Military history


With the primary sources quoted here, I have, when possible, indicated the ultimate origin of every quotation. Official documents in the British National Archives I have listed by their file numbers. A full list of departmental letter codes can be found on the National Archives website; the ones that most commonly appear in the notes that follow are HO, the Home Office; WO, the War Office; FO, the Foreign Office; CAB, cabinet papers; and AIR, the Air Ministry, where, for unknown bureaucratic reasons, records of surveillance of British civilians by military intelligence in the latter part of the war came to rest. When I've not been able to look at a document myself and have relied on a secondary source, I have so indicated. However, even the most reliable scholars sometimes give incomplete source data. Where I've not been able to track down the quotation elsewhere, rather than using cumbersome locutions like "Smith to ?, n.d., n.s., quoted in Jones, p. 38," I've simply put "Jones, p. 38."

The edition of Douglas Haig's wartime diaries and letters edited by Gary Sheffield and John Bourne, the most extensive in print, contains slightly more than a quarter of Haig's diaries for this period. When a diary quotation is not to be found here, I've quoted authors, usually Haig's biographer Gerard De Groot, citing the full text of the diary, whose original is in the National Library of Scotland.

For statistics, I have relied on books with an overview of the war that I found most helpful, such as those by Trevor Wilson, Hew Strachan, John Keegan, David Stevenson, and Anthony Livesey listed in the Bibliography. However, these experts and the BritishOfficial History sometimes differ about the casualty toll of a particular battle or the number of miles or yards troops advanced. Precision in war is elusive: there is no arbitrary moment when one battle ended and the next began, and sometimes it was unclear which army held a particular patch of ground. The British and Germans calculated their casualties slightly differently, having to do with how soon wounded soldiers were returned to active duty, and for some German and many Russian operations there are only estimates available. Historians are still arguing about how many casualties the Germans suffered in the Battle of the Somme, for example. And, for British casualties at Passchendaele, although we know the rough numbers, the Official History notes that "the clerk-power to investigate the exact losses was not available." (This may or may not be true; eager to vindicate Haig, the Official History's authors dramatically inflate German casualty figures.) For death figures in 1918 it is not always clear when these include victims of the great influenza pandemic. When reliable sources give conflicting figures, I've generally used the most cautious, and so when I've said that there were at least 20,000 casualties in a particular battle, it usually means some sources cite higher numbers.

Within quotations, I have on a few occasions silently adjusted a comma or dash, but no words have been changed and all ellipses are indicated.


[>] My father's sister married: See pp. 21–101 of his lively autobiography: Boris Sergievsky, Airplanes, Women, and Song: Memoirs of a Fighter Ace, Test Pilot, and Adventurer (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1999).
The magnitude of slaughter: Whalen, p. 41.

[>] "The Great War of 1914–18": Tuchman 1, p. xiii.
"This is not war": David Omissi, The Sepoy and the Raj: The Indian Army, 1860–1940 (London: Macmillan, 1994), pp. 117–118, quoted in Keegan 1, p. 197.
"Supply me with socks": Gilbert, p. 82.

[>] "had won, nor could win": Mind's Eye: Essays (Manchester, NH: Ayer, 1977), p. 38.
"Humanity? Can anyone": Alexander Nemser, "Low Truths," New Republic, 30 July 2008.
"It cannot be that": Alan Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 88.

xiv more than 20,000 British: Pearce, p. 169. For some years scholars used a smaller figure, but Pearce's careful calculations are convincing as to why the earlier estimates were too low. A more precise number is impossible to determine.

[>] "They advanced in line": Travers, p. 158. Travers, like other writers, attributes this account to Brigadier General Hubert C. Rees. But Rees, in his papers at the Imperial War Museum (IWM 77/179/1), as more recent scholars have pointed out, complains that his corps commander, Lieutenant General Sir Aylmer Hunter-Weston, "put my remarks in his own language." It is likely that Rees was less responsible for the tone of this passage than Hunter-Weston, who is on record (see CAB 45/188, quoted in Middlebrook, p. 80) as being wildly unrealistic in believing that the troops would meet no obstacles to their advance on July 1, 1916.


[>] "How many millions": Morris 2, p. 31.
"I contend that we": Marlowe, p. 5.

[>] "We are a part": New York Times, 24 June 1897.
"From my heart": Times, 23 June 1897.
"a small select aristocracy": A. G. Gardiner, Prophets, Priests and Kings (London: Alston Rivers, 1908), p. 229.
"Only heaven left": Chauncey Depew to Lord Rosebery, 1894, quoted in Tuchman 1, p. 23.

[>] "I didn't know": Morris 2, p. 408.

[>] "You have the heartfelt": French to Buller, 15 July 1902, John French, p. 95.

[>] more than £70,000: Farwell 1, p. 27.
"An army tries to": n.p., quoted in Ellis 1, p. 105.

[>] "Play the game": Farwell 1, p. 134.

[>] "I took a ticket": "In the Days of My Youth," Charlotte Despard Papers, Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, Belfast, p. 4.

[>] "That hymn was": Linklater, p. 23.
"How bitterly ashamed": "In the Days of My Youth," pp. 11–12.

[>] "She does not find them": Charles Booth, Life and Labour of the People of London, vol. 5 (London: Macmillan, 1902), p. 153.

[>] "I determined to study": Mulvihill, p. 58.

[>] "those who slave": Linklater, p. 89.

[>] "It certainly was amusing": Gerald French, pp. 44–45.
"Only nervous people": Despard 2, p. 17.


[>] "The whole side of the hill": Churchill 2, p. 87.
"standing at a table": Churchill 2, p. 98.
"jams, tinned fruits": Haig to Henrietta Jameson, 17 February 1898, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 56.
"I am not one": Haig 2, p. 4.

18 "The enemy went down": Ellis 1, p. 86.

[>] "the rapture-giving delight": Farwell 1, p. 117.
"It is a weapon": Ellis 1, p. 102.

[>] "It is the British race": Farwell 2, p. 27.

[>] "the man of no illusions": Winston Churchill, London to Ladysmith and Ian Hamilton's March (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1962), p. 123. Churchill first used the phrase in writing of Milner in the Morning Post during the Boer War.
"as lucid as a page of print": Buchan 3, p. 98.
"a civilian soldier": Marlowe, pp. 38–39.
"to Brixton ... to see C": 23 January 1898, quoted in Pakenham 1, p. 34.

[>] "a frock-coated Neanderthal": Gilmour, p. 140.
"great day of reckoning": Gollin, p. 33.
"great game between ourselves": Johannes S. Marais, The Fall of Kruger's Republic (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961), p. 330.
"Will not the arrival": Milner to Selborne, 24 May 1899, quoted in Marlowe, p. 68.
"no civilizing experiment": Gilmour, p. 78.

[>] "that an empire is": "Rudyard Kipling," in George Orwell, A Collection of Essays (New York: Doubleday, 1954), p. 126.
"Accept my felicitations": Lansdowne to Chamberlain, 10 October 1899, quoted in Pakenham 2, p. 567.

[>] "just like a good fox hunt": James 1, p. 434.
"Strain everything": Judd and Surridge, p. 147.
borrowed a hefty £2,000: Haig claimed it was £2,500. See De Groot 4, p. 50n12.
Biographers disagree over whether the loan was ever repaid.

[>] "The feeling was": Anonymous officer, quoted in German General Staff, p. 147.
"An epoch in the history": L. S. Amery, ed., The Times History of the War in South Africa, 1899–1902, vol. 3 (London: St. Dunstan's House, 1905), pp. 394–395.
"The Cavalry—the despised Cavalry": Haig to Lonsdale Hale, 2 March 1900, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 80.

[>] "The charge of French's": German General Staff, p. 147.
"who has taught the British": Rice, p. xvi.
"a first-class dress-parade": "The Captive," in Traffics and Discoveries (New York: Scribner's, 1904), p. 30.


[>] "without evening dress": Cecil, pp. 152–153.
"to have a clever wife": Georgina, Marchioness of Salisbury, to Eleanor, Viscountess Cecil, quoted in Cecil, p. 69.

[>] "one, so to speak": Cecil, p. 80.
"I wish Milner had": Cecil, p. 116.
"One day I know": Cecil, p. 126.
"the solidarity of the British": Violet Milner, p. 138.

30 "Sir Alfred is very": Annie Hanbury-Williams to Violet Cecil, in Cecil, p. 160.
"Was it a declaration": Cecil, p. 159.

[>] "the wicked war of this": Linklater, p. 96.
"three a penny": Farwell 2, p. 315.

[>] "very low indeed": Cecil, p. 175.

[>] "the mad men at home": Milner to Bagot, 21 November 1900, quoted in Jacqueline Beaumont, "The Times at War, 1899–1902," in Lowry, p. 83n39.

[>] as a "screamer": Milner to Haldane, 1 July 1901, quoted in Kaminski, p. 99.
"He struck me as": Emily Hobhouse to Mary Hobhouse, 8 January 1901, Van Reenen, p. 37.

[>] "My heart wept": Emily Hobhouse, The Brunt of the War and Where It Fell (London: Methuen, 1902), p. 72.
27,927 Boers: Figures compiled by Transvaal government archivist P.L.A. Goldman, cited in Roberts, p. 252, and Morgan, p. 68.
"a little six months' baby": Emily Hobhouse to Mary Hobhouse, 31 January 1901, Van Reenen, pp. 54–55.
"I rub as much salt": Emily Hobhouse to Mary Hobhouse, 26 January 1901, Van Reenen, p. 49.
"If we can get over": Milner to Chamberlain, 7 December 1901, quoted in Krebs, p. 52.

[>] "What an army": Balme, p. 183.
"pro-Boer ravings": Milner to Kitchener, 7 June 1901, quoted in Pakenham 1, p. 511.

[>] "Sir, the lunacy": Hobhouse to the Committee of the Distress Fund, n.d., Van Reenen, p. 148.
"I had thought of that": Roberts, p. 224.
"Your brutal orders": Hobhouse to Milner, 1 November 1901, Van Reenen, p. 151.
"restarting the new": Farwell 2, p. 444.
"The white man": Cecil Headlam, ed., The Milner Papers, vol. 2 (London: Cassell, 1933), p. 467, quoted in Adam Smith, pp. 123–124.

[>] "play the game like gentlemen": Blackwood's Magazine, 1902, quoted in Adam Smith, p. 122.
"fascinating and most hopeful work": Adam Smith, p. 117.
"I must say I am": Adam Smith, p. 118.

[>] "A very small memento": Cassar, p. 32.
"I daresay that he": Esher to Knollys, 16 January 1904, in "French, John Denton Pinkstone," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online), accessed 9 March 2010.
"This is certainly": French to Sir Charles Boxall, 20 October 1901, quoted in Holmes, p. 117.


[>] "In the campaigns": French to Winifred Bennett, 19 March 1915, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 138.
"I am thoroughly satisfied": Haig 3, pp. 223–224.
"moral factor of an": Ellis 1, p. 56.

[>] "I have often made up": Denis Winter, p. 33.
"the rôle of Cavalry": Douglas Haig, Cavalry Studies: Strategical and Tactical (London: Hugh Rees, 1907), pp. 8–9.

[>] "I asked myself": Women's Franchise, 11 July 1907.
"I'm quite safe": Mulvihill, p. 73.
"The women began to": Daily Mirror, quoted in Linklater, pp. 113–114.

[>] 21 days in solitary: HO 144/847/149245.
"If she insists on": Linklater, p. 114.
She called for equality: Despard 1, p. 6.
"I had sought and found": Women's Franchise, 11 July 1907.

[>] "I began to think": Emmeline Pankhurst, p. 28.
"like a stringed instrument": Ethel Smyth, Female Pipings in Eden (Edinburgh: Peter Davies, 1933), pp. 194–195, quoted in Purvis 1, p. 100.

[>] "She was slender, young": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 4, p. 221.
"She was one of those": Helen Crawfurd, quoted in Winslow, p. 13.

[>] "We are soldiers": Standard, 27 May 1913, quoted in Purvis 1, p. 221.
"We leave that to": Emmeline Pankhurst, pp. 264–265.
"I wish that a sensible": Kipling to Mrs. Humphry Ward, 2 February 1912, Kipling Collection, Dalhousie University.

[>] "a short, wiry": Rupert Grayson, Voyage Not Completed (London: Macmillan, 1969), quoted in Holt, p. 104.
"Howe wood yu": Kipling to John Kipling, 6 October 1908, Kipling 2, p. 73.
"Don't you bother": Kipling to John Kipling, 18 May 1908, Kipling 2, p. 59.
the poet declared he admired: Gilmour, p. 198.

[>] but what would they do: Cecil, p. 180.
"It is a spirit": John Buchan, A Lodge in the Wilderness (Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1906), p. 28.
"Do ye wait for": "The Islanders," 1902.

[>] "withholding from others": Roberts, p. 252.
"a fatal mistake": Cecil, pp. 181–182.

[>] "looks well, a bit thinner": Cecil, p. 220.

[>] "I shall tear up": Purvis 2, p. 159.


[>] "That night the baby": Hardie, pp. 1–2.
"We were great friends": Hardie, p. 2.

[>] "The rich and comfortable classes": Benn, p. 259.
"We'll hae nae damned": Benn, p. 22.
"a longing, profound": Countess of Oxford and Asquith, ed., Myself When Young: By Famous Women of To-Day (London: Frederick Muller, 1938), p. 262.

57 "walk and sing and meditate": Tuchman 1, p. 421.
"Abandon hope all ye": Hope Hay Hewison, Hedge of Wild Almonds: South Africa, the Pro-Boers and the Quaker Conscience, 1890–1910 (London: Currey, 1989), p. 340, quoted in Lowry, p. 17.
"Are you working here, mate?": Labour Leader, February 1906, quoted in Benn, pp. 211–212.

[>] "Can I do anything?": Benn, p. 203.

[>] "worth having lived": John Bruce Glasier, James Keir Hardie: A Memorial (Manchester, UK: National Labour Press, 1915), p. 24, quoted in Benn, p. 189.
"militarism": Benn, p. 161.
"I sat among my boxes": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 4, p. 217.

[>] "what a terribly important": Keir Hardie to John Bruce Glasier, 22 October 1903, quoted in Benn, p. 182.
"strange behaviour to him": Glasier to his sister, Lizzie, 29 September 1903, quoted in Benn, p. 181.
"We are for free": Notebook entry, 1918, quoted in Romero, p. 118.
"Last night when all was quiet": E. Sylvia Pankhurst Papers, Reel 1.
"All the night I have been": Hardie to Pankhurst, n.d., Pankhurst Papers, Reel 1.
"I like to think of you": Hardie to Pankhurst, 10 March[?] 1911, Pankhurst Papers, Reel 1.

[>] "They did not hide": Interview with Fenner Brockway, quoted in Benn, p. 238.
"He told me": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 4, p. 320.
"I am fighting, fighting": Sylvia Pankhurst to Emmeline Pankhurst, 18 March 1913, quoted in Winslow, p. 44.

[>] total arms expenses: Fromkin, p. 94.

[>] "Look at those fellows": Valentine Chirol, Fifty Years in a Changing World (New York: Harcourt, 1928), p. 274, quoted in Tuchman 1, pp. 417–418.


[>] "When he came up": Times, 2 January 1912.

[>] "His fellow-rulers had": Times, 6 January 1912.
"A perfect parade ... I have never seen": 11, 14 December 1911, Haig 3, pp. 303, 304.
"Schools are like": Marguerite Poland, The Boy in You: A Biography of St Andrew's College, 1855–2005 (Simon's Town, South Africa: Fernwood Press, 2008), p. 165. I am indebted to Prof. Francis Wilson for pointing out this striking quotation.

[>] "pluck up the courage": Fischer, p. 25.
"We will never fire on you": Joll, p. 151.
"a victory of the proletariat": L'Humanité, quoted in Haupt, pp. 113–114.

69 "Jaurès thinks with": Remy de Gourmont, quoted in Tuchman 1, p. 421.
"we all knew": Interview with Fenner Brockway, quoted in Benn, p. 315.
"All sides are preparing": Fromkin, p. 31.
"let the French commanders": Esher to Huguet, General A. Huguet, Britain and the War: A French Indictment (London: Cassell, 1928), p. 18, quoted in Tuchman 1 p. 54.
"Peace may and has": "Linesman," 24 October 1912. Quoted in Glenn R. Wilkinson, "'The Blessings of War': The Depiction of Military Force in Edwardian Newspapers," Journal of Contemporary History 33:1 (January 1998), p. 103.

[>] "Good morning, one day": Stephen E. Koss, Lord Haldane: Scapegoat for Liberalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969), p. 66, quoted in Gilmour, p. 205.
"camping comfortably on": Kipling to Dunsterville, c. 1911, quoted in Gilmour, p. 207.
"And because there was need": "The City of Brass," 1909.
"unless there were": Thomson 2, p. 298.

[>] "A good big war": Sitwell, p. 137.
inflicted£500,000 worth: Standard, 25 February 1913, cited in Purvis 1, p. 210.
"the horrid woman": James Pope-Hennessy, Queen Mary, 1867–1953 (New York: Knopf, 1960), p. 465.
"one of our bravest soldiers": Daily Herald, 10 June 1913, quoted in Purvis 1, p. 222.

[>] "were armed with": Report of William Hestet [?], 15 October 1913, HO 144/1558/234191.
"The arms were raised": Despard 2, pp. 12–13.
"I was older at twenty": Linklater, p. 126.
"I was thrilled to see": Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, quoted in Mulvihill, p. 74.

[>] "I have never heard": Lytton and Wharton, chap. 6.
"News in the Paper": Despard Diary, 25 March 1914, Public Record Office of Northern Ireland.

[>] "Friends in past": Gilbert, p. 18.
"falling short of violence": Memorandum to committee of the British League for the Support of Ulster, 16 January 1914, quoted in Marlowe, p. 224.
"For the last 3 or 4 months": 11 March 1914, quoted in Gollin, p. 186.

[>] "the Orientals of the West": Kipling to Mrs. Guthrie, 16 November 1901, quoted in Gilmour, p. 242.
raised funds to buy arms: Marlowe, p. 235n19.
"Today the cry of": Fromkin, p. 184.


[>] "the issue will be": Gilbert, p. 9.
"Slavs and Gallics": Fischer, p. 33.
"This unorganised Asiatic": Gilbert, p. 40.
talked privately of annexing: Fischer, p. 103f.
"difficult to discuss": Sir Mark Sykes, quoted in Fromkin, p. 140.

82 "to lead the march on Paris": Tuchman 2, p. 106.
"this war which I": von Moltke to von der Goltz, June 1915, quoted in Fromkin, p. 305.

[>] "We are ready": Baron von Eckhardstein, Lebenserinnerungen, Vol. 3, Die Iso-lierung Deutschlands (Liepzig, 1921), p. 184, quoted in Tuchman 2, p. 27.
"the omission of the customary": Fromkin, p. 166.

[>] "The quiet grave tones": Churchill 1, pp. 94–95.
"We are in measurable": Michael and Eleanor Brock, eds., H. H. Asquith: Letters to Venetia Stanley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), pp. 122–123, quoted in Fromkin, p. 188.

[>] "This country has gone": War 1914: Punishing the Serbs (London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1919), p. 74, quoted in Fromkin, p. 216.
"We shall never hit": Fromkin, p. 218.
"likewise obliged to mobilize": Serge Sverbeev to St. Petersburg, 29 July 1914, quoted in Albertini, vol. 2, p. 499.

[>] "I will ... smash": Fromkin, p. 231.

[>] "men's wars": Suffragette, 19 June 1914.
"The walls of the room": Tuchman 1, p. 421.

[>] "It is impossible": Tuchman 1, p. 460.
"I have done all": Telegram, Nicholas II to George V, Times, 5 August 1914.

[>] "In spite of all my": Stefan Zweig, The World of Yesterday (Alcester, UK: Read Books, 2006), p. 173.
"The victory of Germany": "Reflections of a Nonpolitical Man" (1917), quoted in Tuchman 2, p. 311.

[>] "Every German friend of peace": Carsten, p. 18.
"The government has managed": R.J.W. Evans and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann, eds. The Coming of the First World War (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001), p. 120.
"Few English people": Manchester Guardian, 3 August 1914.

[>] largest demonstration there: Manchester Guardian, 3 August 1914.
"You have no quarrel": Benn, p. 324.
"we are fighting against": Times, 20 September 1914.

[>] "that the fatherland's poorest": Carsten, p. 17.
"Henceforth I know no parties": Tuchman 1, p. 462.
"There are no more": Paul Deschanel, quoted in Tuchman 1, p. 462.
"holy war of civilization": 4 August 1914, quoted in Kramer, p. 183.
"wants to crush": Rheinische Zeitung, 5 August 1914, quoted in Kramer, p. 244.

[>] "The working class went": Tuchman 1, p. 462.

[>] "A single worry": Weintraub, p. 70.
"joined with our elders": Waugh, p. 93.
"Semi-barbarians": Hobhouse to Smuts, 8 August 1914, quoted in Kaminski, p. 287.

95 "look of surprise": A. Mor-O'Brien, ed. The Autobiography of Edmund Stonelake (Mid-Glamorgan Education Committee, 1981), p. 157, quoted in Benn, p. 326.
"I would rather see my two": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 34.
"He looked neither left": Emrys Hughes, quoted in Benn, p. 326.

[>] "It is better to have": Cecil, p. 236.
"flushed, excited face": Cecil, p. 239.


[>] "God's vengeance upon": Suffragette, 7 August 1914 (postdated; this issue actually appeared some days earlier), quoted in Mitchell, p. 247.
"this criminal war": Mulvihill, p. 110.

[>] "crumpled in body": Fenner Brockway, quoted in Benn, p. 329.
"Across the roar of guns": Labour Leader, 13 August 1914, quoted in Boulton, pp. 44–45.
"to go up to him": John Bruce Glasier, James Keir Hardie: A Memorial (Manchester, UK: National Labour Press, 1915), p. 66, quoted in Benn, p. 332.

[>] "Now, God be thanked": "Peace," 1914 and Other Poems (London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1918), p. 11.

[>] "purification, liberation": Kramer, p. 163.
"You will be home": Tuchman 2, p. 119.

[>] "Never!": Tuchman 2, p. 38.
"easy to see": Kenneth Godsell Diary, quoted in Richard Holmes, "The Last Hurrah: Cavalry on the Western Front, August—September 1914," in Cecil and Liddle, p. 280.
"Keep constantly on your guard": Macdonald 1, p. 62.

[>] "They are a low lot": French to Kitchener, 15 November 1914, quoted in Holmes, pp. 202–203.
"In my own heart": Haig 1, 11 August 1914, p. 56.

[>] "well and cheery": John French, p. 144, 14 August 1914.
"I think I know": French to Kitchener, 21 August 1914, quoted in Cassar, p. 104.
"The usual silly reports": John French, p. 145, 15 August 1914.
"I saw the 4th Brigade": French Diary, 20 August 1914, quoted in Holmes, p. 211.
"than I am of the bullets": Cecil, p. 241.

[>] "He said that up to date": Cecil, p. 243.
"The empty stage": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 66.
"We cannot discuss": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 66; see also Times, 9 September 1914.
"I listened to her": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 66.
"an impenetrable barrier": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 66.

[>] "Do not let us": Published in Jus Suffragii, 1 January 1915, quoted in Purvis 1, p. 272.
"I want men to go": Linklater, p. 177.
"If you go to this war": Purvis 1, p. 272.

108 "I am ashamed to know": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 67.
"tea and conversation": Despard Diary, 8 August 1914, Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, Belfast.

[>] "Sir John as usual": Sir Henry Wilson Diary, 3 September 1914, quoted in Trevor Wilson, p. 44.
"I met the men": French Diary, 28 August 1914, quoted in Holmes, pp. 226–227.

[>] "Perhaps the charm of war": John French, p. 148, 29 August 1914.
"Louder and louder": Lt. E. L. Spears, quoted in Macdonald 1, p. 90. Spears was liaison officer to the nearby French forces.
"The Germans just fell": Trumpeter J. Naylor, 3rd Division, Royal Field Artillery, quoted in Macdonald 1, p. 116.
"It is with keen admiration": Despard Diary, 10 September 1914.

[>] "your heathery hair": Collette Malleson to Russell, 2 October 1916, quoted in Ronald W. Clark, p. 308.
"seemed almost to give": Malleson in Ralph Schoenman, ed., Bertrand Russell: Philosopher of the Century (Boston: Little, Brown, 1967), p. 20, quoted in Ronald W. Clark, p. 329.
"tortured by patriotism": Russell 1, pp. 6–7.
"this war is trivial": Russell 2, pp. 13–14.

[>] "swept away in a red blast": Russell to Lucy Donnelly, 22 August 1914, quoted in Vellacott, p. 10.
"One by one": Bertrand Russell, "Some Psychological Difficulties of Pacifism in Wartime," in Julian Bell, p. 329.


[>] "He and his officers": The businessman was my father, an executive of the American Metal Company. Harold K. Hochschild to George F. Kennan, 2 January 1964.
"A French businessman": Alan Clark, p. 22.
"Gentlemen, no stealing": A. G. Gardiner, The War Lords (London: Dent, 1915), p. 133.

[>] "cases of light wounds": Stone, p. 169.
"The enemy has luck": Alfred Knox, With the Russian Army, 1914–1917: Being Chiefly Extracts from the Diary of a Military Attaché, vol. 1 (London: Hutchinson, 1921), p. 74.

[>] the Russians lost: Rutherford, p. 59.

[>] "The Russian Steam-Roller": Ernest Shackleton, South: The Story of Shackleton's Last Expedition, 1914–1917 (New York: Macmillan, 1920), p. xv.
"I would not be out": Trevor Wilson, p. 111.
"Come, leave the lure": Times, 24 November 1914.

[>] "he's rather like": Kipling to Dunsterville, 24 February 1915, Pinney, vol. 4, p. 287.

120 "Charge lads": Cecil, p. 254.
left dozens of Grenadier Guardsmen": Macdonald 1, p. 266.
"terribly distressed": Cecil, p. 245.
"I have every reliance": Cecil, p. 245.

[>] "It is only a rumour": Violet Cecil to Col. R. G. Gordon Gilmour, 1 October 1914, quoted in Craster, p. 63.
"Mr. Roosevelt is asking": Holt, p. 63.
"She dying daily": Kipling to Andrew Macphail, 5 October 1914, quoted in Cecil, p. 246.

[>] "I don't feel as if": Cecil, p. 248.

[>] "the spade will be": French to George V, 2 October 1914, quoted in Holmes, p. 241.
"In my opinion": French to Kitchener, 21 October 1914, quoted in Holmes, p. 246.
"The little fool": Sir Henry Wilson Diary, 10 December 1914, quoted in Cassar, p. 187.

[>] "When immediately in front": M. Kranzberg and C. W. Pursell, eds., Technology in Western Civilisation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), p. 499, quoted in Ellis 1, p. 54.
"I saw trees as large": E. Alexander Powell, quoted in Gilbert, p. 67.

[>] "It is all the best fun": "Grenfell, Julian Henry Francis," in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online), accessed 9 March 2010.

[>] "enraptured by being": French to Winifred Bennett, 5 March 1915, quoted in Holmes, p. 277.
"in an entirely private": French to Kitchener, 14 May 1915, quoted in Holmes, p. 289.
"Too many whores": General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien, quoted in Holmes, p. 380n51.
"Grave opened George": Cecil, p. 251.
"thrown like carrion": Cecil, p. 251.
"You and I can't talk": Cecil, p. 252.

[>] "every troop or regiment": George Lansbury, Sixty-four, Ninety-four, quoted in Caroline Playne, Society at War, 1914–1916 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1931), p. 58.

[>] "Suddenly from the enemy": Vorwärts, January 1915, quoted in Brown and Seaton, p. 90.
"The Germans came out": Anonymous, Times, 2 January 1915.

[>] played games of soccer: Although there are no photographs of these games among those of the truce, Brown and Seaton, pp. 142–147, consider the various pieces of evidence and conclude that some kicking about of soccer balls, both real and makeshift, did take place.
"We marked the goals": Brown and Seaton, p. 145.
"Have you no German": Weintraub, p. 71.
"Soldiers should have": Field-Marshal Viscount French of Ypres, 1914 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1919), quoted in Brown and Seaton, p. 166.
"Why are men who can": Merthyr Pioneer, 9 January 1915.


[>] "county men of position": Field-Marshal Viscount French of Ypres, 1914 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1919), p. 301.

[>] "at some points in the trench": Blunden, pp. 11, 49.
"Spent the morning": Macdonald 2, p. 19.

[>] "I've a little wet home": Macdonald 2, p. 29.
"This afternoon we went": Times, 23 January 1915.

[>] "thinks he may be": French Diary, 8 March 1915, quoted in Holmes, p. 274.
"The Germans were shooting": Macdonald 2, p. 102.

[>] "the defeat of the enemy": John French, The Despatches of Lord French (London: Chapman & Hall, 1917), p. 23, quoted in Holmes, p. 272.
"If these two had": Haig 1, 11 April 1915, pp. 114–115.

[>] "the peace-at-any-price crowd": Minneapolis Daily News, 30 March 1915, quoted in Purvis 1, p. 274.
"It is unthinkable": Sunday Pictorial, 11 April 1915, quoted in Purvis 1, p. 274.

[>] "The chaps were all": Sgt. Bill Hay, 9th Battalion, Royal Scots, quoted in Livesey, p. 66.
"Germany has stooped": Gilbert, p. 145.

[>] "were not at present normal": 15 May 1915, WO 106/1519; R.H.K. Butler to GOC First Army, November 1915; Robertson to Haig, 14 January 1916; all quoted in Travers, p. 98n7.
"I don't know what": Viscount Grey of Fallodon, Twenty-five Years, 1892–1916, vol. 2 (New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1925), p. 72.

[>] "Come on, Jocks": Trevor Wilson, p. 144.
"Precious documents": Wigram to Lady Haig, 28 September 1916, quoted in Denis Winter, p. 234.
"Take and shoot two": Haig to Lady Haig, 10 April 1915, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 184.

[>] "break thro' this": French to Winifred Bennett, 24 May 1915, quoted in Holmes, p. 294.
"shipwrecked souls": 18 February 1915, quoted in Holmes, p. 278.
"you can't trust them": 28 April 1915, quoted in Cassar, p. 225.
"I devoutly wish," "While they are": 21 May 1915, quoted in Holmes, p. 279.

[>] "They've been married": 15 September 1915, quoted in Holmes, p. 281.
"He is so hot tempered": Haig to Rothschild, 9 December 1915, Haig 1, p. 172.
"French seems to have": Haig to Rothschild, 20 May 1915, quoted in De Groot 1, pp. 193–194.
"had lost confidence": Haig 1, 14 July 1915, p. 130.

146 "The enemy ... can't go on": Haig to Lady Haig, 10 August 1915, quoted in De Groot i, p. 202.


[>] "all the English-speaking race": Times, 18 September 1914.
"is the sovereign disinfectant": Edmund Gosse, Inter Arma: Being Essays Written in Time of War (New York: Scribner's, 1916), p. 3.

[>] "this war may rank": John Buchan, The Future of the War (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1916), pp. 13–14, quoted in Buitenhuis, p. 93.
"it is a war": Rudyard Kipling, The New Army (New York: Doubleday and Page, 1914), "Indian Troops," p. 7, quoted in Buitenhuis, p. 25.

[>] "What will be": Kipling, The New Army, "A Territorial Battalion and a Conclusion," p. 9, quoted in Buitenhuis, p. 26.
"very straight and smart": Gilmour, p. 257.
"This is the life": John Kipling to his family, 17 August 1915, Kipling 2, p. 195.
"Bread, sardines, jam": John Kipling to his family, 18 August 1915, Kipling 2, p. 197.
"Neither of them look": Morton Cohen, ed., Rudyard Kipling to Rider Haggard (Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1965), p. 81, quoted in Kipling 2, p. 14.
"in a splendid little": John Kipling to his family, 20 August 1915, Kipling 2, pp. 198–199.
"The cigarettes, tobacco": John Kipling to his family, 22 August 1915, Kipling 2, p. 201.
"What he doesn't know": John Kipling to his family, 29 August 1915, Kipling 2, p. 213.

[>] "I tried to stop": Robb, p. 125.
"Kill Germans!": Eksteins, p. 236.
"The little hall was crowded": Brockway, p. 64.

[>] "Ten million Socialist": Robb, p. 69.
"They are well worth": Hardie to Sylvia Pankhurst, 27 May 1915, E. Sylvia Pankhurst Papers, Reel 1.
"You have been very brave": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 227.
"His Majesty feels": Buckingham Palace to Lloyd George, 28 June 1915, quoted in Purvis i, p. 276.

[>] "The Ablest Woman": New York Journal, 12 November 1915, quoted in Purvis 1, p. 278.

[>] "It's no business": Dorothy Peel, How We Lived Then: 1914–1918: A Sketch of Social and Domestic Life in England During the War (London: John Lane, 1929), p. 152, quoted in Trevor Wilson, p. 511.
"shout of bestial triumph": Russell 1, p. 19.
"The air was filled": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 196.

[>] "with no more mind": E. Sylvia Pankhurst Papers, Reel 1.
"He is dying": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 228.
"un-English," "the weapon of cowards," "an underhanded method": Massie, p. 123.

157 "Whole families with all": Alfred Knox, With the Russian Army, 1914–1917, vol. 1
(London: Hutchinson, 1921), p. 305.
well over three million: Gatrell, pp. 3, 212.
"diversionary themes not": Lincoln, p. 48.
"afflicted with the misfortune": George Buchanan, My Mission to Russia and Other Diplomatic Memories, vol. 2 (London: Cassell, 1923), p. 77, quoted in Clay, p. 172.
"My brain is resting": Lincoln, p. 152.

[>] "were never in better": Haig 1, 12 September 1915, p. 146.
"It is against wild": Rudyard Kipling, France at War: On the Frontier of Civilization (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page, 1916), pp. 48, 86–87, 90.
"wouldn't like to have": Rudyard Kipling to Carrie Kipling, 21 August 1915, Kipling 2, p. 13.

[>] "I don't think I have": John Kipling to his family, 26 August 1915, Kipling 2, p. 208.
"my visage is the colour": John Kipling to his family, 29 August 1915, Kipling 2, p. 212.
"older and fatter": Haig 1, 22 September 1915, p. 151.
"Whatever may happen": 18 September 1915, quoted in Cassar, p. 261.
"a really good pair": John Kipling to his family, 23 September 1915, Kipling 2, p. 221.
"Just a hurried line": John Kipling to his family, 25 September 1915, Kipling 2, p. 222.


[>] "For the future": Ministry of Munitions, History of the Ministry of Munitions, vol. 11 (London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1918–1922), sec. 3, p. 42. The wording of an earlier draft of the history, in BT 66/6/46, is almost identical and adds no more information. See also MacLeod and MacLeod, pp. 171–175.
some 32,000 pairs: Hartcup, p. 182. The official History of the Ministry of Munitions implies—apparently falsely—that the British-German trade was not consummated, because alternative sources of optical glass were found in Britain and the United States. Hartcup's source for the number of binoculars actually delivered in 1915 is a memorandum he found in BT 66/6/46, "Negotiations with Germany and America for optical instruments, Aug. 1915." Sometime after he did the research for his well-documented 1988 book, the memo was removed from this file in the National Archives, and I was unable to find it in a number of other files. My thanks to Guy Hartcup for taking the time to correspond with me about this.

[>] "each about a thousand": F. Forstner, Das Reserve Infanterie Regiment 15 (Berlin, 1929), pp. 226–232, quoted in Keegan 1, pp. 201–202.
"My machine gunners": Cherry, pp. 198–199.

163 "The communication trench": Philip Warner, The Battle of Loos (Ware, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth, 2000), p. 54.

[>] "The C.O. wishes": Macdonald 2, p. 536.
"The whole slope in front": Cherry, pp. 198–199.

[>] "They advanced as if": Vansittart to Secretary for War, 7 October 1917, CAB 45/121.
"bring out more": Vansittart to Brigadier-General Sir James Edmonds, 30 January 1926, CAB 45/121.
"Dead, dying and badly": 27 September and 2 October 1915, quoted in Holmes, p. 305.
"It was impossible to bury": Macdonald 2, p. 572.

[>] "The introduction of": "The Question of Training Men for Employment with the Machine Guns now under Supply," General Staff, GHQ, 23 November 1915, quoted in Travers, p. 85.
only one machine gun: Paul Clark to Pershing, 15 May 1918, quoted in Denis Winter, p. 148.
"My attack, as has been": Haig to Kitchener, 29 September 1915, Haig 1, p. 160.
"Douglas Haig came": n.d., Cherry, p. 329.

[>] "I was not faint": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 230.

[>] "He was built for": Woman's Dreadnought, 2 October 1915.
"How can you expect": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 239.
"corrupted ... by Germanism": 8 December 1916, quoted in Millman, p. 120.
"I absolutely agree": 7 December 1915, Milner Papers, Bodleian Library, Oxford, dep. 351.
"through little old": Buchan 1, p. 31.

[>] "DH never shines": Charteris, regarding a New Year's Eve party at headquarters, Cherry, p. 336.

[>] "How deep is it": Gibbs, pp. 207–208.
"we suddenly confronted": Herbert Read, Annals of Innocence and Experience (London: Faber & Faber, 1946), pp. 142–143, quoted in Ashworth, p. 104.

[>] "They tell me John": Rupert Grayson to the Kiplings, quoted in Holt, p. 106.
"We can but trust": Edward to Rupert Grayson, 15 October 1915, quoted in Holt, p. 106.
"He is dark with": Kipling to Page, 5 October 1915, Pinney, vol. 4, p. 337.

[>] "We fear he is killed": 4 October 1915, quoted in Thompson, p. 321.
"No news": Holt, p. 105.


[>] "the greatest expression": Roland N. Stromberg, quoted in William Pfaff, The Bullet's Song: Romantic Violence and Utopia (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004), p. 29.
volunteering for the army: Robb, p. 72; Winter 1, p. 118.
"national control of": Clarion, 17 March 1916, quoted in Stubbs, p. 729.
"All-British from the core": C. B. Stanton, MP, in the Times, 18 March 1918.

178 "beyond all question": Times, 28 May 1917.
"I am trying, very hard": Marlowe, p. 245.
"It would be difficult": Marlowe, p. 245.
"Shall we call": Astor to Milner and Milner to Astor, 12 January 1916, quoted in Lockwood, p. 124.

[>] "all seem to expect": Haig to Lady Haig, 27 December 1915, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 217.

[>] "preach ... about the objects": Haig Diary, 4 June 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 241.
"We lament too much": Haig Diary, 23 April 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 241.
"The nation must be": Haig, "Memorandum on Policy for the Press," 26 May 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 242.
"The Germans might bargain": Haig Diary, 7 June 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 245.
"some officers who think": Haig Diary, 9 April 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 234.
"lately a certain number": Gilbert, p. 212.
"take the same sort": John Jolliffe, ed. Raymond Asquith: Life and Letters (London: Collins, 1980), p. 217, quoted in "Asquith, Raymond," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online), accessed 15 March 2010.

[>] "It was a storied antique": Montague, p. 32.
"slackness ... in the matter": Haig 1, 4 September 1916, p. 226.

[>] "All the troops here": Haig to Rothschild, 14 May 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 235.
"The briefing lasted": Morton to Liddell Hart, 17 July 1961, quoted in Denis Winter, p. 13.
"If by any chance": Cuthbert Headlam to Georgina Headlam, 21 July 1916, quoted in Denis Winter, p. 137.
"The so called sharp": Haig to Henrietta Jameson, 1 September 1904, quoted in De Groot 1, pp. 105–106.

[>] "The hopeless bravery": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 321.
"I shall never be": Wilson to Milner, 25 August 1915, quoted in Gollin, p. 281.

[>] "This place is polluted": Cecil, p. 275.
"I knew the dear London": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 304.

[>] "Strongly repudiate and condemn": Purvis 1, p. 285.
"Freedom's battle has not": Rowbotham, p. 34.
A burly man of: Morel is a principal figure in my King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa (Boston: Hought on Mifflin, 1998).

[>] "a war which enables": E. D. Morel, Truth and the War (London: National Labour Press, 1916), p. 302.
more than 20,000 men: Pearce, p. 169.
"we women ... will tolerate": Trevor Wilson, p. 402.

[>] "The conscientious objector": Martin, pp. 53–54.
"I did not think": W. S. Adams, Edwardian Portraits (London: Secker & Warburg, 1957), p. 212.
"did not wish to incite": Brockway, p. 70.
"Six men have been condemned": Times, 17 May 1916.

190 "in various secret places": Chamberlain, p. 68.
"The singers can have": Tribunal, 4 January 1917.

[>] "Are you doing work": Socialist, October 1916.
"war will become impossible": Tribunal, 1 June 1916.
"Once you are across": Boulton, p. 165.

[>] "if they disobey orders": Boulton, p. 166.
"As we were leaving": Russell 1, p. 17.
"In France a court-martial": Herald, 6 May 1916, Russell 3, p. 357.

[>] "We have been warned": Boulton, p. 171.
"We regret nothing": Tribunal, 8 June 1916.
"Tell me, when was": Ernest Shackleton, South: The Story of Shackleton's Last Expedition, 1914–1917 (New York: Macmillan, 1920), p. 208.

[>] "Had we used the Navy's": Rudyard Kipling, The Fringes of the Fleet (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page, 1916), p. 118.

[>] "the lash and the chain": Kruse, p. 102.

[>] "When a German holds": John G. Gray, Prophet in Plimsoles: An Account of the Life of Colonel Ronald Campbell (Edinburgh: Edina, 1977), p. 27.
"fighting the Enemy": Haig 1, 5 April 1916, p. 184.

[>] "Nothing could exist": Sir John Edmonds, Military Operations: France and Belgium, 1916 (London: Macmillan, 1932), p. 288, quoted in Trevor Wilson, p. 318.
"Carmen Etonense": Eton College Chronicle, 15 June 1916. My thanks to Mark Goodman for referring me to this source.

[>] "The situation is becoming": Haig to Lady Haig, 20 June 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 251.
"I feel that every": Haig to Lady Haig, 22 June 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 2.51.
"The men are in splendid": Haig 1, 30 June 1916, p. 195.


[>] "We were placed": Boulton, p. 168.

[>] "Rats were not infrequent": Boulton, p. 171.

[>] "I cast many a glance": Anonymous CO, quoted in Boulton, pp. 172–173.
Bertrand Russell and others: Without which, concludes Ellsworth-Jones, p. 203,
"at least some of the conscientious objectors shipped to France would almost certainly have been executed."
"As I stood listening": Anonymous CO, quoted in Boulton, p. 173.

[>] "The hospital received": Brittain, p. 274.
"one could see ripples": Lieutenant G. Chetwynd-Staplyton, quoted in Keegan 2, p. 238.

[>] "I did not come across": G. M. Sturgess, in John Hammerton, ed., The Great War—"I Was There!": Undying Memories of 1914–1918, vol. 2 (London: Amalgamated Press, 1938), quoted in Trevor Wilson, p. 323.

205 "It was an amazing": M. Gerster, Die Schwaben an der Ancre (Heilbronn, Germany: Eugen Salzer, [1918]), quoted in Churchill 1, pp. 658–659.
"When we got to": Private Tomlinson of the Sherwood Foresters, quoted in Keegan 2, p. 258.

[>] "Only three out of": Middlebrook, p. 132.

[>] "I have never had": Middlebrook, p. 261.
"This cannot be": Haig 1, 2 July 1916, p. 197.
"In another fortnight": Haig to Lady Haig, 8 July 1916, Haig 1, p. 201.
"If we don't succeed": Haig to Lady Haig, 13 July 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 253.

[>] "a squadron of Indian": Hutchison, pp. 126–132. Men from two cavalry regiments charged the Germans that day; the Indians were from the 20th Royal Deccan Horse, with the higher-ranking officers all British. The Deccan Horse regimental history records 9 dead and 41 wounded for this engagement, with, surprisingly, half a dozen German prisoners taken. Much of the time, however, the cavalrymen fought dismounted.

[>] "The tide of wounded": Philip Gibbs, Ten Years After: A Reminder (London: Hutchinson, 1925), pp. 32–33.
"cannot have been less": Haig to Robertson, 23 August 1916, quoted in De Groot I, p. 262.
"the total losses": Haig I, 4 September 1916, p. 226.
"Lawford dined": Travers, p. xix.
"The expectation of mankind": Anonymous to Haig, 30 July 1916, quoted in De Groot I, p. 255.

[>] "felt that it was": Alistair Horne, The Price of Glory: Verdun 1916 (London: Penguin, 1993), p. 22.
"Stretchers blocked the cellar": Lawrence Gameson Papers, pp. 52–53, Imperial War Museum, quoted in Peter Barham, Forgotten Lunatics of the Great War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), p. 148.
"the spirit of the wounded": Haig Diary, 25 July 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 255.
"a hale and hearty": J.F.C. Fuller, in Wolff, p. x.

[>] "'The powers that be'": Haig 1, 1 August 1916, p. 213.
"the maintenance of a steady": Haig to Robertson, 1 August 1916, Haig 1, p. 214.
"Have another glass": Lord Birkenhead, Life of F. E. Smith (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1960), p. 287.

[>] "For God's sake": Gilbert, p. 285.
"esprit de corps": Arthur Surfleet, "Blue Chevrons: An Infantry Private's Great War Diary," Imperial War Museum, quoted in Trevor Wilson, pp. 355–361.
"There is something": Bickersteth, p. 178.
"Once you have lain": Guy Chapman, A Passionate Prodigality: Fragments of Autobiography (London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1965), p. 226.

[>] in 2005 alone: Mark Bostridge, "'We Go Tomorrow,'" Guardian, 1 July 2006.
"a very large number": Haig to Robertson, 7 October 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 269.
almost 500,000 casualties: Both lower and higher figures are sometimes used; this one comes from a generally pro-Haig book, John Hussey, Portrait of a Commander in Chief, quoted in Bond and Cave, p. 35n35.
"advanced toward our men": Gibbs, p. 422.


[>] "Women rushed towards": The Danish actress Asta Nielsen, in Dieter Glatzer and Ruth Glatzer, Berliner Leben, vol. 1 (Berlin: Rütten & Loening, 1986), pp. 265–266, quoted in Thomas Levenson, Einstein in Berlin (New York: Bantam Books, 2003), pp. 143–144.
Germans lined the border: Kramer, pp. 42–43.

[>] "It makes my blood boil": Russell to Ottoline Morrell, 1 September 1916, quoted in Vellacott, p. 93.

[>] "a woman known": Cecil to Simon, 8 November 1915, quoted in Kaminski, p. 300.
was the sole Briton: Nation, p. 273n10. This meeting was a follow-up to the better-known one at Zimmerwald the previous year, at which no Britons were present.

[>] "Arrive London about midday": 29 June 1916, FO 372/894/125014.
"A bridge is needed": Hobhouse to Smuts, 25 March 1917, quoted in Balme, p. 558.
"After a good deal": 2 November 1916, CAB 41/37/38.

[>] "the sort of conclusions": Thomson to Dormer, 1 July 1916, FO 372/894/128477.
"patriotic ardor for": Hobhouse 1, p. 53.

[>] "I cannot make up": Hobhouse to Courtney, Wills, p. 15.
"the look of eager": Hobhouse 1, p. 148.

[>] "Few things moved me": Wills, pp. 46–47.
"A danger which the country": Douglas Haig, "Memorandum on Policy for the
Press," 26 May 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 242.
"So far as Britain is": Ferguson 1, p. 213.
"which should not be": INF 4/1B, quoted in Millman, p. 182.

[>] "Even as he lies": Gilbert, p. 298.
"I was thoroughly and": William Beach Thomas, A Traveller in News (London:
Chapman and Hall, 1925), p. 109.
"Gentlemen, you have played": Gibbs, p. 30.
"in a certain jauntiness": Montague, pp. 97–98, 94.
drafting the weekly communiqués: Some of these are in FO 395/53.

[>] "most anxious to help": Haig Diary, 30 September 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 272.
"send him a line": Haig Diary, 23 July 1917, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 259.
"It was his last attempt": Buchan 3, p. 175n
"When eminent and cultivated": Buchan 3, p. 177.

225 "clerks and shopboys": Buchan 2, pp. 34–35.
"strange machines": Buchan 2, pp. 115, 121–122.
"a shattering blow": Buchan 2, p. 167.
"our major purpose": Buchan 2, p. 171.
"the strain of duplicity": Buitenhuis, p. 98.
"Whenever the German man": Daily Express, 24 May 1916, quoted in Angus Wilson, p. 300.

[>] "human beings and Germans": Morning Post, 22 June 1915, quoted in Gilmour, p. 250.
"My son was killed": "Epitaphs of the War," 1919.
"Down on your knees": Angus Wilson, p. 304.

[>] "have stirred London": James Douglas, "The Somme Pictures. Are They Too Painful for Public Exhibition?" Star, 25 August 1916, quoted in Reeves, p. 17.
"I have lost a son": "Orbatus" to the editor, Times, 2 September 1916.

[>] "Haig took me into": "Diary of Lord Milner's Visit to France, Nov. 11–19, 1916," Milner Papers, Bodleian Library, Oxford, dep. 353, pp. 77–98.

[>] "We are the Bantam sodgers": Allinson, p. 142.

[>] "seemed to have lost": Private Pinkney, testifying at Stones's court-martial, WO 71/535, quoted in Corns and Hughes-Wilson, p. 163, and Putkowski 3, p. 44.
"in a very exhausted": Sergeant Foster, testifying at Stones's court-martial, WO 71/535, quoted in Corns and Hughes-Wilson, p. 164, and Putkowski 3, pp. 44–45.

[>] 89 percent of the death sentences: Corns and Hughes-Wilson, p. 450.
"I have personally been": Corns and Hughes-Wilson, p. 167; Putkowski 3, p. 50.
confirmed the sentences: The record of Stones's court-martial is in WO 71/535, and that of Goggins and McDonald in WO 71/534. See also Putkowski and Sykes, pp. 156–159; Corns and Hughes-Wilson, pp. 157–175; and Putkowski 3, p. 36f, the most extensive account.

[>] "until we reached": "A reminiscence of the Great War—for Liberty. How Some Durham Lads were 'Shot at Dawn.' British Militarism in Operation," Forward (Glasgow), 15 April 1922. Reprint of article from Railway Review, 3 February 1922.
"To-night here on the Somme": Russell 1, pp. 97–98.

[>] "My own disposition": Cecil, p. 270.


[>] "I am sending out": Joseph Stones to Isobel Stones, 12 December 1916, quoted in Putkowski 3, p. 67.
"The court recommend": WO 71/485, quoted in Corns and Hughes-Wilson, pp. 141–144.

[>] "noted" under Haig's comments: WO 71/485, quoted in Corns and Hughes-Wilson, pp. 141–144.
"Reports of large numbers": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 1, p. 311.
military executions: John Peaty, "Haig and Military Discipline," in Bond and Cave, pp. 205, 209; Oram 2, p. 13. Oram 1, p. 186n5, offers an estimate of total British executions of more than 400, but this appears to include some after the Armistice. It is possible that additional German executions may not have been recorded in the last weeks of the war.
"Apart from the number": Lt. G. V. Carey, Gilbert, p. 178.

243 "I confirmed the proceedings": Haig 1, 11 January 1917, p. 267.
"As a military prisoner": "A reminiscence of the Great War—for Liberty. How Some Durham Lads were 'Shot at Dawn.' British Militarism in Operation," Forward (Glasgow), 15 April 1922. Reprint of article from Railway Review, 3 February 1922.

[>] "Dear Rochester": Tom Hickey and Bryan Maddocks, "Debts of Honour," Rochester Papers.
"Bath-rooms, smoke-rooms": [Albert Rochester,] "With the R.O.D. in France,"
Railway Review, 23 July 1922. I am grateful to Julian Putkowski for sending me this series of articles by Rochester.

[>] "fully alive to his": Haig Diary, 5 January 1917, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 286.
"It gives me great": George V to Haig, 27 December 1916, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 283.

[>] "endured cold and hunger": Stevenson, p. 282.
selling food and medicine: Frank G. Weber, Eagles on the Crescent: Germany, Austria and the Diplomacy of the Turkish Alliance (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1970), pp. 119–121.

[>] the Germans sank: Trevor Wilson, pp. 428–429.
"In five months at this": Churchill 1, p. 742.

[>] "the bullying and unscrupulousness": Milner to Ian Colvin, n.d., quoted in Marlowe, p. 275.
alarmist reports: Most of these are in dep. 377 of the Milner Papers, Bodleian Library, Oxford. Copies of some also appear in the Addison Papers at the same library and in two of the National Archives files on the Wheeldon case, DPP 1/150 and HO 144/13338.
"It is impossible": William Melville Lee, "Notes on the Strike Movement Now Developing in the North and West of England," pp. 3–4, 15 December 1916, Milner Papers, dep. 377.
the agents who penned: Rowbotham, pp. 44–46.

[>] "a quadruple line": Lee, "Notes on the Strike Movement," p. 11, 15 December 1916.
"We are undoubtedly": Lee, "Notes on the Strike Movement," Appendix 1, p. 7, 12 December 1916.
"What the working classes": Lee, "Notes on the Strike Movement," Appendix 11, document D, 2 December 1916.

[>] "I never moved": Clarke 1, p. 100.
"The landlord calls it rent": Challinor 1, p. 23.
"You gave us war": Challinor 1, p. 38.
put under surveillance: Challinor 1, p. 43; Rowbotham, p. 11.

[>] "Many comrades kept": Thomas Bell, p. 126.
"is terrified": Hettie to Winnie, January 1917, quoted in Rowbotham, p. 39.

253 "all the working-men": Russell to Ottoline Morrell, 15 July 1916, quoted in Vellacott, p. 91.

[>] "although very pleasant": Sir Henry Wilson Diary, 3 February 1917, Callwell, p. 315.
"kept throwing himself": Robert D. Warth, The Allies and the Russian Revolution: From the Fall of the Monarchy to the Peace of Brest-Litovsk (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1954), p. 20.
enjoyed themselves: Sir Henry Wilson Diary, 30 January and 7 February 1917, Callwell, pp. 314, 316.

[>] "If an upheaval": Wrench, p. 325, and Marlowe pp. 263–264, quoting Milner Papers, Bodleian Library, Oxford, dep. 222.


[>] "Now I write the truth": Bhagail Singh to Chain Singh, 22 January 1917, Omissi, pp. 271–272.
"We are like goats": Abdul Rahim Khan to Mir Hassan Khan, 7 February 1917, Omissi, p. 275.

[>] "Down the corridor": Campbell, p. 258.
"The persons in this case": Times, 5 February 1917.
"I think this is": Hettie Wheeldon to Lydia Robinson, 16 February 1917. My thanks to Julian Hendy for sharing these letters to Lydia Robinson with me.
"Yes, we will keep": Alice Wheeldon to Lydia Robinson, 26 February 1917.

[>] "haggard and pale": Manchester Guardian, 7 March 1917.
"that for reasons which seem": Times, 4 February 1917.

[>] "bad and wicked influence": Trial transcript, DPP 1/50, p. 324.
"language which would be": Daily Mail, 12 March 1917.
"My Lord": Trial transcript, DPP 1/50, p. 325. See also correspondence in CRIM 1/166 between Pankhurst's lawyer and the Wheeldon prosecutors.

[>] "We have tried": HO 45/10695/231366/27. WSPU meeting, Cardiff, 19 February 1913, quoted in Purvis 1, p. 210.

[>] "a thin, cunning-looking": Thomson 1, pp. 238–239.
"Gordon went to Leicester": Anonymous informant, 10 March 1917, Milner Papers, Bodleian Library, Oxford, dep. 377, p. 148.

[>] "Stop!stranger, thou art": Socialist, August 1918.
"During the afternoon": Winston'S. Churchill, The Unknown War: The Eastern Front (New York: Scribner's, 1932), pp. 374–375.

[>] "The old order was dead": Benn, p. 377.
"a stupendous event": Vellacott, p. 153.
"I longed to shout": Russell to Ottoline Morrell, 1 April 1917, quoted in Vellacott, pp. 156–157.
"I remember the miners": Labour Party Annual Conference Report, 1951, p. 194, quoted in Coates, p.8.
"Revolutions like charity": Clinton and Myers, p. 73.
"the first ray of dawn": "In the Red Twilight" (unpublished), p. 65, quoted in Winslow, p. 137.

266 "a veritable cemetery": Churchill 1, p. 744.
"were imbued with a proud": Trevor Wilson, p. 435.

[>] "Across the central space": Stephen Hobhouse 1, p. 163.
"through which at times": Stephen Hobhouse 1, p. 162.
"while I was singing": Stephen Hobhouse 1, p. 164.
"Every soldier realises": Wills, p. 48.

[>] "Stephen had a very": Wilfred E. Littleboy, Wills, p. 49.
"The spirit of love requires": Stephen Hobhouse 1, p. 165.
"Tell Stephen not to": Stephen Hobhouse 1, p. 166.
"The warder bluntly refused": Stephen Hobhouse 2, p. 26.
"Sorry to see you": Stephen Hobhouse 1, p. 159.

[>] typed excerpts copied from a letter: HO 144/22259.
"If it were possible": 12 February 1917, HO 144/22259.
"the majority of them": Derby to Milner, 27 March 1917, HO 144/22259.
"Though she thought": Stephen Hobhouse 1, p. 179.

[>] "They maintain, paradoxical": Margaret Hobhouse, I Appeal unto Caesar (London: Allen & Unwin, 1917), p. 6, quoted in Vellacott, pp. 211–212.
"As a result largely of": Tribunal, 15 November 1917.

[>] "I am with you": Linklater, p. 193.
"of this and all the other": Philip Snowden, Labour Leader, 31 May 1917, quoted in Gollin, p. 548.
"My dear Prime Minister": Milner to Lloyd George, 1 June 1917, Lloyd George Papers, F38/2/8, Parliamentary Archives, London.

[>] "There can be no": B.E.B., "Report on the Russian Revolution Conference at Leeds," CAB 24/16, G. T. 1049.
"the thousand men now": Russell 3, p. 182.
"The control of events": Tribunal, 7 June 1917.


[>] "Revolution is never": Haig to Derby, June 1917, quoted in Reid, p. 391.
"breakingpoint may be": Gilbert, p. 336.

[>] "The argument seems to be": Marlowe, p. 282.
"Their brains were cluttered": Ferguson 1, p. 303.
"He spread on a table": David Lloyd George, War Memoirs, vol. 4 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1934), p. 359.
"Everybody in my hotel": Robertson to Kiggell, 27 July 1917.
"How proud you must feel": Haig to Lady Haig, 24 July 1917, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 328.

[>] "I should like the words": Linklater, p. 195.
"I consider the Pacifists": Britannia, 3 August 1917, quoted in Angela K. Smith, p. 109.
"Could you listen to": Britannia, 7 December 1917.
"turn into a pacifist": Milner to Cave, 31 August 1917, quoted in Millman, p. 212.

280 "did the government prohibit": Millman, p. 305.
"Shaw will make the most": Samuel to Asquith, 5 October 1916, quoted in Millman, p. 78.
Several hundred hostile: Times, 30 July 1917.
"The mob is a terrible": Russell to Ottoline Morrell, 28 July 1917, quoted in Vellacott, p. 170.

[>] "explain to the Russian": Times, 2 June 1917.
"I came to Petrograd": Britannia, 13 July 1917, quoted in Purvis 1, p. 295.

[>] "a big peasant woman": Rheta Childe Dorr, A Woman of Fifty (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1924), p. 360, quoted in Purvis 1, p. 409n17.
Its recruits shaved: See Stoff, p. 69f, and Joshua S. Goldstein, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 72–75.
"The creation of the Women's": Stoff, p. 88.

[>] "Down with capitalism!": Purvis 1, p. 297.
"I am making this statement": Workers' Dreadnought, 28 July 1917.

[>] "I was driven out": French to Esher, 7 September 1918, quoted in John French, p. 300.

[>] "I do so want to": French to Bennett, 1 and 6 January 1916, quoted in Holmes, p. 314.
"Haig's plans required": De Groot 1, p. 336.

[>] "I cannot attempt": Sphere, 24 November 1917, quoted in Denis Winter, p. 109.
"The moment you set off': Trevor Wilson, p. 473.
"From the darkness": Edwin Campion Vaughan, Some Desperate Glory: The Diary of a Young Officer, 1917 ([London:] Warne, 1981), pp. 228–229 (27 August 1917).

[>] "A party of 'A' Company": Trevor Wilson, p. 473.


[>] "There's an east wind": Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, His Last Bow: A Reminiscence of Sherlock Holmes (New York: Review of Reviews, 1917), pp. 307–308.
The total of British dead: Sheffield, p. 180, citing Richard Holmes. See Denis Winter, p. 110, for comments on this bitterly debated figure.
"When I look at": In Paris, 12 November 1917. Trevor Wilson, p. 547.

[>] "For the first time": Gibbs, p. 485.
"Reinforcements ... shambled up": Aubrey Wade, The War of the Guns (London: Batsford, 1936), pp. 57–58, quoted in Trevor Wilson, p. 482.
"Col. Rawlins, leave the room": Travers, p. 105.

[>] "Glorious News from Russia!": Socialist, December 1917.
"May they open the door": Workers' Dreadnought, 17 November 1917.
"our prison doors": Brockway, p. 98.
"A breach of discipline": Times, 31 July 1917.

295 "I am only here": Samuel Hynes, A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture (London: Bodley Head, 1990), p. 186.

[>] "The probabilities are": G 173, 13 November 1917, CAB 24/4, quoted in Andrew, p. 201.
"I feel certain that": Thomson 3, p. 392, 22 October 1917.
"safely lodged in gaol": FO 371/2828/202398, quoted in Catherine Cline, E. D. Morel, 1873–1924: The Strategies of Protest (Belfast: Blackstaff Press, 1980), p. 111.
"In no country but this": Milner to Lloyd George, 26 May 1917, quoted in Williams thesis, p. 14.
"a piece of bread": E. D. Morel, Thoughts on the War: The Peace—and Prison (London, 1920), pp. 60–62.

[>] "I saw E. D. Morel": Russell to Murray, 27 March 1918, quoted in Vellacott, p. 231.
"My first experience of": Brockway, p. 92.
"The place was deadly silent": Brockway, p. 103.

[>] "Christmas morning": HO 144/13338.
"Oh Mam I don't know": Winnie Mason to Alice Wheeldon, 30 December 1917, HO 144/13338.

[>] "Sometimes advanced socialistic": Haig 1, 23 December 1917, pp. 362–363.
"Look smart": J. G. Fuller, Troop Morale and Popular Culture in British and Dominion Armies, 1914–1918 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 51, quoted in James i, p. 473.
"They were giving so much": Englander and Osborne, p. 601.

[>] "during the war": Stephen Badsey, "Plumer, Herbert Charles Onslow," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online), accessed 25 March 2010.
"All the time the big guns": Robert Saunders, quoted in Trevor Wilson, p. 508.

[>] "We're telling lies": Lucy Masterman, C.F.G. Masterman (London: Nicholson and Watson, 1939), p. 296, quoted in Messinger, p. 45.

[>] "We are slowly but surely": Lansdowne to Asquith, 13 November 1916, "Fitzmau-rice, Henry Charles Keith Petty-," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (on-line), accessed 25 March 2010.
"Before long, it will": Tribunal, 6 December 1917.
"old imbecile": Gilmour, p. 270.

[>] "Lansdownism": See, for example, AIR 1/560/16/15/60, "Pacifist Propaganda—Position as at 26th March 1918," London District Intelligence Summary.
With Milner pulling strings: See, for example, references to several War Cabinet meetings in the fall of 1917 in WO 32/5474.
"differences of outlook": Stephen Hobhouse 1, p. 172.
"I thought P. changed": Kathleen Courtney, Extracts from a Diary During the War (London[?], privately printed, 1927), p. 144.

[>] Adolph Joffe: For an interview with Joffe's daughter, Nadezhda, see Hochschild, pp. 143–149. For an interview with the son of Lev Kamenev, the other lead Bolshevik envoy, see Hochschild, pp. 84–92.

[>] "All that is taking place": Czernin, pp. 244–245.
"I hope we may be": Czernin, p. 246.


[>] "Lads of eighteen and nineteen": Churchill 1, p. 754.

[>] "to decide where": John Barnes and David Nicholson, eds., The Leo Amery Diaries, vol. 1 (London: Hutchinson, 1980), p. 188.
"The P.M. and Milner": Diaries, 1912–1924 (London: Longmans, Green, 1952), pp. 111–116 (1 March 1918), quoted in A.J.P. Taylor, English History, 1914–1945 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), p. 95.

[>] "The cargo was piled": Winter and Baggett, p. 249.

[>] "an offensive on a big": Haig Diary, 2 March 1918, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 367.
"thought she should": HO 144/13338.

[>] "a rather sudden growth": GT 3424, 22 January 1918, CAB 24/40, quoted in Andrew, p. 225.
"Repent?": Caroline Moorehead 1, p. 71.
"What the hell are we": AIR 1/558/16/15/55.
"There is scarcely": AIR 1/560/16/15/59.

[>] "The whole tone of": AIR 1/561/16/15/61.
"Mrs. Pankhurst and Miss Christabel": AIR 1/560/16/15/59.
"rule by terror": Die Russische Revolution (Berlin, 1922), p. 67f, quoted in Elżbieta
Ettinger, Rosa Luxemburg: A Life (Boston: Beacon, 1986), p. 225.

[>] "Exactly as a pianist": Churchill 1, p. 768.

[>] "At half-past four": Aubrey Wade, The War of the Guns (London: Batsford, 1936), p. 89, quoted in Trevor Wilson, p. 558.
"The first to be affected": Martin Middlebrook, The Kaiser's Battle (London: Allen Lane, 1978), p. 161, quoted in Trevor Wilson, p. 559.

[>] "Germany must go under": Stevenson, p. 327.

[>] "I thought we had": Middlebrook, The Kaiser's Battle, p. 192, quoted in Keegan 1, p. 399.
"Old women in black": Lieutenant H.E.L. Mellersh, Imperial War Museum personal accounts, quoted in Toland, p. 54.
"The battle is won": George Alexander von Müller, The Kaiser and His Court (London: Macdonald, 1961), p. 344, quoted in Toland, p. 58.
"The force of the blow": 24 March 1918, quoted in Thompson, p. 348.

[>] "Many amongst us are": 11 April 1918, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 378.

[>] "I was very glad": Stephen Hobhouse 1, p. 173.

[>] "The recent severe fighting": AIR 1/560/16/15/60.
"at Liverpool recent events": AIR 1/560/16/15/60.
"has a great respect": MUN 5/48/267/3. Many of Kipling's memos, like this one, were to Lord Beaverbrook.
"This little pig stayed at home": 4 May 1918.
"an occupation to which": Tribunal, 3 January 1918.
"asked my religion": Russell 1, p. 30.

[>] "Dear Brockway": Brockway, p. 113.

[>] "Only those who have": Brockway, p. 113.
"people steeped to the neck": French to Esher, 26 May 1918, John French, p. 296.
"like nothing so much": French to Lloyd George, 5 March 1918, quoted in Dangerfield, p. 272.

327 "by the public hangman": Britannia, 30 August 1918, quoted in Bullock and Pankhurst, p. 85n91.
"Some talk about": Britannia, 8 November 1918, quoted in Purvis 1, p. 312.
"I only look in wonder": Sylvia Pankhurst to Adela Pankhurst Walsh, 11 July 1918, quoted in Purvis 1, p. 311.
"a conflict between the two": Toland, p. 317.
"We must be prepared": Milner to Lloyd George, 9 June 1918, quoted in Gollin, p. 565.

[>] "What would this mean?": Sir Henry Wilson Diary, 1 June 1918, quoted in Trevor Wilson, p. 579.


[>] "Any hesitation or": French to King George V, 10 September 1918, quoted in Holmes, p. 343.
"the complete removal": French to King George V, 12 July 1918, quoted in Holmes, p. 343.

[>] "The threat of an American": Rudolf Georg Binding, A Fatalist at War (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1929), p. 220, quoted in Sheffield, p. 219.
"Retreat? Hell, we": Captain Lloyd Williams. Keegan 1, p. 407.

[>] "Our victorious army": Major General Max Hoffmann, Chicago Daily News, 13 March 1919, quoted in Wheeler-Bennett, p. 352.
"eyes glued to telescopes": Churchill 1, p. 802.
"They looked larger": Brittain, p. 420.

[>] "became furious and shouted": Toland, p. 381.

[>] "was the black day": Livesey, p. 166.
Several hundred thousand: The number of these men is commonly cited as a million or more, but Alexander Watson, in Enduring the Great War: Combat, Morale and Collapse in the German and British Armies, 1914–1918 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 207–208, 212, convincingly shows why the actual number is probably far lower.

[>] "nearer to Bolshevism": Porter 3, p. 143.
Millman suggests that: Millman, pp. 4, 170. See Chapter 11 for most of his description of British plans for containing revolution at home.

[>] "really extends from": Milner to Lloyd George, 20 March 1918, quoted in Gollin, p. 563.
"Much talk with Milner": Sir Henry Wilson Diary, 4 November 1918, quoted in Marlowe, p. 318.
"The cemetery has been shelled": Cecil, p. 280.

[>] "They ... lived the span": Kipling 1, vol. 1, introduction.
"Here 2nd Lieutenant Clifford": Kipling 1, vol. 2, chap. 1.

[>] "To every single one of us": Toland, pp. 412–413.
"My senses are charred": Gilbert, p. 476.

338 "save us from the grave danger": Toland, p. 372.

[>] "I shall remain at Spa": Toland, p. 558.
"Treason, gentlemen!": Toland, p. 565.

[>] "Twenty years time": James 1, p. 557.
"It is important that": Haig to Lady Haig, 31 October 1918, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 394.

[>] "I remember sitting on": Brockway, p. 116.
"An airman suddenly swooped": Corder Catchpool, Letters of a Prisoner: For Conscience Sake (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1941), p. 123.
"The crowd was frivolous": Russell 1, p. 35.

[>] "Lady Edward dined": Milner Papers, Bodleian Library, Oxford, dep. 89.
"A world to be remade": Holt, p. 166.
"I never realised how tired": Adam Smith, p. 214.
"There are far more dead": Adam Smith, p. 217.


[>] Most other counts are higher: For a breakdown by country of one such estimate—at least 9.4 million total military deaths—see Spencer C. Tucker, ed., World War I Encyclopedia, vol. 1 (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2005), pp. 272–274.
"Every day one meets": Margaret Cole, ed., Beatrice Webb's Diaries (London: Longmans, Green, 1952), p. 137 (17 November 1918), quoted in Hew Strachan, The First World War (London: Penguin, 2005), p. 337.

[>] "As a mother deprived": Times, 3 January 1919.
civilian war deaths: 12 million: Hanson, p. 284; 13 million: "World War I," in Encyclopedia Britannica (online), accessed 28 March 2010.

[>] 400,000 died: Ferguson 1, p. 301. See also Paice, pp. 392–398, whose various death figures add up to a higher total, although they include civilian deaths other than those of porters.
in the hundreds of thousands: Paice, p. 288.

[>] 50 million: Barry, p. 397; Jeffery K. Taubenberger and David M. Morens, "1918 Influenza: The Mother of All Pandemics," Emerging Infectious Diseases 12:1 (January 2006), p. 15.

[>] "Mrs. Wheeldon was": Derby Daily Express, 26 February 1919.

[>] "it was a misnomer": CAB 23 WC 523.

[>] "A majority of these men": Adam Smith, p. 215.

[>] He also proposed: French to Long, 1 July 1920, quoted in Holmes, p. 352.
"The pore lady": Mrs. Philip Snowden, A Political Pilgrim in Europe (London: Cassell, 1921), p. 263.

[>] "With her I was able": Gonne to Quinn, 21 February 1921, quoted in Nancy Cardozo, Lucky Eyes and a High Heart: The Life of Maud Gonne (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1978), p. 343.

[>] "Everywhere lies the ordinary": Wilfrid Ewart, Scots Guard, quoted in Cecil, pp. 294–295.
"the tragedies of the future": American Diplomacy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), p. 69.

358 "'We will have arms again!'": Quoted in Winter and Baggett, p. 341.
war to end all wars: Several of Wilson's biographers contend that he never actually said the phrase. John Milton Cooper Jr. ascribes it to Lloyd George, J. W. Schulte Nordholt to H. G. Wells.
"a Peace to end Peace": O'Brien, p. 335. The phrase has also been attributed to several other people.
"our conversations were": Russell 1, pp. 141–142.
"for believing in Soviets": Diary, 19 May 1920, quoted in Ronald W. Clark, pp. 378–379.
"more vividly vital": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 2, p. 109.
"the Russian people": E. Sylvia Pankhurst 3, p. 184.

[>] "inflicted by a court": Russia Diary, Despard Papers 7/CFD, Women's Library, London.
Thousands of them vanished: See Hochschild, pp. 153–185, for accounts of some American-born victims.
Willie Wheeldon: My thanks to Julian Hendy for sharing with me Willie Wheeldon's Comintern personnel file, from which some of these details come.


[>] "The difficulty is": Milner to Lloyd George, 28 December 1919, quoted in Gollin, p. 591.

[>] "Here the ladies tend us": Omissi, p. 38.
"attend to our wants": Anjamuddin Khan to Muhammad Suraj-ud-Din Khan, 20 December 1915, Omissi, pp. 126–127.
"Nothing we can do": Morrow, p. 312.
"The participation of West Indian": 22 October 1919, CO 123/296/65767.
"in connection with the preservation": CO 318/350/8426.

[>] "she-edited magazine": Kipling to Crewe, 27 September 1932, Pinney, vol. 6, p. 131.
"I hate your generation": Gilmour, p. 310.

[>] military historians argue: The Holts argue this at length, backed by several other historians.

[>] not allowed to see him: Despard to French, 19 May 1925, French Papers, Imperial War Museum.
"I've only got to send": Cicely Hamilton, as quoted by Harold Frederick Bing, interview, Imperial War Museum #000358/11, p. 46.
"I have to go to Ireland": Linklater, p. 220.

[>] "an act in violation": Time, 18 January 1926.

[>] "to follow up certain information": Times, 6 January 1926.
"the crowds of spectators": Time, 18 January 1926.
"that I was to be": Haig 1, 30 November 1918, p. 489.
"Some enthusiasts to-day": B. H. Liddell Hart, The Tanks: The History of the Royal Tank Regiment and Its Predecessors, Heavy Branch Machine-Gun Corps, Tank Corps and Royal Tank Corps, 1914–1945, vol. 1 (New York: Praeger, 1959), p. 234.
"very lazy on the question": Ian F. W. Beckett, "Haig and French," in Bond and Cave, p. 60.

368 "I found him most pleasant": Haig to J. P. Allison, 27 February 1926, quoted in De Groot 1, p. 405.

[>] "I shall never be able": Purvis 1, p. 350.

[>] "In those irresistible": Anthony Mockler, Haile Selassie's War: The Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935–1941 (New York: Random House, 1984), p. 150.

[>] a number of British military: See, for example, the books in the Bibliography by Bond and Cave, Sheffield, Terraine, and Todman.
"the worst thing the people": Ferguson 1, p. xxi.

[>] only a single memorial: On November 11, 2008, some time after my own travels on the Western Front, a small plaque about the Christmas Truce was dedicated at Frelinghien, France. It is the only other such memorial I know of.

[>] "I knew that it was my business": Russell 1, p. 7.

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