Post-classical history

Appendix II: Biographical Notes on Selected Canonists

Below are a few helpful sources on the lives, careers, and writings of canonists who appear frequently in the work. In addition, these biographical sketches illustrate concretely remarks made earlier concerning the variety of careers open to canonists, as well as their geographical mobility and the diversity of their origins.

[~ is the approximation sign and designates a range of dates within which a person probably lived or an event probably occurred.]

For resources on the lives and works of additional jurists, see:

· Condorelli, Orazio, and Rafael Domingo, eds. Law and the Christian Tradition in Italy: The Legacy of the Great Jurists. London-New York: Routledge, 2020.

· Decock, Win, and Janwillem Oosterhuis, eds. Great Christian Jurists in the Low Countries. Law and Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021.

· Descamps, Olivier, and Rafael Domingo, eds. Great Christian Jurists in French History. Law and Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

· Domingo, Rafael, and Javier Martínez-Torrón, eds. Great Christians Jurists in Spanish History. Law and Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

· Donahue, Jr., Charles, and Kenneth Pennington, eds. “Bio-Bibliographic Guide to Medieval and Early Modern Jurists.” Available at

· Hill, Mark, and Richard H. Helmholz, eds. Great Christian Jurists in English History. Law and Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

· Reynolds, Philip L., ed. Great Christian Jurists and Legal Collections in the First Millennium. Cambridge Studies in Law and Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

· Schmoeckel, Mathias, and John Witte Jr., eds., Great Christian Jurists in German History. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2020.

Anselm of Lucca (ca. 1040–1086). Anselm was born in Milan of a noble family involved in imperial service as judiciaries and notaries, and connected to the cathedral and canonry of St. Ambrose. Pope Gregory VII consecrated him bishop of Lucca in April 1073 and Anselm played an instrumental role in the papacy’s struggle against imperial involvement in the church during the Investiture Controversy. He had a brief retirement into a Cluniac monastery around 1075 but he would become involved in the Lenten synod of 1076 at which Emperor Henry IV was excommunicated. He had tried, with the assistance of Gregory VII and Countess Matilda of Tuscany, to reform the canons of San Martino. It was not to be, however, and the resulting ire led to Anselm being driven out of Lucca when the canons elicited the support of Henry IV and Wibert of Ravenna who had been appointed antipope. Anselm spent the remainder of his life in exile in the circle of Matilda of Tuscany, fighting against the supporters of Henry and Wibert. He compiled the Collectio canonum, a collection noted for its support of papal authority.

Baldus de Ubaldis (ca. 1327–1400). Baldus was born into a family with strong academic credentials. His father, Francesco Ubaldi, was a professor of medicine at Perugia and Baldus, who studied both civil and canon law at Perugia and Pisa, later taught at six universities during a long and complex career in which he combined teaching and practice. Two of Baldus’s brothers, as well as his son, Francesco, were also well-known jurists. Perhaps the most visible of Baldus’s many notable students was Pierre Roger de Beaufort, who became Pope Gregory XI (1370–1378). Baldus could also count among his pupils several of the most influential jurists of the succeeding generation, including Peter of Ancharano, Cardinal Zabarella, Johannes ab Imola, and Paulus de Castro. Baldus wrote extensively on both civil and canon law. The most important of his canonistic works was his Commentary on the first three books of the Liber extra. He also wrote a great number of consilia, as well as additiones to the Speculum iudiciale of William Durand.

Bartholomaeus Brixiensis (Bartholomew of Brescia; d. 1258). Few traces survive of the career of Bartholomaeus Brixiensis. He studied canon law under Tancred at Bologna, where he also attended the lectures of Hugolinus in Roman law. After completing his studies, Bartholomaeus himself taught canon law at Bologna. His principal works include two sets of quaestiones disputatae and his revised and updated version of Johannes Teutonicus’s Glossa ordinaria on the Decretum of Gratian. Virtually all glossed manuscripts of the Decretum after the mid-thirteenth century reproduce Bartholomaeus’s revised form of the ordinary gloss, as do the numerous printed editions that appeared between the fifteenth and the seventeenth centuries.

Benedetto Gaetani (Pope Boniface VIII; ca. 1235–1303). Born at Anagni into the powerful Gaetani clan, Benedetto enjoyed a meteoric ecclesiastical career. Ambitious and able, Benedetto studied canon law at Bologna and then immediately entered the papal curia, where he progressed swiftly into the upper ranks of the papal bureaucracy. Successive popes entrusted him with numerous diplomatic missions and in 1281 Pope Martin IV (1281–1285) rewarded his successful performance by naming him a cardinal. A crisis in papal politics following the death of Pope Nicholas IV in 1292 left the papal throne vacant for 27 months. Although the cardinals finally agreed upon a compromise candidate, Peter Morrone, who became Pope Celestine V in July 1294, the new pope abruptly resigned his office on 13 December of that same year. Another extended vacancy in the papacy would have been disastrous and accordingly, eleven days after Celestine V’s resignation, the cardinals chose Benedetto Gaetani to succeed to St. Peter’s throne under the title of Boniface VIII. Boniface’s pontificate was stormy and frequently dramatic. He was not only embroiled in internal dissension within the ranks of the clergy—such as the bitter strife between the spiritual and conventual wings of the Franciscan order—but also with rivalries between his own family and another powerful Roman house, the Colonnas. During his forty-year career as a practicing canonist, the new pope had ample experience with canonists’ chronic difficulties in discovering the most recent law on the problems they had to deal with. Early in his pontificate Boniface VIII appointed a commission of prominent canonists to prepare a new official collection of the decretal law that had accumulated since the publication of the Liber extra by Pope Gregory IX in 1234. On 3 March 1298 Boniface formally promulgated the new decretal collection that his commissioners had prepared. He entitled it the Sixth Book of Decretals (Liber sextus decretalium), which signalled that the new work was a continuation of and supplement to the five books of the Liber extra. Thereafter, other problems monopolized the pope’s attention. The greatest of the many crises in Boniface’s pontificate centred on the relationship between papal and monarchical powers. Boniface’s leading antagonist in this struggle was King Philip IV of France (1285–1314). This conflict entered a crucial phase in 1301 and the pope’s situation deteriorated rapidly thereafter. In 1303 King Philip dispatched Guillaume de Nogaret to Italy to capture and imprison the pope, which Guillaume did briefly after storming the papal castle at Anagni on 7 September 1303. The French forces released Boniface after holding him prisoner for only two days, but the pope returned to Rome a broken man and died on 11 October 1303.

Bernard of Parma (d. 1266). Bernard was born close to the beginning of the thirteenth century at Parma and was a member of the locally prominent de Botone family. He studied canon law at Bologna under Tancred and by 1247 had become a canon of the cathedral of Bologna, where he taught throughout his career. The best-known of his students at Bologna was William Durand. Bernard was also a papal chaplain and, in addition to his teaching, conducted a great deal of important business at the papal court. Bernard compiled the Glossa ordinaria and the Casus longi to the Liber extra, as well as a Summa super titulis decretalium, which reproduces much of the gloss apparatus of Tancred on Compilatio prima. When Bernard died, he was buried next to Tancred in the cathedral of Bologna.

Bernard of Pavia (d. 1213). The early life of Bernard of Pavia, sometimes called Bernard Balbi, is extremely obscure. He was a native of Pavia and first appeared as a student of canon law and theology at Bologna, where he studied canon law with Huguccio. When he had finished his legal studies, Bernard taught for a time at Bologna, then joined the papal curia in Rome, and in 1178 was named provost of Pavia. In 1191 he succeeded another canonist, Johannes Faventinus, as bishop of Faenza. In 1198 Bernard returned to Pavia, this time as its bishop; a position he retained until his death in 1213. Bernard contributed significantly to the intellectual development of canon law as a systematic discipline. He was responsible for assembling and organizing Compilatio prima, whose structure became the model for all subsequent decretal collections. He also wrote an influential textbook, the Summa decretalium, as well as two specialized treatises, the Summa de matrimonio and the Summa de electione, on particularly complex areas of canon law. In addition, he produced glosses on the Decretum and on his own decretal collection, as well as several lesser works.

Burchard of Worms (d. 1025). Burchard was born of a noble family. He was a canon at the cathedral of Koblenz and studied at Koblenz and Mainz. Willigis, the archbishop of Mainz, appointed him deacon, then head of the archdiocese’s treasury. Burchard would also serve as provost of the monastery of Saint-Victor in Mainz. Emperor Otto III would appoint him bishop of Worms in 1000 and he would serve as a member of Henry II’s imperial court. As an imperial bishop, he also served as the secular administrator of Worms. In addition to compiling the canonical collection the Decretum, he also compiled a secular legal code, known as the Lex familiae (ca. 1024–1025), for the familia of Worms. This familia included the both clergy and the members of his household as well as those who had belonged to the Salian dukes from whom Burchard had taken over Worms.

Ivo of Chartres (ca. 1040–1115). Ivo was born near Chartres, probably of a lower status. He may have studied at the famous monastery at Bec, possibly under Lanfranc. In 1067 Ivo was made the first abbot of the monastery of St. Quentin by Guy, bishop of Beauvais. Ivo would become bishop of Chartres in 1090, a position he held until his death. During that time he would have conflicts with the local nobility, Archbishop Richer of Sens, who sought to reinstate Ivo’s predecessor, King Philip I, over the repudiation of his wife Berta and his adulterous affair with his vassal’s wife Bertrada of Montfort, and the papal legate Hugh of Lyon, over ecclesiastical politics. Ivo wrote a Prologue to his great canonical collection, the Decretum. This Prologue would accompany the canonical collections the Panormia and the Tripartita, though Ivo’s authorship of these collections is in doubt. Ivo’s authorship notwithstanding, the Decretum, Panormia, and Tripartita would be known as the “Ivonian collections”.

Gérard Pucelle (1115~20–1184). Gérard Pucelle was a fellow student of John of Salisbury (1115~25–1180) at Paris and by 1156 was teaching philosophy there. He also lectured at times on theology, civil law, and canon law. Ordained by Thomas Becket (1118–1170), Gérard became a member of Becket’s household during his exile on the Continent. Late in 1165 or early in 1166 Becket sent Gérard on a mission to the court of the German ruler, Frederick Barbarossa (1152–1190), to try to solicit the emperor’s support in Becket’s dispute with King Henry II (1154–1189) of England. Gérard returned to England in 1168 and, to Becket’s chagrin, swore allegiance to Henry II. Becket and Gérard were soon reconciled, however, after Gérard’s return to France, where he resumed teaching for several years. He subsequently returned to England as a member of the household of Becket’s successor at Canterbury, Archbishop Richard of Dover. Not long before his death Gérard was named bishop of Coventry. Gérard seems to have been one of the links between the Paris canon law schools and the canonists who made Cologne the principal centre of the Rhineland school of Decretists.

Geoffrey of Trani (d. 1245). Geoffrey, a native of Apulia, studied law in Bologna at the same time as Sinibaldo dei Feischi, who later became Pope Innocent IV. After teaching civil law at Naples and canon law at Bologna, Geoffrey entered the papal curia. Honorius III (1216–1227) made him a papal chaplain and he also became an auditor, or judge, of the Audientia litterarum contradictarum, a position that he apparently retained until his death. He is best known as the author of an early treatise on the Liber extra, the Summa super titulis decretalium, which Bernard of Parma drew upon heavily when he compiled the Glossa ordinaria on the Gregorian decretals. Geoffrey also wrote glosses on the Liber extra, as well as some quaestiones. Innocent IV named him a cardinal in 1244 and Geoffrey died in the following year while attending the First Council of Lyon.

Gratian (fl. ca. 1130–1140). The life and career of Master Gratian left few traces in contemporary documents. He apparently taught canon law, probably at Bologna, and he was once thought to have been a monk but now thought to have ended his career as a bishop. Nothing is reliably known (although a great deal has been surmised) about Gratian’s biography. Even the date at which he completed his Decretum can be established only approximately from circumstantial evidence.

Hostiensis (Henricus de Segusio; 1190~1200–1271). Hostiensis was born at Susa, in the diocese of Turin, shortly before 1200. He became a law student at Bologna at the same time as Sinibaldo dei Fieschi (Pope Innocent IV). Hostiensis’s teachers in civil law included Jacobus Balduinus and Homobono, while he studied canon law under Jacobus de Albegna. After completing his legal training, Hostiensis taught canon law in Paris in the early 1230s. In 1234~1235 he received an appointment as prior of Antibes. In 1236 he went to England as a member of the household of Eleanor of Provence, spouse of King Henry III (1216–1272). He remained in England until 1244, when he became bishop of Sisteron. In 1250 he was named archbishop of Embrun and in 1261 he became cardinal-bishop of Ostia, whence the title ‘Hostiensis’ by which he is usually known. His reputation as an eminent canonist rests chiefly on his Summa, which later came to be known as the Summa aurea (“Golden Summa”) Hostiensis’s Summa survives in two versions, the earlier of which he completed in 1250~1251. He commenced writing a Lectura on the Liber extra at the request of his students in Paris, but did not finish it until shortly before his death in 1271. Hostiensis was so highly regarded a canonistic authority that he warranted an appearance in Dante’s Divina commedia (Paradiso, 12.82–97).

Hugolinus (Pope Gregory IX; ca. 1170–1241). Hugolinus was born about 1170 at Anagni. He was a relative of Pope Innocent III (1198–1216), although probably not his nephew as was formerly believed. Hugolinus studied at Paris, where he was a classmate of the theologian Peter of Capua. He subsequently studied canon law, probably at Bologna. After completing his legal studies, Hugolinus received numerous appointments as a papal legate and soon after was named a papal chaplain. Innocent III named him a cardinal in 1198 and employed him as an auditor causarum in papal judicial business. Hugolinus was keenly interested in the Franciscan life and contemplated becoming a Franciscan himself, until St. Francis advised him not to do so. Hugolinus became instead the first cardinal-protector of the Franciscan order. In 1227 he was elected pope and took the title of Gregory IX. His own experience as a canonist made Gregory IX keenly aware that students, teachers, and practitioners would benefit from a more convenient and systematic collection of decretals. In 1230, therefore, the new pope commissioned Raymond of Penyafort to compile the decretal collection that came to be known as the Decretals of Gregory IX (Liber extra). As pope, Hugolinus also continued to interest himself in the Franciscans and sought to improve the order’s organizational structure. During much of his pontificate Gregory IX was, of course, deeply involved as well in the papacy’s power struggle with the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II (1212–1250). Gregory IX died, after a turbulent pontificate, in 1241.

Huguccio (d. 1210). Huguccio came originally from Pisa, where he was born at some unknown date during the first half of the twelfth century. After studying the liberal arts and theology (perhaps in his native city), Huguccio received his training in canon law at Bologna and subsequently taught there until Pope Clement III (1187–1191) named him bishop of Ferrara in 1190. At Ferrara, Huguccio not only engaged in routine diocesan administration, but also received numerous appointments as a papal judge-delegate. Huguccio was particularly busy with these and other missions during the pontificate of Pope Innocent III (1198–1216), who had studied canon law at Bologna while Huguccio was teaching there and who clearly esteemed his abilities. Huguccio was an acute and original thinker, qualities that emerge clearly in the Summa super corpore decretorum, which he wrote at the urging of his students at Bologna. It is ironic that Huguccio’s Summa, which has generally been acknowledged from the twelfth century to the present as one of the most important monuments of canonical jurisprudence, remains unpublished to this day and must be consulted in manuscript versions of markedly uneven reliability.

Johannes Andreae (Giovanni d’Andrea, ca. 1270–1348). Johannes Andreae was illegitimate, the offspring of an informal union between his father, Andreas, and a concubine named Novella. When Johannes was about ten years old, his father moved from the boy’s birthplace at Rifredo, near Florence, to Bologna and entered the priesthood. Andreas supervised his son’s elementary education and prepared him for university studies at Bologna, first in theology, then later in civil and canon law. In 1301 Johannes became Professor of Decretals at Bologna and in 1303 took the canon law faculty’s chair in the Decretum. In 1307 he briefly took a teaching position at Padua, then after two years he returned to Bologna, where he taught until 1319, when he went back to teach at Padua for a year. In 1320, he returned once more to a professorship at Bologna, where he at last formally became a citizen. He remained teaching in the city for the remainder of his life, but punctuated his teaching career by conducting a number of diplomatic missions on behalf of the city government. The best-known of these was his embassy in 1328 to Pope John XXII (1316–1334), during which he was robbed by highwaymen; he later received reimbursement from the pope, after the city fathers of Bologna refused to indemnify his losses. Johannes Andreae was the second-known married layman to become a professor of canon law (the first was apparently Aegidius Fuscarariis, one of his teachers). He had three sons as well as four daughters and several bastard children. One of his sons, Bonincontro, became a law teacher, while his second and third daughters married canonists. Johannes’s youngest daughter (named Novella after Johannes’s own mother) was said by Christine de Pizan to have lectured as a substitute for her father when he was ill. One of his bastard sons was legitimized by a papal rescript and became a papal chaplain, while a second bastard son became cantor of the cathedral in Ravenna. In addition to all his other occupations, Johannes Andreae was a prolific author. He wrote, among numerous other things, gloss apparatuses on the Liber sextus and the Constitutiones Clementinae, and the canonistic schools soon adopted these as the glossa ordinaria on those two collections. Beyond that, he also produced a lengthy commentary, which he entitled the Novella, on the Liber extra, a Summa on marriage problems and another on consanguinity, another commentary (also called the Novella) on the Liber sextus, a set of canonistic quaestiones, as well as numerous shorter works. Johannes prospered both from his teaching salary and from the considerable fees he earned from practising law. He nevertheless lived an industrious, studious life. On his death from the plague in 1348, he stipulated that his substantial wealth be divided between his numerous offspring and various pious and charitable works.

Johannes Teutonicus (Johannes Zemeke; ca. 1170–1245). A Saxon by birth, Johannes settled in Bologna, first as a law student, later as a teacher. By far the most influential of his works was the massive Glossa ordinaria on the Decretum, a commentary that subsequent teachers and judges relied upon as their basic guide to Gratian’s work. John made a collection of the later decretals of Innocent III, but the pope, for reasons that are unclear, refused to promulgate it officially, although the schools accepted it as a useful textbook. Johannes also wrote gloss apparatuses on the decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council, as well as on Compilatio tertia and his own decretal collection, which is known as Compilatio quarta. He completed all of this between about 1210 and 1218, when he went back to Germany. There he was apparently content to settle into the comfortable life of a beneficed ecclesiastic of middling rank at the cathedral of Halberstadt.

Raymond of Penyafort, Saint (Raymond of Peñafort; 1180~85–1275). Born in Catalunya, Raymond of Penyafort appeared in Bologna in 1210, first as a law student, then as a teacher. He returned to Barcelona in 1219 as a canon and provost of the cathedral chapter, positions that he resigned at some point between 1223 and 1229, when he entered the Dominican order. In 1230 Pope Gregory IX summoned Raymond to Rome, appointed him a papal chaplain, and commissioned him to compile an official collection of the decretals that had appeared since the time of Gratian, nearly a century before. The pope gave him broad leeway to edit existing decretals and even encouraged him to fill gaps in the law by composing new decretals, which Gregory promulgated under his own name. The pope formally published this collection, known as the Decretals of Gregory IX, or the Liber extra, on 5 September 1232. It immediately became a core element in the curriculum of the schools of canon law and remained in force among Roman Catholics until 1917. Raymond returned to Catalunya in 1236 and two years later was elected master-general of the Dominican order, a post that he accepted with considerable reluctance. Once installed in this new position, Raymond proceeded to edit and revise his order’s constitutions. He did this so expeditiously and successfully that the order’s general congregation approved his revised constitutions in 1239 and they remained in force until 1924. In 1240 Raymond resigned as master-general, and returned once more to Spain, where he actively encouraged missionary work among Jews and Muslims. In furtherance of these projects, Raymond asked his Dominican confrère Thomas Aquinas to compose a basic handbook of Christian doctrine for prospective converts. The result was Aquinas’s Summa contra Gentiles. Throughout his career Raymond continued to write. The most widely influential of his works (aside from the Liber extra) was his Summa de penitentia, together with a separate Summa de matrimonio. He also produced a brief Summa iuris canonici, a Summa pastoralis, glosses on the Decretum, a few consilia, and numerous minor works. When he died in 1275, the presence at his funeral of the kings of Aragón and Castile testified to the high regard in which contemporaries held this extraordinary figure. He was canonized in 1601.

Regino of Prüm (d. 915). Regino served as the abbot of the monastery of Prüm near Aachen, which was located in Lotharingia (the middle section of the German kingdom). He first appears in the records of Prüm in 892, when he was elected abbot. As abbot he cared for King Lother II’s illegitimate son Hugh, who settled at Prüm after having been blinded as punishment for revolting against Charles the Fat. Political instabilities in the Carolingian empire would lead to Regino losing his office in 889. He would spend the last fifteen years of his life at the monastery in Trier. He wrote the Libri duo de synodalibus causis et disciplinis ecclesiasticis, a handbook to assist bishops in conducting their visitors to the parishes in their diocese, as well as a work on music, and a work chronicling the history of the world to his day.

Rolandus, Master (fl. late 1150s). Virtually nothing is known about the career of this intriguing canonist, save that he was teaching canon law, probably at Bologna, during the latter part of the 1150s. He was thus lecturing on Gratian’s Decretum shortly after its completion and is one of the earliest teachers who is known to have used it as a textbook. Internal evidence in his commentary on Gratian, known as the Stroma, hints that Rolandus may have had some connection with Modena. Further internal evidence in a theological tract entitled the Sententiae, also ascribed to Master Rolandus, makes it reasonably clear that he was an admirer, perhaps even a student, of Peter Abelard (ca. 1079–ca. 1142). Master Rolandus was evidently not popular among other canonists of his generation. Stephen of Tournai dismissed his views as of little account, while Rufinus described him far more unkindly as a pompous, lazy drunk. Despite such unflattering references, it was long thought that Master Rolandus was no less a figure than Rolando Bandinelli, who in 1159 was elected Pope Alexander III. Recent scholarship, however, has made it clear that this identification is untenable.

Rufinus (d. 1192). Born in central Italy, probably near Assisi, Rufinus studied at Bologna, where he was styled magister and named a canon of the cathedral. He taught canon law at Bologna. Among his pupils he numbered Stephen of Tournai, who modelled his own work on that of his master. Rufinus became bishop of Assisi in 1179, then archbishop of Sorrento between 1180 and 1186. His Summa exercised wide influence among later Decretists, particularly those who belonged to the French school.

Sinibaldo dei Fieschi (Pope Innocent IV; d. 1254). Sinibaldo dei Fieschi was born at Genoa late in the twelfth century, son of Count Hugo of Lavania, a member of the Fieschi family. He studied both civil and canon law at Bologna: his teachers in civil law included Azo (ca. 1150–1230), Accursius (1185–1263), and Jacobus Balduinus (d. 1235), while he attended the canon law lectures of Laurentius Hispanus, Vincentius Hispanus, and Johannes Teutonicus, among others. After completing his legal studies, Sinibaldo taught for a time at Bologna, then became a canon of the cathedral of Parma and in 1226 went to Rome as an auditor (or judge) of the Audientia litterarum contradictarum at the curia. Sinibaldo served as an assistant and counsellor to Cardinal Hugolino of Ostia, who later became Pope Gregory IX (1227–1241). Further curial assignments followed: Sinibaldo was named papal legate in the Marches, then bishop of Albegna, and vice-chancellor of the Roman church. Gregory IX made him a cardinal during the first consistory of his pontificate. Not long after Gregory’s death, following the brief pontificate of Celestine IV (25 October–10 November 1241), Sinibaldo was elected pope in the cathedral of Anagni and was crowned there as Pope Innocent IV in June 1243. The major political and diplomatic focus of his pontificate centred on the struggle with the emperor Frederick II (1212–1250), whom he excommunicated and deposed at the First Council of Lyon (1245). As pope, Sinibaldo was also much involved with the crusading projects to the Holy Land and worked hard, but unsuccessfully, to persuade Eastern Christians to reunite with the Latin church in the West. He was, in addition, hopeful that it might prove possible to convert the Tartars to Christianity and to that end sought to establish diplomatic relations with the Mongol Khan. It is astonishing, but apparently true, that in the midst of all of these activities Sinibaldo found the time and energy to write a massive and incisive Apparatus on the Liber extra. In addition, as pope he promulgated three important decretal collections and established a law school in his Lateran palace. Sinibaldo died at Naples on 7 December 1254 and is buried in the cathedral there.

Stephen of Tournai (1135–1203). Stephen was born at Orléans on 19 March 1135. He received his early education from one Master A. and later studied at Ste-Croix in Orléans. He received his legal education at Bologna, where he studied civil law with Bulgarus (d. 1166) and canon law with Rufinus. Among his classmates were the canonist known as Cardinalis, Heraclius, who later became patriarch of Jerusalem, and the future Pope Urban III (1185–1187). About 1155 Stephen became a member of the regular chapter of St. Euverte in Orléans and later became the abbot of the chapter. He completed his Summa during this period at Orléans. In 1176 he became abbot of Ste-Geneviève in Paris. He also served as a counsellor to King Philip Augustus (1179–1223), who made him a godfather to his eldest son, later King Louis VIII (1223–1226). Late in 1191 Stephen became bishop of Tournai, in part at least because the French crown needed a loyalist in that position to support its Flemish policy. Stephen’s writings include a collection of 240 letters and approximately 30 sermons (only one of which seems to be published), as well as his Summa to Gratian’s Decretum, which shows evidence of the strong influence of Rufinus.

Tancred (ca. 1185–ca. 1236). Tancred’s career was a study in constancy. Born in Bologna, he remained there, save for brief periods when professional commitments took him elsewhere, throughout his life. He studied canon law with Laurentius Hispanus and John of Wales and Roman law with Azo. By 1214 Tancred was styled Master of Decrees (magister decretorum) and was teaching canon law at Bologna; he apparently continued to teach, at least intermittently, until his death. In later years, Tancred secured a few modest ecclesiastical appointments, which no doubt required him to curtail the time devoted to teaching: he became a canon of the cathedral in his native city and in 1226 was named its archdeacon. In addition, three successive popes—Innocent III, Honorius III, and Gregory IX—commissioned Tancred to undertake diplomatic and judicial missions for the Holy See. Tancred also appeared occasionally as an advocate in the papal consistory and other ecclesiastical courts. In the midst of all his other activities, Tancred found time to produce a steady and consistent stream of writings. The most widely influential (and widely imitated) of his works was his procedural manual, the Ordo iudiciarius, which he wrote between 1214 and 1216 in response, as he said in its preface, to repeated requests from friends and colleagues. He had earlier produced gloss apparatuses on the first two of the Quinque compilationes antiquae and by the time he commenced work on the Ordo iudiciarius Bolognese law teachers had already adopted these as the ordinary glosses on the decretal collections. In 1220 he revised his earlier gloss collections and composed a further apparatus on Compilatio tertia; Bolognese law teachers adopted that apparatus, too, as the ordinary gloss that they taught in the schools. Bernard of Parma subsequently incorporated a substantial part of Tancred’s glosses into the ordinary gloss on the Liber extra, thereby assuring that Tancred’s name and his ideas would retain a central place in canonistic doctrine throughout the Middle Ages. In addition, Tancred produced a Summa de sponsalibus et matrimonio, and here again later authors drew freely upon his work for their own purposes. Raymond de Penyafort’s Summa de matrimonio, to name just one notable example, reproduced verbatim large portions of Tancred’s Summa.

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