1 Top: an early illustration of the different firing positions used by riflemen. The need to aim their weapons meant it was much harder for the 95th to stand shoulder to shoulder in the firing line, like normal infantry. Centre and below: the Baker rifle was critical to the regiment’s success: it combined accuracy with ease of use and robustness in the field.

2 An illustration from Ezekiel Baker’s 33 Years Practice and Observation with Rifle Guns, showing how the inventor was just as interested in firing techniques as he was in the design of the rifle itself. Not only is the correct alignment of fore and back sights shown, but the rifleman has also tensed the weapon’s sling around his elbow to give a steadier shot.

3 This dramatic depiction shows one of the targets used in the Board of Ordnance trials that selected the Baker rifle.

4 This detail of a map from James Wyld’s Maps and Plans shows the northern Portuguese–Spanish frontier, scene of the Light Division’s celebrated exploits from 1809 to 1812. Although Wyld took the credit for publication, most of his maps were surveyed and drawn by Thomas Mitchell, an officer of the 95th, who joined the regiment early in 1811 as a ‘gentleman volunteer’. The border runs down the centre of the left hand page; parallel with it are the Coa and Agueda rivers, just across it the walled city of Ciudad Rodrigo, and near the top of the right hand page is the city of Salamanca.

5 Top left: Sidney Beckwith the 1st Battalion’s Commanding Officer during the campaigns of 1809–11 whose inspired leadership did so much to establish the regiment’s reputation. Top right: Andrew Barnard initially led the 3rd Battalion of Rifles in Spain, later commanding the 1st, where the self confidence born of family money and an Anglo-Irish pedigree won him Wellington’s respect. Bottom right: Robert Craufurd pictured in the uniform of the 5th Battalion, 60th Foot, some years before 1809 when he became the 1st/95th’s brigadier. Bottom left: Alexander Cameron, painted after the Napoleonic wars and showing signs of the sixteen wounds that effectively invalided him out of the service; he commanded the 1st/95th between Beckwith and Barnard.

6 Top left: Ned Costello painted after leaving the 95th and his service in the Spanish Carlist (civil) War. Right: Jonathan Leach, commander of the 2nd Company for almost all of the Peninsular Wars, who personified the ‘wild sportsman’ officers of the 95th. Bottom left: Harry Smith an instensely ambitious 95th officer who rose to become a successful Victorian general.

7 The Combat of the Coa. French forces moved down from the top (east) of this engraving to the bottom – the legend below the scale indicates that Craufurd’s troops have been drawn on in three stages as the battle developed.

8 Top: Busaco. Units of Ney’s 6th corps d’armée are marked ‘X’; the Light Division, near Sula, is ‘m’; and Pack’s (Portuguese) Brigade ‘k’. Bottom: Foz d’Arouce, the most successful of the Light Division’s combats against Ney’s rearguard leaving Portugal. The initial Light Division march is marked ‘D’ and its attack ‘d’.

9 Sabugal. The Light Division’s attack formations are marked ‘h’, upper right. The 3rd and 5th Division attacks, ‘i’ and ‘k’ respectively, were elements of Wellington’s plan that went into effect far later than planned, leaving the Light Division dangerously exposed.

10 Above: a fine view of Ciudad Rodrigo just after the siege, done in watercolour by Lieutenant Thomas Mitchell of the 95th. Two brother officers stand in the foreground; the right-hand breach in the walls was assaulted by the 3rd Division and the left by the Light Division. Bottom: the Great Breach at Badajoz, painted by Atkinson who, unlike Mitchell, was not present.

11 Mitchell’s view of Fuentes d’Onoro. ‘Q’ shows the Light Division covering the withdrawal of the 7th Division, which took up new positions at ‘R’. Once Wellington had pulled back his right flank, the 1st and Light Divisions occupied positions at ‘T’. It was from there that Guards and 95th skirmishers went into the Turon valley.

12 Vitoria. The Light Division’s attacks are marked ‘D’, Barnard’s Brigade being the lefthand one which found its way around the hairpin bend in the Zadorra river. Wellington’s grand design can be seen with the arrival of the flanking columns, ‘F’ (3rd and 7th Divisions). The main French defensive line, ‘B’, was pushed pack as the British broke their centre at Arinez.

13 Wellington breaches the French Pyrenean defensive line at Nivelle with attacks by the 3rd, 4th, 7th and Light Divisions, marked ‘L’. They fought through their initial objectives to positions marked ‘N’.

14 Top: a later portrayal by Simkin of the 95th fighting in the Pyrenees. Already, a certain mythologising of events shows through, for example with the pristine uniforms. Bottom: the Battle of the Nive, showing Arcangues and Bassussary, scene of several Light Division fights in November and December 1813.

15 Top: Morning at Waterloo by Aylward: Kincaid, Simmons and Barnard were probably all witnesses to this scene as riflemen offered a morning brew to the passing Wellington. Bottom: the fierce fighting in La Haye Sainte involved mostly riflemen of the King’s German Legion but also, just behind the wall pictured here, Leach’s companies of the 1st/95th.

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