Modern history

Give Me Liberty!: An American History

Give Me Liberty!: An American History

Offers students a consistent approach, a single narrative voice, and a coherent perspective throughout the text. Threaded through the chronological narrative is the theme of freedom in American history and the significant conflicts over its changing meanings, its limits, and its accessibility to various social and economic groups throughout American history.

Preface

Part 1: American Colonies to 1763

Chapter 1. A NEW WORLD

THE FIRST AMERICANS

The Settling of the Americas

Indian Societies of the Americas

Mound Builders of the Mississippi River Valley

Western Indians

Indians of Eastern North America

Native American Religion

Land and Property

Gender Relations

European Views of the Indians

INDIAN FREEDOM, EUROPEAN FREEDOM

Indian Freedom

Christian Liberty

Freedom and Authority

Liberty and Liberties

THE EXPANSION OF EUROPE

Chinese and Portuguese Navigation

Portugal and West Africa

Freedom and Slavery in Africa

The Voyages of Columbus

CONTACT

Columbus in the New World

Exploration and Conquest

The Demographic Disaster

THE SPANISH EMPIRE

Governing Spanish America

Colonists in Spanish America

Colonists and Indians

Justifications for Conquest

Spreading the Faith

Piety and Profit

Las Casas’s Complaint

Reforming the Empire

Exploring North America

Spanish Florida

Spain in the Southwest

The Pueblo Revolt

THE FRENCH AND DUTCH EMPIRES

French Colonization

New France and the Indians

The Dutch Empire

Dutch Freedom

Freedom in New Netherland

Settling New Netherland

New Netherland and the Indians

Chapter 2. BEGINNINGS OF ENGLISH AMERICA, 1607–1660

ENGLAND AND THE NEW WORLD

Unifying the English Nation

England and Ireland

England and North America

Spreading Protestantism

Motives for Colonization

The Social Crisis

Masterless Men

THE COMING OF THE ENGLISH

English Emigrants

Indentured Servants

Land and Liberty

Englishmen and Indians

The Transformation of Indian Life

Changes in the Land

SETTLING THE CHESAPEAKE

The Jamestown Colony

From Company to Society

Powhatan and Pocahontas

The Uprising of 1622

A Tobacco Colony

Women and the Family

The Maryland Experiment

Religion in Maryland

THE NEW ENGLAND WAY

The Rise of Puritanism

Moral Liberty

The Pilgrims at Plymouth

The Great Migration

The Puritan Family

Government and Society in Massachusetts

Puritan Liberties

NEW ENGLANDERS DIVIDED

Roger Williams

Rhode Island and Connecticut

The Trials of Anne Hutchinson

Puritans and Indians

The Pequot War

The New England Economy

The Merchant Elite

The Half-Way Covenant

RELIGION, POLITICS, AND FREEDOM

The Rights of Englishmen

The English Civil War

England’s Debate over Freedom

English Liberty

The Civil War and English America

The Crisis in Maryland

Cromwell and the Empire

Chapter 3. CREATING ANGLO-AMERICA, 1660–1750

GLOBAL COMPETITION AND THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND’S EMPIRE

The Mercantilist System

The Conquest of New Netherland

New York and the Rights of Englishmen and Englishwomen

New York and the Indians

The Charter of Liberties

The Founding of Carolina

The Holy Experiment

Quaker Liberty

Land in Pennsylvania

ORIGINS OF AMERICAN SLAVERY

Englishmen and Africans

Slavery in History

Slavery in the West Indies

Slavery and the Law

The Rise of Chesapeake Slavery

Bacon’s Rebellion: Land and Labor in Virginia

The End of the Rebellion, and Its Consequences

A Slave Society

Notions of Freedom

COLONIES IN CRISIS

The Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution in America

The Maryland Uprising

Leisler’s Rebellion

Changes in New England

The Prosecution of Witches

The Salem Witch Trials

THE GROWTH OF COLONIAL AMERICA

A Diverse Population

Attracting Settlers

The German Migration

Religious Diversity

Indian Life in Transition

Regional Diversity

The Consumer Revolution

Colonial Cities

Colonial Artisans

An Atlantic World

SOCIAL CLASSES IN THE COLONIES

The Colonial Elite

Anglicization

The South Carolina Aristocracy

Poverty in the Colonies

The Middle Ranks

Women and the Household Economy

North America at Mid-Century

Chapter 4. SLAVERY, FREEDOM, AND THE STRUGGLE FOR EMPIRE TO 1763

SLAVERY AND EMPIRE

Atlantic Trade

Africa and the Slave Trade

The Middle Passage

Chesapeake Slavery

Freedom and Slavery in the Chesapeake

Indian Slavery in Early Carolina

The Rice Kingdom

The Georgia Experiment

Slavery in the North

SLAVE CULTURES AND SLAVE RESISTANCE

Becoming African-American

African-American Cultures

Resistance to Slavery

The Crisis of 1739–1741

AN EMPIRE OF FREEDOM

British Patriotism

The British Constitution

The Language of Liberty

Republican Liberty

Liberal Freedom

THE PUBLIC SPHERE

The Right to Vote

Political Cultures

Colonial Government

The Rise of the Assemblies

Politics in Public

The Colonial Press

Freedom of Expression and Its Limits

The Trial of Zenger

The American Enlightenment

THE GREAT AWAKENING

Religious Revivals

The Preaching of Whitefield

The Awakening’s Impact

IMPERIAL RIVALRIES

Spanish North America

The Spanish in California

The French Empire

BATTLE FOR THE CONTINENT

The Middle Ground

The Seven Years’ War

A World Transformed

Pontiac’s Rebellion

The Proclamation Line

Pennsylvania and the Indians

Colonial Identities

Part 2: A New Nation, 1763–1840

Chapter 5. THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 1763–1783

THE CRISIS BEGINS

Consolidating the Empire

Taxing the Colonies

The Stamp Act Crisis

Taxation and Representation

Liberty and Resistance

Politics in the Streets

The Regulators

The Tenant Uprising

THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION

The Townshend Crisis

Homespun Virtue

The Boston Massacre

Wilkes and Liberty

The Tea Act

The Intolerable Acts

THE COMING OF INDEPENDENCE

The Continental Congress

The Continental Association

The Sweets of Liberty

The Outbreak of War

Independence?

Common Sense

Paine’s Impact

The Declaration of Independence

The Declaration and American Freedom

An Asylum for Mankind

The Global Declaration of Independence

SECURING INDEPENDENCE

The Balance of Power

Blacks in the Revolution

The First Years of the War

The Battle of Saratoga

The War in the South

Victory at Last

Chapter 6. THE REVOLUTION WITHIN

DEMOCRATIZING FREEDOM

The Dream of Equality

Expanding the Political Nation

The Revolution in Pennsylvania

The New Constitutions

The Right to Vote

Democratizing Government

TOWARD RELIGIOUS TOLERATION

Catholic Americans

The Founders and Religion

Separating Church and State

Jefferson and Religious Liberty

The Revolution and the Churches

A Virtuous Citizenry

DEFINING ECONOMIC FREEDOM

Toward Free Labor

The Soul of a Republic

The Politics of Inflation

The Debate over Free Trade

THE LIMITS OF LIBERTY

Colonial Loyalists

The Loyalists’ Plight

The Indians’ Revolution

White Freedom, Indian Freedom

SLAVERY AND THE REVOLUTION

The Language of Slavery and Freedom

Obstacles to Abolition

The Cause of General Liberty

Petitions for Freedom

British Emancipators

Voluntary Emancipations

Abolition in the North

Free Black Communities

DAUGHTERS OF LIBERTY

Revolutionary Women

Gender and Politics

Republican Motherhood

The Arduous Struggle for Liberty

Chapter 7. FOUNDING A NATION, 1783–1789

AMERICA UNDER THE CONFEDERATION

The Articles of Confederation

Congress and the West

Settlers and the West

The Land Ordinances

The Confederation’s Weaknesses

Shays’s Rebellion

Nationalists of the 1780s

A NEW CONSTITUTION

The Structure of Government

The Limits of Democracy

The Division and Separation of Powers

The Debate over Slavery

Slavery in the Constitution

The Final Document

THE RATIFICATION DEBATE AND THE ORIGIN OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS

The Federalist

“Extend the Sphere”

The Anti-Federalists

The Bill of Rights

“WE THE PEOPLE”

National Identity

Indians in the New Nation

Blacks and the Republic

Jefferson, Slavery, and Race

Principles of Freedom

Chapter 8. SECURING THE REPUBLIC, 1790–1815

POLITICS IN AN AGE OF PASSION

Hamilton’s Program

The Emergence of Opposition

The Jefferson-Hamilton Bargain

The Impact of the French Revolution

Political Parties

The Whiskey Rebellion

The Republican Party

An Expanding Public Sphere

The Democratic-Republican Societies

The Rights of Women

Women and the Republic

THE ADAMS PRESIDENCY

The Election of 1796

The “Reign of Witches”

The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

The “Revolution of 1800”

Slavery and Politics

The Haitian Revolution

Gabriel’s Rebellion

JEFFERSON IN POWER

Judicial Review

The Louisiana Purchase

Lewis and Clark

Incorporating Louisiana

The Barbary Wars

The Embargo

Madison and Pressure for War

THE “SECOND WAR OF INDEPENDENCE”

The Indian Response

Tecumseh’s Vision

The War of 1812

The War’s Aftermath

The End of the Federalist Party

Chapter 9. THE MARKET REVOLUTION, 1800–1840

A NEW ECONOMY

Roads and Steamboats

The Erie Canal

Railroads and the Telegraph

The Rise of the West

The Cotton Kingdom

The Unfree Westward Movement

MARKET SOCIETY

Commercial Farmers

The Growth of Cities

The Factory System

The Industrial Worker

The “Mill Girls”

The Growth of Immigration

Irish and German Newcomers

The Rise of Nativism

The Transformation of Law

THE FREE INDIVIDUAL

The West and Freedom

The Transcendentalists

Individualism

The Second Great Awakening

The Awakening’s Impact

THE LIMITS OF PROSPERITY

Liberty and Prosperity

Race and Opportunity

The Cult of Domesticity

Women and Work

The Early Labor Movement

The “Liberty of Living”

Chapter 10. DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA, 1815–1840

THE TRIUMPH OF DEMOCRACY

Property and Democracy

The Dorr War

Tocqueville on Democracy

The Information Revolution

The Limits of Democracy

A Racial Democracy

Race and Class

NATIONALISM AND ITS DISCONTENTS

The American System

Banks and Money

The Panic of 1819

The Politics of the Panic

The Missouri Controversy

The Slavery Question

NATION, SECTION, AND PARTY

The United States and the Latin American Wars of Independence

The Monroe Doctrine

The Election of 1824

The Nationalism of John Quincy Adams

“Liberty Is Power”

Martin Van Buren and the Democratic Party

The Election of 1828

THE AGE OF JACKSON

The Party System

Democrats and Whigs

Public and Private Freedom

Politics and Morality

South Carolina and Nullification

Calhoun’s Political Theory

The Nullification Crisis

Indian Removal

The Supreme Court and the Indians

THE BANK WAR AND AFTER

Biddle’s Bank

The Pet Banks and the Economy

The Panic of 1837

Van Buren in Office

The Election of 1840

His Accidency

Part 3: Slavery, Freedom, and the Crisis of the Union, 1840–1877

Chapter 11. THE PECULIAR INSTITUTION

THE OLD SOUTH

Cotton Is King

The Second Middle Passage

Slavery and the Nation

The Southern Economy

Plain Folk of the Old South

The Planter Class

The Paternalist Ethos

The Code of Honor

The Proslavery Argument

Abolition in the Americas

Slavery and Liberty

Slavery and Civilization

LIFE UNDER SLAVERY

Slaves and the Law

Conditions of Slave Life

Free Blacks in the Old South

The Upper and Lower South

Slave Labor

Gang Labor and Task Labor

Slavery in the Cities

Maintaining Order

SLAVE CULTURE

The Slave Family

The Threat of Sale

Gender Roles among Slaves

Slave Religion

The Gospel of Freedom

The Desire for Liberty

RESISTANCE TO SLAVERY

Forms of Resistance

Fugitive Slaves

The Amistad

Slave Revolts

Nat Turner’s Rebellion

Chapter 12. AN AGE OF REFORM, 1820–1840

THE REFORM IMPULSE

Utopian Communities

The Shakers

The Mormons’ Trek

Oneida

Worldly Communities

The Owenites

Religion and Reform

The Temperance Movement

Critics of Reform

Reformers and Freedom

The Invention of the Asylum

The Common School

THE CRUSADE AGAINST SLAVERY

Colonization

Blacks and Colonization

Militant Abolitionism

The Emergence of Garrison

Spreading the Abolitionist Message

Slavery and Moral Suasion

Abolitionists and the Idea of Freedom

A New Vision of America

BLACK AND WHITE ABOLITIONISM

Black Abolitionists

Abolitionism and Race

Slavery and American Freedom

Gentlemen of Property and Standing

Slavery and Civil Liberties

THE ORIGINS OF FEMINISM

The Rise of the Public Woman

Women and Free Speech

Women’s Rights

Feminism and Freedom

Women and Work

The Slavery of Sex

“Social Freedom”

The Abolitionist Schism

Chapter 13. A HOUSE DIVIDED, 1840–1861

FRUITS OF MANIFEST DESTINY

Continental Expansion

The Mexican Frontier: New Mexico and California

The Texas Revolt

The Election of 1844

The Road to War

The War and Its Critics

Combat in Mexico

Race and Manifest Destiny

Redefining Race

Gold-Rush California

California and the Boundaries of Freedom

The Other Gold Rush

Opening Japan

A DOSE OF ARSENIC

The Wilmot Proviso

The Free Soil Appeal

Crisis and Compromise

The Great Debate

The Fugitive Slave Issue

Douglas and Popular Sovereignty

The Kansas-Nebraska Act

THE RISE OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY

The Northern Economy

The Rise and Fall of the Know-Nothings

The Free Labor Ideology

Bleeding Kansas and the Election of 1856

THE EMERGENCE OF LINCOLN

The Dred Scott Decision

The Decision’s Aftermath

Lincoln and Slavery

The Lincoln-Douglas Campaign

John Brown at Harpers Ferry

The Rise of Southern Nationalism

The Democratic Split

The Nomination of Lincoln

The Election of 1860

THE IMPENDING CRISIS

The Secession Movement

The Secession Crisis

And the War Came

Chapter 14. A NEW BIRTH OF FREEDOM: THE CIVIL WAR, 1861–1865

THE FIRST MODERN WAR

The Two Combatants

The Technology of War

The Public and the War

Mobilizing Resources

Military Strategies

The War Begins

The War in the East, 1862

The War in the West

THE COMING OF EMANCIPATION

Slavery and the War

The Unraveling of Slavery

Steps toward Emancipation

Lincoln’s Decision

The Emancipation Proclamation

Enlisting Black Trops

The Black Soldier

THE SECOND AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Liberty and Union

Lincoln’s Vision

From Union to Nation

The War and American Religion

Liberty in Wartime

The North’s Transformation

Government and the Economy

Building the Transcontinental Railroad

The War and Native Americans

A New Financial System

Women and the War

The Divided North

THE CONFEDERATE NATION

Leadership and Government

The Inner Civil War

Economic Problems

Southern Unionists

Women and the Confederacy

Black Soldiers for the Confederacy

TURNING POINTS

Gettysburg and Vicksburg

1864

REHEARSALS FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND THE END OF THE WAR

The Sea Island Experiment

Wartime Reconstruction in the West

The Politics of Wartime Reconstruction

Victory at Last

The War and the World

The War in American History

Chapter 15. “WHAT IS FREEDOM?”: RECONSTRUCTION, 1865–1877

THE MEANING OF FREEDOM

Blacks and the Meaning of Freedom

Families in Freedom

Church and School

Political Freedom

Land, Labor, and Freedom

Masters without Slaves

The Free Labor Vision

The Freedmen’s Bureau

The Failure of Land Reform

Toward a New South

The White Farmer

The Urban South

Aftermaths of Slavery

THE MAKING OF RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION

Andrew Johnson

The Failure of Presidential Reconstruction

The Black Codes

The Radical Republicans

The Origins of Civil Rights

The Fourteenth Amendment

The Reconstruction Act

Impeachment and the Election of Grant

The Fifteenth Amendment

The “Great Constitutional Revolution”

Boundaries of Freedom

The Rights of Women

Feminists and Radicals

RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN THE SOUTH

“The Tocsin of Freedom”

The Black Officeholder

Carpetbaggers and Scalawags

Southern Republicans in Power

The Quest for Prosperity

THE OVERTHROW OF RECONSTRUCTION

Reconstruction’s Opponents

“A Reign of Terror”

The Liberal Republicans

The North’s Retreat

The Triumph of the Redeemers

The Disputed Election and Bargain of 1877

The End of Reconstruction

Part 4: Toward a Global Presence, 1870–1920

Chapter 16. AMERICA’S GILDED AGE, 1870–1890

THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

The Industrial Economy

Railroads and the National Market

The Spirit of Innovation

Competition and Consolidation

The Rise of Andrew Carnegie

The Triumph of John D. Rockefeller

Workers’ Freedom in an Industrial Age

Sunshine and Shadow: Increasing Wealth and Poverty

THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WEST

A Diverse Region

Farming on the Middle Border

Bonanza Farms

Large-Scale Agriculture in California

The Cowboy and the Corporate West

The Subjugation of the Plains Indians

“Let Me Be a Free Man”

Remaking Indian Life

The Dawes Act

Indian Citizenship

The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee

Settler Societies and Global Wests

POLITICS IN A GILDED AGE

The Corruption of Politics

The Politics of Dead Center

Government and the Economy

Reform Legislation

Political Conflict in the States

FREEDOM IN THE GILDED AGE

The Social Problem

Freedom, Inequality, and Democracy

Social Darwinism in America

Liberty of Contract

The Courts and Freedom

LABOR AND THE REPUBLIC

“The Overwhelming Labor Question”

The Knights of Labor and the “Conditions Essential to Liberty”

Middle-Class Reformers

Progress and Poverty

The Cooperative Commonwealth

Bellamy’s Utopia

A Social Gospel

The Haymarket Affair

Labor and Politics

Chapter 17. FREEDOM’S BOUNDARIES, AT HOME AND ABROAD, 1890–1900

THE POPULIST CHALLENGE

The Farmers’ Revolt

The People’s Party

The Populist Platform

The Populist Coalition

The Government and Labor

Debs and the Pullman Strike

Population and Labor

Bryan and Free Silver

The Campaign of 1896

THE SEGREGATED SOUTH

The Redeemers in Power

The Failure of the New South Dream

Black Life in the South

The Kansas Exodus

The Decline of Black Politics

The Elimination of Black Voting

The Law of Segregation

Segregation and White Domination

The Rise of Lynching

The Politics of Memory

REDRAWING THE BOUNDARIES

The New Immigration and the New Nativism

Chinese Exclusion and Chinese Rights

The Emergence of Booker T. Washington

The Rise of the AFL

The Women’s Era

BECOMING A WORLD POWER

The New Imperialism

American Expansionism

The Lure of Empire

The “Splendid Little War”

Roosevelt at San Juan Hill

An American Empire

The Philippine War

Citizens or Subjects?

Drawing the Global Color Line

“Republic or Empire?”

Chapter 18. THE PROGRESSIVE ERA, 1900–1916

AN URBAN AGE AND A CONSUMER SOCIETY

Farms and Cities

The Muckrakers

Immigration as a Global Process

The Immigrant Quest for Freedom

Consumer Freedom

The Working Woman

The Rise of Fordism

The Promise of Abundance

An American Standard of Living

VARIETIES OF PROGRESSIVISM

Industrial Freedom

The Socialist Presence

The Gospel of Debs

AFL and IWW

The New Immigrants on Strike

Labor and Civil Liberties

The New Feminism

The Rise of Personal Freedom

The Birth-Control Movement

Native-American Progressivism

THE POLITICS OF PROGRESSIVISM

Effective Freedom

State and Local Reforms

Progressive Democracy

Government by Expert

Jane Addams and Hull House

“Spearheads for Reform”

The Campaign for Women’s Suffrage

Maternalist Reform

The Idea of Economic Citizenship

THE PROGRESSIVE PRESIDENTS

Theodore Roosevelt

Roosevelt and Economic Regulation

The Conservation Movement

Taft in Office

The Election of 1912

New Freedom and New Nationalism

Wilson’s First Term

The Expanding Role of Government

Chapter 19. SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY: THE UNITED STATES AND WORLD WAR I, 1916–1920

AN ERA OF INTERVENTION

“I Took the Canal Zone”

The Roosevelt Corollary

Moral Imperialism

Wilson and Mexico

AMERICA AND THE GREAT WAR

Neutrality and Preparedness

The Road to War

The Fourteen Points

THE WAR AT HOME

The Progressives’ War

The Wartime State

The Propaganda War

“The Great Cause of Freedom”

The Coming of Woman Suffrage

Prohibition

Liberty in Wartime

The Espionage Act

Coercive Patriotism

WHO IS AN AMERICAN?

The “Race Problem”

Americanization and Pluralism

The Anti-German Crusade

Toward Immigration Restriction

Groups Apart: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Asian-Americans

The Color Line

Roosevelt, Wilson, and Race

W. E. B. Du Bois and the Revival of Black Protest

Closing Ranks

The Great Migration and the “Promised Land”

Racial Violence, North and South

The Rise of Garveyism

1919

A Worldwide Upsurge

Upheaval in America

The Great Steel Strike

The Red Scare

Wilson at Versailles

The Wilsonian Moment

The Seeds of Wars to Come

The Treaty Debate

Part 5: Depression and Wars, 1920–1953

Chapter 20. FROM BUSINESS CULTURE TO GREAT DEPRESSION: THE TWENTIES, 1920–1932

THE BUSINESS OF AMERICA

A Decade of Prosperity

A New Society

The Limit of Prosperity

The Farmers’ Plight

The Image of Business

The Decline of Labor

The Equal Rights Amendment

Women’s Freedom

BUSINESS AND GOVERNMENT

The Retreat from Progressivism

The Republican Era

Corruption in Government

The Election of 1924

Economic Diplomacy

THE BIRTH OF CIVIL LIBERTIES

The “Free Mob”

A “Clear and Present Danger”

The Court and Civil Liberties

THE CULTURE WARS

The Fundamentalist Revolt

The Scopes Trial

The Second Klan

Closing the Golden Door

Race and the Law

Pluralism and Liberty

Promoting Tolerance

The Emergence of Harlem

The Harlem Renaissance

THE GREAT DEPRESSION

The Election of 1928

The Coming of the Depression

Americans and the Depression

Resignation and Protest

Hoover’s Response

The Worsening Economic Outlook

Freedom in the Modern World

Chapter 21. THE NEW DEAL, 1932–1940

THE FIRST NEW DEAL

FDR and the Election of 1932

The Coming of the New Deal

The Banking Crisis

The NRA

Government Jobs

Public-Works Projects

The New Deal and Agriculture

The New Deal and Housing

The Court and the New Deal

THE GRASSROOTS REVOLT

Labor’s Great Upheaval

The Rise of the CIO

Labor and Politics

Voices of Protest

THE SECOND NEW DEAL

The WPA and the Wagner Act

The American Welfare State

The Social Security System

A RECKONING WITH LIBERTY

FDR and the Idea of Freedom

The Election of 1936

The Court Fight

The End of the Second New Deal

THE LIMITS OF CHANGE

The New Deal and American Women

The Southern Veto

The Stigma of Welfare

The Indian New Deal

The New Deal and Mexican-Americans

Last Hired, First Fired

A New Deal for Blacks

Federal Discrimination

A NEW CONCEPTION OF AMERICA

The Heyday of American Communism

Redefining the People

Promoting Diversity

Challenging the Color Line

Labor and Civil Liberties

The End of the New Deal

The New Deal in American History

Chapter 22. FIGHTING FOR THE FOUR FREEDOMS: WORLD WAR II, 1941–1945

FIGHTING WORLD WAR II

Good Neighbors

The Road to War

Isolationism

War in Europe

Toward Intervention

Pearl Harbor

The War in the Pacific

The War in Europe

THE HOME FRONT

Mobilizing for War

Business and the War

Labor in Wartime

Fighting for the Four Freedoms

Freedom from Want

The Office of War Information

The Fifth Freedom

Women at War

Women at Work

VISIONS OF POSTWAR FREEDOM

Toward an American Century

“The Way of Life of Free Men”

An Economic Bill of Rights

The Road to Serfdom

THE AMERICAN DILEMMA

Patriotic Assimilation

The Bracero Program

Mexican-American Rights

Indians during the War

Asian-Americans in Wartime

Japanese-American Internment

Blacks and the War

Blacks and Military Service

Birth of the Civil Rights Movement

The Double-V

What the Negro Wants

An American Dilemma

Black Internationalism

THE END OF THE WAR

“The Most Terrible Weapon”

The Dawn of the Atomic Age

The Nature of the War

Planning the Postwar World

Yalta and Bretton Woods

The United Nations

Peace, but Not Harmony

Chapter 23. THE UNITED STATES AND THE COLD WAR, 1945–1953

ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR

The Two Powers

The Roots of Containment

The Iron Curtain

The Truman Doctrine

The Marshall Plan

The Reconstruction of Japan

The Berlin Blockade and NATO

The Growing Communist Challenge

The Korean War

Cold War Critics

Imperialism and Decolonization

THE COLD WAR AND THE IDEA OF FREEDOM

The Cultural Cold War

Freedom and Totalitarianism

The Rise of Human Rights

Ambiguities of Human Rights

THE TRUMAN PRESIDENCY

The Fair Deal

The Postwar Strike Wave

The Republican Resurgence

Postwar Civil Rights

To Secure These Rights

The Dixiecrat and Wallace Revolts

The 1948 Campaign

THE ANTICOMMUNIST CRUSADE

Loyalty and Disloyalty

The Spy Trials

McCarthy and McCarthyism

An Atmosphere of Fear

The Uses of Anticommunism

Anticommunist Politics

The Cold War and Organized Labor

Cold War Civil Rights

Part 6: What Kind of Nation? 1953–2010

Chapter 24. AN AFFLUENT SOCIETY, 1953–1960

THE GOLDEN AGE

A Changing Economy

A Suburban Nation

The Growth of the West

A Consumer Culture

The TV World

A New Ford

Women at Work and at Home

A Segregated Landscape

Public Housing and Urban Renewal

The Divided Society

The End of Ideology

Selling Free Enterprise

People’s Capitalism

The Libertarian Conservatives

The New Conservatism

THE EISENHOWER ERA

Ike and Nixon

The 1952 Campaign

Modern Republicans

The Social Contract

Massive Retaliation

Ike and the Russians

The Emergence of the Third World

The Cold War in the Third World

Origins of the Vietnam War

Mass Society and Its Critics

Rebels without a Cause

The Beats

THE FREEDOM MOVEMENT

Origins of the Movement

The Legal Assault on Segregation

The Brown Case

The Montgomery Bus Boycott

The Daybreak of Freedom

The Leadership of King

Massive Resistance

Eisenhower and Civil Rights

The World Views the United States

THE ELECTION OF 1960

Kennedy and Nixon

The End of the 1950s

Chapter 25. THE SIXTIES, 1960–1968

THE FREEDOM MOVEMENT

The Rising Tide of Protest

Birmingham

The March on Washington

THE KENNEDY YEARS

Kennedy and the World

The Missile Crisis

Kennedy and Civil Rights

LYNDON JOHNSON’S PRESIDENCY

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

Freedom Summer

The 1964 Election

The Conservative Sixties

The Voting Rights Act

Immigration Reform

The Great Society

The War on Poverty

Freedom and Equality

THE CHANGING BLACK MOVEMENT

The Ghetto Uprisings

Malcolm X

The Rise of Black Power

VIETNAM AND THE NEW LEFT

Old and New Lefts

The Fading Consensus

The Rise of the SDS

America and Vietnam

Lyndon Johnson’s War

The Antiwar Movement

The Counterculture

Personal Liberation and the Free Individual

THE NEW MOVEMENTS AND THE RIGHTS REVOLUTION

The Feminine Mystique

Women’s Liberation

Personal Freedom

Gay Liberation

Latino Activism

Red Power

Silent Spring

The New Environmentalism

The Rights Revolution

Policing the States

The Right to Privacy

1968

A Year of Turmoil

The Global 1968

Nixon’s Comeback

The Legacy of the Sixties

Chapter 26. THE TRIUMPH OF CONSERVATISM, 1969–1988

PRESIDENT NIXON

Nixon’s Domestic Policies

Nixon and Welfare

Nixon and Race

The Burger Court

The Court and Affirmative Action

The Continuing Sexual Revolution

Nixon and Détente

VIETNAM AND WATERGATE

Nixon and Vietnam

The End of the Vietnam War

Watergate

Nixon’s Fall

THE END OF THE GOLDEN AGE

The Decline of Manufacturing

Stagflation

The Beleaguered Social Compact

Labor on the Defensive

Ford as President

The Carter Administration

Carter and the Economic Crisis

The Emergence of Human Rights Politics

The Iran Crisis and Afghanistan

THE RISING TIDE OF CONSERVATISM

The Religious Right

The Battle over the Equal Rights Amendment

The Abortion Controversy

The Tax Revolt

The Election of 1980

THE REAGAN REVOLUTION

Reagan and American Freedom

Reaganomics

Reagan and Labor

The Problem of Inequality

The Second Gilded Age

Conservatives and Reagan

Reagan and the Cold War

The Iran-Contra Affair

Reagan and Gorbachev

Reagan’s Legacy

The Election of 1988

Chapter 27. GLOBALIZATION AND ITS DISCONTENTS, 1989–2000

THE POST–COLD WAR WORLD

The Crisis of Communism

A New World Order?

The Gulf War

Visions of America’s Role

The Election of Clinton

Clinton in Office

The “Freedom Revolution”

Clinton’s Political Strategy

Clinton and World Affairs

The Balkan Crisis

Human Rights

A NEW ECONOMY?

The Computer Revolution

Global Economic Problems

The Stock Market Boom and Bust

The Enron Syndrome

Fruits of Deregulation

Rising Inequality

CULTURE WARS

The Newest Immigrants

The New Diversity

African-Americans in the 1990s

The Role of the Courts

The Spread of Imprisonment

The Burden of Imprisonment

The Continuing Rights Revolution

Native Americans in 2000

Multiculturalism

The Identity Debate

Cultural Conservatism

“Family Values” in Retreat

The Antigovernment Extreme

IMPEACHMENT AND THE ELECTION OF 2000

The Impeachment of Clinton

The Disputed Election

The 2000 Result

A Challenged Democracy

FREEDOM AND THE NEW CENTURY

Exceptional America

Varieties of Freedom

Chapter 28. SEPTEMBER 11 AND THE NEXT AMERICAN CENTURY

THE WAR ON TERRORISM

Bush before September 11

Bush and the World

“They Hate Freedom”

The Bush Doctrine

The “Axis of Evil”

The National Security Strategy

AN AMERICAN EMPIRE?

Confronting Iraq

The Iraq War

Another Vietnam?

The World and the War

THE AFTERMATH OF SEPTEMBER 11 AT HOME

Security and Liberty

The Power of the President

The Torture Controversy

The Economy under Bush

The “Jobless” Recovery

THE WINDS OF CHANGE

The 2004 Election

Bush’s Second Term

Hurricane Katrina

The New Orleans Disaster

The Immigration Debate

The Immigrant Rights Movement

The Constitution and Liberty

The Court and the President

The Midterm Elections of 2006

The Housing Bubble

The Great Recession

“A Conspiracy against the Public”

The Collapse of Market Fundamentalism

Bush and the Crisis

THE RISE OF OBAMA

The 2008 Campaign

The Age of Obama?

Obama’s Inauguration

Obama’s First Months

LEARNING FROM HISTORY

Appendix

DOCUMENTS

The Declaration of Independence (1776)

The Constitution of the United States (1787)

From George Washington’s Farewell Address (1796)

The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions (1848)

From Frederick Douglass’s “What, to the Slave, Is the Fourth of July?” Speech (1852)

The Gettysburg Address (1863)

Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address (1865)

The Populist Platform of 1892

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address (1933)

Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” Speech (1963)

Ronald Reagan’s First Inaugural Address (1981)

Barack Obama’s Inaugural Address (2009)

TABLES AND FIGURES

Presidential Elections

Admission of States

Population of the United States

Historical Statistics of the United States

GLOSSARY

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