Congress and the American public had been led to believe, there was no clear evidence of North Vietnamese aggression to justify the resolution (D). This lack of clear evidence emerged during Senate hearings in 1966. Johnson won in a landslide (B) against Barry Goldwater in 1964, and Vietnam was not a big issue in the United States until 1965.

39.  D

The 1968 election was a three-way race, with Governor George Wallace of Alabama running against Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey. After Reconstruction, the ex-Confederate states became the Solid (Democratic) South. Setting up barriers to block blacks from voting kept these states all in the Democratic column. During the Second Reconstruction, there was a backlash against Democratic-sponsored civil rights legislation. George Wallace’s (“Segregation Now, Segregation Forever”) victories in section H were the result of this backlash against the Democratic Party. In subsequent elections, many white Democrats in the South began to switch to the Republican Party.

40.  B

The Weathermen were a small faction of Students for a Democratic Society that resorted to terrorism in 1969 to oppose the Vietnam War. Four of their members were killed by a bomb that exploded in a townhouse in Greenwich Village, New York City. Black nationalists (A) were the Black Panthers. The environmentalists who upset the auto industry (C) were known as Nader’s Raiders, after consumer advocate Ralph Nader. They were not a rock-and-roll group (D), and they rejected the commune movement (E).

41.  B

Henry Clay believed that the United States could become self-sufficient through the “American System.” The North would produce industrial goods; the South would supply the raw materials; the West would supply food for the country. Revenue could be raised through a high protective tariff, which would keep out competition and help domestic industry to develop. Excise or sales taxes would be placed on certain goods, and the revenues from these taxes and tariffs would be used for internal improvements, such as roads and canals. The bank would keep the currency stable and would invest in internal improvements. The plan for the American System required a loose interpretation of the Constitution (A), because canals and roads were not mentioned in the document. Clay did not promote Southern industry (C). Export taxes (D) are forbidden by the Constitution and not part of Clay’s plan, and the international slave trade was ended in 1808 (before Clay’s plan). The canals and the Bank of the United States would be jointly controlled by the government and private owners (E).

42.  D

Until the election of George W. Bush, John Quincy Adams was the only son of a president to become president. He was an intellectual out of his natural environment as president, but he really came into his own as a member of the House of Representatives (A). He was antislavery so he opposed the Gag Rule (B), but he was not an abolitionist. He supported scientific research (C), including an astronomical observatory, and he defended the Amistad captives (E) before the Supreme Court.

43.  D

Lincoln and the Republican Party held that there should be no extension of slavery to the territories in the West. This position did not endorse abolition (A), nor did it consider the South (B). There was no slavery in California (C) becuase it came in as a free state in 1850. Lincoln claimed Douglas did not hold that slavery was a serious issue (E), because he advocated popular sovereignty and did not seem to care whether slavery existed in any state.

44.  C

Lincoln argued that the Southern states had never left the Union. Individuals in those states had rebelled, but the states had never legally left. Therefore, using his power as commander-in-chief during wartime, Lincoln issued his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction in December 1863, in which he set the terms for the rebellious states to form new state governments. If the states had left the Union, as the Radical Republicans claimed, then it was Congress’s job to readmit them and determine the conditions under which they would be readmitted. So the argument was political as much as it was legal. The Radical Republicans held that the South should be treated as a conquered territory (A), that only Congress can admit states (B), and that the South must grant equality to freed men and women (D). No one maintained that the Southern states should be barred from readmission to the United States (E). The debate concerned how readmission would take place.

45.  C

Bellamy’s utopian novel, which described the benefits of socialism, inspired over 100 Bellamy Clubs devoted to implementing Bellamy’s ideas. Questions of naval power (A) or race (B) were not included in the novel. Others addressed these issues in the late 19th century. Imperialists, such as Alfred T. Mahan, supported an expansionistic foreign policy, while several African American writers and activists, notably Ida B. Wells, Booker T. Washington, and W. E. B. DuBois, addressed issues of race in America around the turn of the 20th century. It was Henry George in Progress and Poverty in 1879, who proposed a single tax on unimproved land (D) to ensure that land be used for the common good instead of for speculation. Totalitarian regimes (E) are a 20th-century phenomenon, the dangers of which are the subject of anti-utopian novels such as George Orwell’s 1984, written in 1948.

46.  D

The Turner thesis held that the pioneering experience gave Americans a sense of optimism and individualism. Social Darwinism (A) was most closely associated with the writer William Graham Sumner. It was Alfred T. Mahan who pushed forcibly for an expansionist foreign policy and a strong navy (B). “Manifest Destiny” (C) was an idea held by a large cross section of the American population in the 19th century. Turner was not known for being outspoken on issues of race (E).

47.  C

President Harry S. Truman sought to contain the spread of communism. In 1947, his request for funds to preserve the independence of Greece and Turkey from communist subjugation was approved by Congress. Although the elimination of communism (A) was an ultimate U.S. goal, the Truman Doctrine only sought to contain it. The Domino Theory (B) was a belief expressed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953 and is most closely associated with the effects of the spread of communism in Southeast Asia. Although the United States helped in the rebuilding efforts in Europe (D) during Truman’s administration, the Truman Doctrine was aimed specifically at containing communism. The Truman Doctrine was specifically targeted at Greece and Turkey and not at the British colonies in Africa (E).

48.  E

Congress passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in response to corporate scandals of the early 2000s, including the bankruptcies of Enron and WorldCom. The Patriot Act (A) allowed the government to check personal records without a search warrant. Though nine Army reservists were convicted of abusing detainees at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, no legislation was ever passed to prohibit abuse; it was already illegal. The 2006 Secure Fence Act allowed for the construction of a fence along the U.S.-Mexico border (C). The Troubled Asset Relief Program was part of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (D).

49.  E

Phyllis Schlafly was a conservative Republican and antifeminist whose ideas were diametrically opposed to the views of hippies. Corso (A) and Ginsberg (D) were members of the Beat Generation, which was a precursor to the hippie movement. Rachel Carson (B), author of The Silent Spring, was a founder of the environmental movement. Timothy Leary (C) advocated use of the hallucinogenic drug LSD. Hippies followed these leaders and their ideas.

50.  D

Bush promised not to raise taxes during his successful campaign for president in 1988. Many attribute Bush’s 1992 loss to Clinton to his reneging on this pledge, because he had lost his conservative core of support. The economy began to rebound (A). The statement about the Vietnam syndrome (B) had to do with the lack of significant domestic or congressional opposition to the Gulf War. Inflation (C) was an economic problem of the 1970s, not the 1990s. The invasion of Panama (E) did not cost enough to endanger the economy.

51.  D

The drawing represented Benjamin Franklin’s 1754 proposal for the Albany Plan of Union to provide for colonial defense. The date and name under the drawing help to identify the purpose of the cartoon. The Dominion of New England (A) was established in 1686 by the British crown to control the New England colonies. It was headed by Sir Edmund Andros, who restricted town meetings and controlled the courts. The New England Confederation (B) was formed in 1643 to establish colonial defenses, not only against the Indians but also against the Dutch and French. It marked the first attempt at intercolonial cooperation. The First Continental Congress (C) was called in 1774 to discuss colonial response to the Intolerable Acts. The Articles of Confederation (E) was the frame of government passed in 1781.

52.  D

The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States. The British were not expelled from North America (A); they retained colonies in Canada. The Louisiana Purchase had nothing to do with conflict with Native Americans in the Ohio Valley (B), which continued after 1803. The agreement was made with Napoleon, not the King of Spain (C). Jefferson, as a strict constructionist, was faced with the dilemma of whether it was constitutional for Congress to purchase land (E). He cited the elastic clause, the basis of a loose interpretation of the Constitution, to justify the purchase. This was a legitimate constitutional position, though contrary to the one he had held regarding the creation of the Bank of the United States.

53.  A

Manifest Destiny was the idea that it was the obvious (manifest) fate of the United States to “O’er spread the Continent,” a statement by John O’Sullivan in 1846. He said that United States would be doing a good deed by bringing democracy to the peoples of the West. At the time, the French (B) were not in Oregon (the English claimed it). Immigration from abroad (C) was not a tenet of Manifest Destiny—movement to the west by Americans was. The Spanish (D) had not been in Texas since 1821. Native American culture (E) was not a concern of the people who wanted their land.

54.  B

There was considerable pay and supply discrimination against the African American troops, who did not receive equal pay until late in the war. They fought on the front lines in battle (A), although not until after the Emancipation Proclamation. They were always under the direction of (C) white officers. Before they fought, slaves who ran away from the South were considered “contraband of war” (D) by Lincoln. He accepted them behind Northern lines as a way to steal Southern “supplies.” These men and women worked behind the lines (E) for the army from the beginning of the war.

55.  D

President Garfield was assassinated by a party loyalist who felt he had been passed over for a job. The attention generated by the event led to the passage of the Pendleton Act (1883), which attempted to create a civil service based on merit rather than patronage. The Credit Mobilier scandal (A), which was exposed in 1872, concerned corruption in railroad construction as well as in the Grant Administration. McClure’s magazine (B) was known for printing muckraking articles in the early 20th century, notably Ida Tarbell’s expose of the Standard Oil Company (1902–1905). Thomas Nast (C) was probably the most influential political cartoonist in U.S. history. He was most prolific in the 1860s and 1870s and was best known for bringing down “Boss” William Tweed of New York City. Whenever a new party wins the White House, there is a change in personnel. This was the case with Cleveland (E), but it was not seen as a catalyst to civil service reform.

56.  C

Regional literature was a staple of the 19th century. Many of Cather’s stories chronicled the difficulties of frontier life on the plains of Nebraska, while Twain described life in the Mississippi River Valley. Twain’s work examined issues of race in the United States (A), but issues of race are not central to Cather’s work. Also, both writers wrote after slavery had ended. While much of Cather’s work, notably O! Pioneers (1913) and My Ántonia (1918), dealt with Slavic immigrants (B) who settled on the Great Plains, Twain’s characters are virtually all native-born Americans. Both writers achieved critical and popular success in their lifetimes (D). Neither writer made industrial conditions a central concern of his or her work (E).

57.  C

The explosion on the Maine was later found to have occurred from within the vessel, probably originating in the coal room, but at the time the “yellow press” left little doubt that the culprit was Spain. (A) and (B) did occur in the years before the Spanish American War and contributed to the sentiment that the United States get involved in Cuba, but the final spark was the sinking of the Maine. A border dispute (D) was a factor contributing to the Mexican War of 1846–1848 but not the Spanish-American War (1898). Spain had lost control of Panama long before the United States considered building a canal there (E). In 1902, it was Colombia that was reluctant to allow the United States to build a canal through what was at that time the Colombian province of Panama; as a result, the United States supported the independence of Panama, but this was unrelated to the Spanish-American War.

58.  C

The Agricultural Adjustment Act of (AAA) of 1933 subsidized farmers who planted fewer crops. It was hoped that a smaller supply would increase farm prices. This was not a voluntary program (A). An increase in crops (B) would depress prices further. The AAA did not propose a lowering of tariffs (D), nor did it encourage farmers to leave the land (E).

59.  B

Both the British in America and the Americans in Vietnam were trying to maintain control of overseas lands against the armed rebellion of inhabitants of those lands who wanted to expel the overseas power. The United States did not win in Vietnam (A); it was forced to withdraw in 1973. Although the United States had a North and a South in the 18th century (C), the American colonists’ war for independence was not a civil war between the North and South. During the American Revolution, America was supported by France (D) informally from the beginning and officially after Saratoga, but France did not support its former colony, South Vietnam. Although there were important traditional battles (E) both in Vietnam and in the American Revolution, most of the fighting in Vietnam was guerrilla warfare, as was much of the fighting in colonial America.

60.  E

Although Clinton first proposed allowing gays to serve openly in the military, this proposal met stiff opposition in Congress and in the military. Under the compromise policy labeled “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” gay soldiers were not obligated to divulge their sexual practices, and commanding officers were not permitted to initiate investigations of soldiers’ sexual lives. However, openly gay troops would still be discharged from the armed forces. This policy was criticized because it fell short of protecting the rights of gays. Gays were permitted to serve in the military (A) and engage in combat (B), and Clinton’s policy did not mandate segregation (C) for homosexual soldiers. This policy was not a frank acceptance of gay soldiers (D).

61.  D

Bacon’s Rebellion of 1676 was led by Nathaniel Bacon, a planter who was unhappy with the Indian policies of Governor Berkeley of Virginia. He was joined in his rebellion by many present and former indentured servants. The fear of future rebellion led the colonists to turn to African slaves, over which they felt they would have greater control. Thus, they did not increase recruitment of indentured servants (A). Berkeley was not killed in the rebellion (B), although Bacon did die. This had no effect on Indian uprisings in Virginia (C), and it was not a slave rebellion (E).

62.  A

The colonial jury supported Zenger’s freedom to print the truth. The jurors acquitted him of seditious libel (writing, printing, or speaking untruths against a public official) in 1734 because they decided that Zenger’s claims about the royal governor of New York were true and, therefore, could not be libelous. Zenger exposed the corruption of the British government in North America, not the Church of England (B). The British crown did not implement any reforms (C) as a result of this trial. It was a colonial jury (D) that tried Zenger. Zenger was acquitted, not executed (E).

63.  E

The Whig Party formed as a result of Jackson’s veto of the Bank Re-charter Bill. The former National Republicans called Jackson “King” and themselves Whigs to recall the Whig Patriots who fought against the Tories of 1776. John Quincy Adams did not sign theSpecie Circular (A). Jackson did, and the depression that occurred partially as a result took place from 1837 to 1939, years after Adams had left office. Calhoun did not write the Nullification Proclamation (B). Jackson did, and the Proclamation was written after, not before, Virginia and Kentucky joined in opposition to the Sedition Act (1798). Daniel Webster was in favor of the Bank (C). The tariff of 1828 had little to do with Martin Van Buren’s election in 1836 (D).

64.  E

Sherman’s 285-mile March to the Sea from Atlanta to Savannah destroyed the homes and farms of slaveholders who would not give up even when they were running out of food. It was total war against the property of the enemy. The first major victory by Union forces (A) was Antietam. The first major victory in which African American troops fought (B) was Fort Wagner. The turning point of the war (C) was at Gettysburg. The final battle of the war (D) was at Appomattox Courthouse.

65.  A

For congressional Republicans, letting the former rebels run state governments meant that the North had “lost the peace” after winning the war. Andrew Johnson did not go far enough, in the eyes of the Radical Republicans, in punishing the rebellious plantation-owning class and helping freedmen and women. Letting former Confederates run new state governments demonstrates Johnson’s business-as-usual approach to Reconstruction, while all the other answers represent dramatic actions in creating a new type of South—actions favored by many congressional Republicans. Suffrage was extended to African American men (B) by the 15th Amendment (1870). The 14th Amendment (1868) (C) extended citizenship rights to African Americans and banned many Confederates from public office (D). The idea of giving freed people 40 acres and a mule (E) was a Radical Republican idea, but it was never implemented.

66.  D

The Dawes Act encouraged Native American assimilation into white culture. Ironically, it was liberal sympathizers, including Helen Hunt Jackson, author of A Century of Dishonor, who pushed for the measure, thinking that by accepting white ways, Native Americans would break the cycle of poverty and dependence. It is seen today as a condescending, insensitive measure that ignored Native American traditions and rights. Miners (A), the military (C), and the buffalo hunters (E) did not push a measure that, at the time, was seen as a forward step for Native Americans. Native Americans themselves (B), did not, in general, support a measure that showed so little respect for traditional ways.

67.  A

Wilson’s Fourteen Points encouraged a just peace. He feared that a harsh treaty would lead to another war. The Treaty of Versailles led to resentment and depression in Europe, which ultimately led to the rise of Hitler and World War II. The United States occupied Germany (B) after World War II, not World War I. The policy of containment of communism (C) developed after World War II, not World War I. The United States emerged as a superpower (D) at the end of World War II. Some of the ideas in the Fourteen Points (E), including the League of Nations, found expression in the Treaty of Versailles.

68.  A

The Red Scare was a government crackdown on communists, anarchists, and radicals in the late 1910s and early 1920s. Some also saw it as a way to silence labor agitators. Fascists (B) came to power in Europe after the Red Scare—Mussolini in Italy in 1922 and Hitler in Germany in 1933. The Red Scare was not a response to the teaching of evolution (C), the Ku Klux Klan (D), or Prohibition (E).

69.  E

Francis Townsend’s $200 a month proposal influenced the passage of the Social Security Act. He was one of several leaders who proposed sweeping plans and attracted a large following. Others included Huey Long and his Share Our Wealth Society and Upton Sinclair and his End Poverty in California campaign. Nonviolent civil disobedience (A) is associated with Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Also, Philip Randolph threatened a mass march in Washington, D.C., in 1941 if President Roosevelt did not integrate defense industries. It was the Communist Party that sent aid to antifascist groups in Europe (B). J. Edgar Hoover, head of the FBI, favored registering subversive groups (C) in the 1950s. Many public figures argued that women working during the Depression were taking jobs away from men (D).

70.  B

In the first televised presidential debate, Kennedy’s appearance and charisma outshown Nixon’s. This was judged a key factor in the presidential race. A truce had ended the fighting in the Korean War (A) in 1953. Nixon had no significant war record (C). The Watergate investigation (D) occurred more than a decade after the 1960 election. Kennedy was a Massachusetts senator, not a governor (E).

71.  B

The stable government of Portugal supported Prince Henry the Navigator, an innovator in sailing technology, and the caravel, a fast sailing ship, was perfected by the Portuguese. Portugal is not inland (A) but rather on the Atlantic Ocean. The signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas (C), which split the world between Spain and Portugal, did not take place until the end of the century (1494). Ferdinand and Isabella (D) were rulers of Spain who had no influence on the early success of the Portuguese. Columbus sailed to the New World in 1492 for Spain, not Portugal (E).

72.  A

When Washington established a cabinet, he set a precedent that has been followed by all subsequent administrations. Florida (B) did not become part of the United States until 1817 as a result of the Adams-Onis Treaty. In his second administration, Washington put down the Whiskey Rebellion (C) in Pennsylvania. Shays’s Rebellion occurred in Massachusetts in 1787 before Washington’s first term as president. The Alien and Sedition Acts (D) were passed under John Adams in 1798. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison formed a political party to oppose Hamilton (E). Washington usually supported Hamilton but joined no political party.

73.  B

William Lloyd Garrison wanted the immediate abolition of slavery throughout the United States. The creation of a national slave code (A) was advocated by John C. Breckinridge in the election of 1860. The idea of no extension of slavery to the territories in the West (C) was supported by Abraham Lincoln. Popular sovereignty (D) was the solution to the slavery question offered by Stephen Douglas, and leaving questions of slavery to be decided in the future (E) was John Bell’s position.

74.  B

In the Dred Scott case (1857), Chief Justice Taney ruled that Scott had no standing to bring the case because “A Negro had no rights a white man was bound to respect” and it had been that way since before the Revolution. It was the Plessy v. Ferguson decision (1896) that stated that separate but equal facilities were constitutional (A). It was overturned by Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (E) in 1954. Worcester v. Georgia (1832) was the Cherokee case (C), which John Marshall decided in their favor. The decision stated that the Cherokee treaties were legal documents that the state of Georgia could not countermand. Jackson denounced the decision and ignored it, aiding Georgia in forcing Indians onto the Trail of Tears. The Wabash v. Illinois (1886) decision struck down state laws regulating the railroads (D), paving the way for the federal Interstate Commerce Act (1887).

75.  B

The Black Codes restricted African Americans’ freedom of movement and prevented them from starting businesses or owning land, thus making work on their old plantations the only viable option. Freed men and women (A) were aided by the Freedman’s Bureau. Tubman and Douglass (C), two antislavery activists, did not support laws designed to restrict the freedom of African Americans. Johnson did not oppose Black Codes (D). In fact, he vetoed the Civil Rights Bill, which was Congress’s attempt to eliminate the Black Codes. The Supreme Court never ruled on the constitutionality of Black Codes (E).

76.  B

The excerpt is from the “Cross of Gold” speech by William Jennings Bryan, who ran for president on the Democratic ticket with the support of the Populist Party in 1896. It is one of the most cited speeches in U.S. history. The gold standard was harmful to farmers, he argued. Let money be backed by silver as well, thus allowing the government to issue more money, which would cause inflation and help debtors, including most farmers. Agrarian organizations would not support higher tariffs (C); farmers generally want free trade so their products are more desirable on the international market. Though the Populist Party supported subsidies for farmers (A), an eight-hour day for industrial workers (D), and restrictions on immigration (E), this excerpt is only a critique of the gold standard.

77.  B

In 1902, Colombia rejected the U.S. bid to build a canal through Panama (which was then part of Colombia). The United States, with the collaboration of Phillipe Bunau-Varilla, an official in the French company that had previously attempted to build a canal, then organized a “revolution” in Panama against Colombia. The United States immediately recognized the newly independent nation of Panama. Secretary of State John Hay quickly signed a treaty with Bunau-Varilla (who had become the Panamanian ambassador to the United States), allowing the United States to build the canal. The Treaty of Paris of 1898 ended the Spanish-American War (A). The 1900 Foraker Act established commonwealth status for Puerto Rico (C). The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo secured the Mexican Cession for the United States (D). There was no treaty with Guatemala involving banana growing (E).

78.  D

Wilson’s unwillingness to compromise over Article X of the peace treaty, which had to do with the establishment of the League of Nations, led to the rejection of the Treaty of Versailles by the U.S. Senate. The United States negotiated a separate peace with Germany in 1921. Wilson did not enjoy a surge in popularity as a result of his battle with the Senate (A), and he was a two-term president who did not run in 1920 (B). The European nations did accept the Treaty of Versailles (C). The Democrats lost the election in 1920 (E) and did not win the White House again until 1932 with the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

79.  A

Roosevelt was concerned about the views of Stalin regarding expansion of Soviet influence in Eastern Europe. Churchill (C) generally concurred with Roosevelt on most matters. Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin were the major figures at the Yalta Conference. Charles de Gaulle (B), Mao Zedong (D), and Kim Il Sung (E) were not at Yalta.

80.  A

The United States became involved in Vietnam with the installation of Ngo Dinh Diem as a puppet leader of South Vietnam after the French military defeat at Dien Bien Phu by the Vietminh in 1954. The relationship between China and Taiwan (B), the partitioning of India in 1947 (C), and the invasion of South Korea by North Korea in 1950 (D) did not cause the United States to become politically involved in Vietnam. Japan controlled Vietnam during World War II. After World War II, France reasserted its power in Vietnam (E).

81.  A

When the Europeans arrived, they found advanced civilizations such as the Aztecs and Incas. Most Native Americans were not nomadic (B). The Eastern tribes, for example, had systems of government and lived in settled communities. African slavery (C) did not exist in the Americas. Some European explorers were initially welcomed by the Indians; for example, Cortes, who destroyed the Aztec empire, received a friendly, not a hostile welcome, until the Aztecs figured out his intentions (D). The Europeans introduced horses to the New World (E).

82.  B

Henry Clay died in 1852, 25 years before the Compromise of 1877 placed Rutherford B. Hayes in the White House. Clay did play an important role in the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which enabled Maine (E) to become a free state in 1820 and Missouri (A) to become a slave state in 1821. Clay proposed a reduction in tariff of 1833, which convinced South Carolina to rescind its nullification ordinance (C). Clay wrote the Compromise of 1850, which admitted California as a free state (D).

83.  C

Calhoun tried to shift the blame for slavery by saying it was the climate and the soil that required it. This was special pleading for protection of the “peculiar institution” of slavery. Slavery was the key issue behind sectionalism. Therefore, I and II are correct (C). Calhoun was clearer than most textbooks on this question: The tariff was not the main issue behind sectional tensions. It was only the “occasion” for sectional controversy, making III a wrong choice. He knew that defending his right to own slaves did not reflect the majority view, making IV an incorrect statement.

84.  D

The IWW was not a big, or even very successful, union, but it made a name for itself by being fiery and militant, with slogans such as “An injury to one is an injury to all,” and “One big union.” It was the most militant, not the most compromising, union of its day (C). “Company unions” (A) were not unions in the usual sense of the word but organizations set up by management to head off any union-organizing drives. The American Federation of Labor, not the IWW, was a craft union (B). The IWW was not a secret brotherhood, nor was it involved in the Haymarket Affair (E). Those are associated with the Knights of Labor.

85.  E

The United States was not a member of the Triple Alliance, which consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. The British ship, Lusitania, was sunk (A) by German submarines, killing American passengers. In the Zimmerman Note (B), the Germans promised to help Mexico reconquer the Southwest. This horrified Americans. The use of submarines by the Germans (C) endangered American shipping in the Atlantic. The idealist Woodrow Wilson viewed the war as a means of creating a more democratic world (D).

86.  B

The graph indicates that there was a large drop in unemployment from 1941 to 1943. This is when the United States became more involved in World War II. The Lend-Lease Law, passed in March 1941, established the United States as the “arsenal of democracy.” The United States entered the war in December 1941, following the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. Both Lend-Lease and the U.S. entrance into the war resulted in a greater demand for labor. The chart shows that the New Deal had had a limited effect (A). Women did enter the workforce after World War II, but that is not demonstrated in the chart (C). The chart does not allude to technological innovation (D). The rising employment figures represent an end to the Depression, not its persistence (E).

87.  D

The Stimson Doctrine condemned the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1932. The United States did not boycott German goods (A) as a result of the Stimson Doctrine. The United States stressed the importance of preserving the territorial integrity of China (B), but there was no pledge by the Allied nations to protect China. The Doctrine does not include a provision for a cease-fire in China (C). Italy did, in fact, invade Ethiopia, but this did not occur until 1935 and was not the subject of the Stimson Doctrine (E).

88.  B

The Soviets, regarding NATO as an offensive threat, wanted to counterbalance it with their own defensive alliance. The Warsaw Pact was formed in 1955 as a military alliance. Its members were the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites: Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria. Two of the other groupings, SEATO (A) and CENTO (C), were created with the United States to contain the spread of communism. The Alliance for Progress (D) promoted United States economic assistance to Latin America. The OAS (E) was established to promote economic cooperation among the nations of Latin America.

89.  A

Nixon’s history of questionable ethical decisions predates the Watergate scandal. During the 1952 campaign, Nixon was accused of accepting money from supporters in California and creating a “slush fund.” In the “Checkers speech,” Nixon sought to reassure the public that he had done no wrong. He contended that the only gift he accepted from supporters was the family dog, Checkers, and that it would break his daughter’s heart to give it up. Eisenhower and Nixon won the election. Cold War posturing (B), the “Vietnamization” (C) of the Vietnam War (withdrawing U.S. troops to leave the fighting to Vietnamese forces allied with the United States), pursuing détente with China (D), and defending himself after the Watergate revelations (E) were all actions that Nixon took later during his career in politics.

90.  B

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was not decided on the basis of the original intent of the 14th Amendment. There was segregation in 1868 when it was passed, and the 14th Amendment was not intended to end the practice. Psychological studies by Dr. Kenneth Clark, among others, showed that black children had feelings of inferiority (C) caused by segregation. The general social questions of the importance of education, the opportunities it provided for success in society (E), and the importance of local government in controlling education (A) were key points in the decision. The final ruling stated that segregation should be eliminated “with all deliberate speed” (D)—a contradiction that gave permission for both the movement toward desegregation and its slow speed.


Step 1: Figure out your raw score. Refer to your answer sheet to determine the number right and the number wrong on the practice test you’re scoring. You can use the formula below to figure out your raw score. Multiply the number wrong by 0.25 and subtract the result from the number right. Round the result to the nearest whole number. This is your raw score.

SAT Subject Test: U.S. History Practice Test 2


Step 2: Find your practice test score. Find your raw score in the left of each column of the table below. The score in the right of each column is an approximation of what your score would be on the SAT Subject Test: U.S. History.

A note on your practice test scores: Don’t take these scores too literally. Practice test conditions cannot precisely mirror real test conditions. Your actual SAT Subject Test: U.S. History score will almost certainly vary from your practice test scores. However, your scores on the practice tests will give you a rough idea of your range on the actual exam.

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