Primary sources

Sources for medieval history tend to be much less freely availaible than their equivalents from the classical period. Not only do a majority remain untranslated, but many are accessible only in intimidating volumes of nineteenth-century scholarship. Two resources are particularly indispensable. One is the Patrologia Latina, an immense compendium of sermons, saints’ lives and other writings on ecclesiastical themes, gathered together in no fewer than 221 volumes by a single French priest, Jacques-Paul Migne. The other is the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, an even more titanic anthology of sources for the study of medieval history, begun in 1826 and ongoing to this day. Its title notwithstanding, the range of texts it embraces is far from confined to Germany. It is, however, authentically monumental.

The following abbreviations were unavoidable:

AASS: Acta Sanctorum Quotquot Orbe Colunter, Société des Bollandistes Antwerp, Brussels and Paris, 1643–1940

EHD: English Historical Documents 1, c. 500–1042, Dorothy Whitelock London, 1979

MGH: Monumenta Germaniae Historica

AA: Auctores Antiquissimi Libelli: Libelli de lite imperatorum et pontificum

SRG: Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separati editii

SS: Scriptores

PG: Patrologia Graeca

PL: Patrologia Latina

All quotations from the Bible are from the Revised Standard Version. All quotations from the Qur’an are from the translation by Abdullah Yusuf Ali (Indianapolis, 1992).

Abbo of Fleury: Apologeticus ad Hugonem et Rodbertum Reges Francorum, in PL 139

Abd Allah b. Buluggin al-Ziri al-Sanhaji: Al-Tibyan, tr. A. T. Tibi Leiden, 1986

Adalbero of Laon: Poème au roi Robert, C. Carozzi Paris, 1979

Adam of Bremen: History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, tr. Francis J. Tschan New York, 2002

Adémar of Chabannes: Ademari Cabannensis Chronica, Pascale Bourgain Turnhout, 1999

Adso of Montier-en-Der: “Letter on the Origin and Time of the Antichrist,” in Apocalyptic Spirituality: Treatises and Letters of Lactantius, Adso of Montier-en-Der, Joachim of Fiore, The Franciscan Spirituals, Savonarola, tr. Bernard McGinn New York, 1979

Aelfric: Colloquy, G. N. Garmonsway London, 1947

Aelfric: Aelfric’s Catholic Homilies, Malcolm Godden London, 1979

Albert of Aachen: Historia Ierosolimitana, Susan B. Edgington Oxford, 2007

Albert of Metz: Fragmentum ed Deoderico primo episcopo Mettensi, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1854

Alcuin: Letters, in Alcuin of York, c. A.D. 732 to 804: His Life and Letters, by Stephen Allott York, 1974

Amatus of Monte Cassino: The History of the Normans, tr. Prescott N. Dunbar Woodbridge, 2004

Andrew of Fleury: Miraculi Sancti Benedicti, Eugene de Certain Paris, 1858

Andrew of Fleury: Vie de Gauzlin, Abbé de Fleury, Robert-Henri Bautier Paris, 1969

Angilbertus: Karolus Magnus et Leo Papa, in MGH Poetae Latini aevi Karolini 1 Berlin, 1881

Anna Comnena: The Alexiad, tr. E. R. A. Sewter London, 2003

Annales Hildesheimenses, in MGH SRG 8 Hanover, 1878

Annales Quedlinburgenses, in MGH SS 3 Hanover, 1839

Annals of Ulster, tr. Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niocail Dublin, 1983

Archives d’Anjou, Paul Marchegay, 3 Angers, 1843–56

Ari Thorgilsson: Book of the Icelanders, Halldór Hermannsson Ithaca, 1930

Arnold of Regensburg: Vita S. Emmerami, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1841

Arnulf of Milan: Liber Gestorum Recentium, in MGH SRG 67 Hanover, 1994

Augustine: City of God, tr. Henry Bettenson London, 2003

Augustine: On Order, tr. Silvano Borruso South Bend, 2006

Avitus of Vienne: Epistulae, in MGH AA 6.2 Berlin, 1888

Battle of Maldon, in EHD

Beno: Benonis et Aliorum Cardinalium Schismaticorum Contra Gregorium VII. et Urbanum II. Scripta, in MGH Libelli 2 Hanover, 1892

Bibliotheca Cluniacensis, Martinus Marrier and Andreas Quercetanus Mâcon, 1915

Blickling Homilies, tr. Richard J. Kelly London, 2003

Bonizo of Sutri: To a Friend, in The Papal Reform of the Eleventh Century, tr. and I. S. Robinson Manchester, 2004

Bruno of Merseburg: Saxonicum Bellum, in MGH Deutsches Mittelalter 2 Leipzig, 1937

Bruno of Querfort: Passio Sancti Adalberti, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1841

Bruno of Querfort: Vita Quinque Fratrum, in MGH SS 15 Hanover, 1887

Byrhtferth: Byrhtferth’s Manual, tr. and S. J. Crawford London, 1929

Carmen de Hastingae Proelio, in Morillo, 46–52

Cartulaire de l’Abbaye de Saint-Aubin d’Angers, B. de Broussillon, 2 Paris, 1903

Cartulaire du Ronceray, Paul Marchegay Angers, 1856

Charlemagne: Epistolae, in MGH Epistolae Karolini Aevi Berlin, 1892–1925

Chronicon Mosomense: Chronique ou Livre de Fondation du Monastère de Mouzon, tr. and Michel Bur Paris, 1989

Chronicon Novaliciense, in MGH SS 7 Hanover, 1846

Collectanea Byzantina II, S. G. Mercati Bari, 1970

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos: De Administrando Imperio, tr. R. J. H. Jenkins Dumbarton Oaks, 1967

Corpus Scriptorum Muzarabicorum, J. Gil, 2 Madrid, 1973

Desiderius of Monte Cassino: Dialogi de Miraculis Sancti Benedicti, in MGH SS 30/2 Leipzig, 1934

Documents pour l’Histoire de l’Église de Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers (768–1300), L. Rédet Poitiers, 1847

Donation of Constantine, Ernest F. Henderson, in Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages London, 1910 319–29

Dudo of Saint-Quentin: History of the Normans, tr. Eric Christiansen Woodbridge, 1998

Egil’s Saga, tr. C. Fell and J. Lucas London, 1975

Einhard: The Life of Charlemagne, in Two Lives of Charlemagne, tr. Lewis Thorpe London, 1969

Encomium Emmae Reginae, tr. Alistair Campbell Cambridge, 1998

Erchempert: Historia Langabardorum Beneventarnorum (

Eucherius of Lyon: The Passion of the Martyrs Van Berchem, 55–9

Eusebius: Eusebius’ Life of Constantine, tr. Averil Cameron and Stuart G. Hall Oxford, 1999

Eusebius: In Praise of the Emperor Constantine (

Ex Miraculis Sancit Alexii, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1841

Flodoard: Annales, Philippe Lauer Paris, 1905

Fontes ad Topographiam Veteris Urbis Romae Pertinentes, VIII, Regio Urbis X, Mons Palatinus, G. Lugli Rome, 1960

Fulbert of Chartres: The Letters & Poems of Fulbert of Chartres, F. Behrends Oxford, 1976

Fulcher of Chartres: The First Crusade: The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and Other Sources, Edward Peters Philadelphia, 1998

Gallus Anonymus: The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles, tr. Paul W. Knoll and Frank Shaer Budapest, 2003

Geoffrey of Malaterra: De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Calabriae et Siciliae Comitis et Roberti Guiscardi Fratris Eius, E. Pontieri Bologna, 1927

Gerbert of Aurillac: Acta Concilii Remensis ad Sanctum Basolum, in MGH SS 3 Hanover, 1838

Gerbert of Aurillac: The Letters of Gerbert with his Papal Privileges as Sylvester II, tr. Harriet Pratt Lattin New York, 1961

Gesta Consulum Andegavorum: Chroniques des Comtes d’Anjou et des Seigneurs d’Amboise, L. Halphen and R. Poupardin Paris, 1913

Gilo: Vita Sancti Hugonis Abbatis, H. E. J. Cowdrey, in Studi Gregoriani 11, 1978

Glaber, Rodulfus: Opera, John France, Neithard Bulst and Paul Reynolds Oxford, 1989

Gregory I: Homiliarum in Evengelia, in PL 76

Gregory I: Moralium Libri, in PL 75

Gregory I: Regulae Pastoralis Liber, in PL 77

Gregory VII: The “Epistolae Vagantes” of Pope Gregory VII, tr. H. E. J. Cowdrey Oxford, 1972

Gregory VII: The Register of Pope Gregory VII 1073–1085, tr. H. E. J. Cowdrey Oxford, 2002

Guibert de Nogent: A Monk’s Confession: The Memoirs of Guibert of Nogent, tr. Paul J. Archambault Philadelphia, 1995

Guibert de Nogent: The Deeds of God through the Franks: A Translation of Guibert de Nogent’s Gesta Dei per Francos, tr. R. Levine Woodbridge, 1996

Hariulf: Gesta Ecclesiae Centulensis, in Chronique de l’Abbaye de Saint-Riquier, F. Lot Paris, 1894

Heliand: The Heliand: The Saxon Gospel, tr. G. Ronald Murphy Oxford, 1992

Henry II, in MGH Diplomata Regum et Imperatorum Germaniae 3 H. Bresslau, H. Bloch and R. Holtzmann Hanover, 1900–3

Henry IV: Die Briefe Heinrichs IV, in MGH Deutsches Mittlealter 1 Leipzig, 1937

Henry of Huntingdon: The History of the English People 1000–1154, tr. Diana Greenway Oxford, 1996

Hermann of Reichenau: Chronicon de Sex Aetatibus Mundi, in MGH SS 5 Hanover, 1844

Hildebert: Vita Sancti Hugonis, in PL 159, cols. 857–94

Hrotsvit of Gandersheim: Pelagia, in Opera Omnia, Walter Berschin Munich, 2001

Hugh of Cluny: Two Studies in Cluniac History 1049–1126, H. E. J. Cowdrey Rome, 1978

Ibn Hazm: The Ring of the Dove: A Treatise on the Art and Practice of Arab Love, tr. A. J. Arberry London, 1997

Inventio et Miracula Sancti Vulfranni, Dom J. Laporte Rouen, 1938

Itinera Hierosolymitana et Descriptiones Terrae Sanctae, T. Tobler and A. Molinier Osnabrück, 1966

John Canaparius: Vita Sancti Adalberti, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1841

John the Deacon: Chronicon Venetum, G. Monticolo Rome, 1890

John of Fécamp: Epistola ad Leonem IX, in PL 143, cols. 797–800

John of St. Arnoul: La Vie de Jean, Abbé de Gorze, Michel Parisse Paris, 1999

John of Salerno: St. Odo of Cluny: Being the Life of St. Odo of Cluny by John of Salerno and the Life of St. Gerald of Aurillac by St. Odo, tr. G. Sitwell London, 1958

John Skylitzes: Synopsis Historiarum, I. Thurn Berlin, 1973

Jordanes: The Gothic History of Jordanes, tr. Charles C. Mierow Princeton, 1915

Lactantius: De Mortibus Persecutorum, J. L. Creed Oxford, 1984

Lampert of Hersfeld: Annales, in MGH SRG 38 Hanover, 1894

Landulf Senior: Historia Mediolanensis, in MGH SS 8 Hanover, 1848

Laxdaela Saga, tr. Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Palsson London, 1969

Leo VI: Tactica, in PG 107, cols. 419–1094

Leo of Synada: The Correspondence of Leo, Metropolitan of Synada & Syncellus, M. P. Vinson Washington, DC, 1985

Leo the Deacon: The History of Leo the Deacon: Byzantine Military Expansion in the Tenth Century, tr. Alice-Mary Talbot Dennis F. Sullivan Washington, DC, 2005

Lex Salica, in MGH Leges Nationum Germanicarum 4/2 Hanover, 1969

Liber Miraculorum Sancte Fidis, A. Bouillet Paris, 1897

Liber Tramitis Aevi Odilonis Abbatis, P. Dinter Siegburg, 1980

Life of King Edward who Rests at Westminster, tr. F. Barlow Oxford, 1992

Life of Pope Leo IX, in The Papal Reform of the Eleventh Century, tr. and I. S. Robinson Manchester, 2004

Liudprand of Cremona: Antapodosis and History of Otto, in The Works of Liudprand of Cremona, tr. F. A. Wright London, 1930

Liudprand of Cremona: Relatio de Legatione Constantinopolitana (The Mission to Constantinople), Brian Scott Bristol, 1993

Leo of Vercelli: “Panegyric on Otto III,” in Kaiser, Rom und Renovatio, by P. E. Schramm, pp. 62–4

Louis IV: Recueil des Actes de Louis IV, Roi de France (936–954), P. Lauer Paris, 1914

Michael Psellus: Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, tr. E. R. A. Sewter London, 1966

Milo Crispin: Vita Beati Lanfranci Cantuariensium Archiepiscopi, in PL 150, cols. 53–4

Odo of Cluny: Collationes, in PL 133

Orderic Vitalis: The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, tr. Marjorie Chibnall, 6 Oxford, 1968–80

Ottar the Black: Knútsdrápa, in EHD, 335–6

Otto I: Diplomata, in MGH Diplomata Regum et Imperatorum Germaniae 1 Hanover, 1879–84

Otto of Freising: The Two Cities, tr. C. C. Mierow New York, 1928

Paul of Bernried: The Life of Pope Gregory VII, in The Papal Reform of the Eleventh Century, tr. and I. S. Robinson Manchester, 2004

Paulinus of Aquileia: Carmina, in MGH Poetae 1 Berlin, 1881

Peter Damian: Vita Dominici Loricati, in PL 144, cols. 1009–24

Peter Damian: Vita Romualdi, G. Tabacco Rome, 1957

Peter Damian: The Letters of Peter Damian, 1–120, tr. Owen J. Blum, 4 Washington, DC, 1989–98

Peter the Venerable: De Miraculis, in PL 189, cols. 851–954

“Poeta Saxo”: Annalium de gestis Caroli Magni imperatoris libri quinque, in MGH Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini 4 Berlin, 1899

Primer of Medieval Latin: An Anthology of Prose and Poetry, Charles H. Beeson Washington, DC, 1986

Quellen zur Geschichte Kaiser Heinrich IV, F. -J. Schmale I. Schmale-Ott Darmstadt, 1961

Ralph of Caen: The Gesta Tancredi of Ralph of Caen: A History of the Normans on the First Crusade, tr. Bernard S. Bachrach and David S. Bachrach Aldershot, 2005

Rather of Verona: The Complete Works of Ratherius of Verona, P. L. Reid Michigan, 1991

Regino of Prüm: Chronicon cum Continuatione Treverensi, in MGH SRG 10 Hanover, 1890

Richer: Histoire de France (888–995), tr. R. Latouche Paris, 1930

Robert the Monk: Historia Iherosolimitana, in Recueil des Historiens des Croisades: Historiens Occidentaux 3 Paris, 1866

Ruodlieb, tr. Gordon B. Ford Leiden, 1965

Russian Primary Chronicle, tr. S. H. Cross and O. P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor Cambridge, Mass., 1953

Saxo Grammaticus: History of the Danes, tr. Peter Fisher and Hilda Ellis Davidson Cambridge, 1979

Sigebert of Gembloux: Chronica, in MGH SS 6 Hanover, 1884

Sigehard: Miracula S. Maximini, in Acta Sanctorum Quotquot Toto Orbe Coluntur, Iohannes Bollandus Antwerp, 1688

Snorri Sturluson: Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings, tr. Samuel Laing London, 1844

Snorri Sturluson: King Harald’s Saga, tr. Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Palsson St. Ives, 1966

Snorri Sturluson: The Ynglinga Saga (

Thangmar: Vita Sancti Bernwardi Episcopi Hildesheimensis, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1841

Thietmar of Merseburg: Ottonian Germany: The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg, tr. David A. Warner Manchester, 2001

Urban II: Epistolae et Privilegia, in PL 151

Vita Altmanni Episcopi Pataviensis, in MGH SS 12 Hanover, 1856

Vita et Miracula Sancti Leonardi, A. Poncelet, in AASS, November 3

Vita Sancti Athanasii, in PL 149

Vita Sancti Nili Abbatis Cryptae Ferratae, in MGH SS 4 Hanover, 1841

Warner of Rouen: Moriuht, Christopher J. McDonough Toronto, 1995

Wazo of Liège: Gesta Episcoporum Leodiensium, in MGH SS 7 Hanover, 1846

Wido of Osnabrück: Liber de Controversia inter Hildebrandum et Heinricum Imperatorem, in MGH Libelli I Hanover, 1891

Widukind of Corvey: Res Gestae Saxonicae, in MGH SS 3 Hanover, 1838

William of Apulia: La Geste de Robert Guiscard, M. Mathieu Palermo, 1961

William of Jumièges: The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis and Robert of Torigni, tr. E. M. C. van Houts, 2 Oxford, 1992–5

William of Malmesbury: Vita Wulfstani, Reginald R. Darlington London, 1928

William of Poitiers: The Gesta Guillelmi of William of Poitiers, tr. R. H. C. Davis and M. Chibnall Oxford, 1998

Wipo: Gesta Chuonradi II Imperatoris, in MGH SRG 61 Hanover, 1915

Wulfstan: Lectio Sancti Evangelii Secundum Matheum (

Wulfstan: The Sermon of the Wolf to the English (

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