Chronology

1918

3 March

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Germany and Bolshevik Russia

11 November

Armistice on Western Front, Germany and Western Powers

1919

18 January

Paris Peace Conference opens

4 March

Founding of Communist International (Comintern), Moscow

28 June

Versailles Treaty signed

12 September

D'Annunzio seizes control of Fiume

1920

19 March

US Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles

14–16 August

Battle of Warsaw — Poles defeat Bolshevik invasion

1921

18 March

Treaty of Riga, Poland-Russia

1922

6 February

Washington Treaty on naval disarmament

16 April

Treaty of Rapallo, Germany-Russia

28 October

Mussolini becomes Prime Minister of Italy — later Duce and dictator

1923

11 January

French occupation of Ruhr begins

31 August

Italy bombards and occupies Corfu

June-November

German hyper-inflation

1924

April

Dawes Plan on reparations

1925

16 October

Locarno Treaties concluded (signed in London, 1 December)

1926

24 April

Treaty of Berlin, Germany-Soviet Union

10 September

Germany enters League of Nations

1928

27 August

Kellogg-Briand Pact to outlaw war

1929

11 February

Lateran Treaty, Italy — The Vatican

August

Young Plan on reparations

29 October

‘Black Tuesday’ — collapse on New York Stock Exchange

1930

14 September

Reichstag elections in Germany — 107 Nazis elected

1931

11 May

Failure of Credit-Anstalt Bank, Austria

18 September

Mukden Incident, Manchuria — beginning of Japanese occupation

21 September

Britain leaves gold standard

1932

2 February

Disarmament Conference opens at Geneva

21 July–20 August

Ottawa Conference on Imperial Preference

1933

30 January

Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany

12 June–27 July

World Economic Conference in London

14 October

Germany leaves League of Nations and Disarmament Conference

1934

26 January

German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact

29 May

Disarmament Conference ends

30 June

Night of the Long Knives, Germany

25 July

Nazi putsch in Austria fails; murder of Dollfuss

2 August

Death of Hindenburg; Hitler later becomes Fuehrer as well as Chancellor

18 September

Soviet Union enters League of Nations

9 October

Assassination of King Alexander of Yugoslavia and Louis Barthou in Marseilles

5–6 December

Wal Wal incident, Ethiopia

1935

7 January

Mussolini-Laval talks in Rome

13 January

Plebiscite in the Saar — vote for reunion with Germany

16 March

Germany introduces conscription

11–14 April

Stresa Conference — Italy, Britain and France

2 May

Franco-Soviet Mutual Assistance Treaty (ratified, February 1936)

16 May

Czechoslovakian-Soviet Mutual Assistance Treaty

18 June

Anglo-German Naval Agreement

3 October

Italian invasion of Ethiopia begins

8 December

Hoare-Laval agreement on Ethiopia; at once leaked to the press

1936

7 March

German troops enter Rhineland demilitarised zone

May

End of war in Ethiopia

17–18 July

Spanish Civil War begins

9 September

First meeting of Non-Intervention Committee on Spanish War

1 November

Rome-Berlin Axis proclaimed

1937

7 July

War breaks out between Japan and China

5 November

Hossbach Conference — Hitler and service chiefs

19 November

Halifax visits Hitler at Berchtesgaden

1938

11–13 March

Anschluss — Germany annexes Austria

24 April

Henlein's Karlsbad demands on Czechoslovakian government

19–22 May

‘May Crisis’ over Germany and Czechoslovakia

3 August

Runciman mission to Czechoslovakia begins

5 September

Beneš announces ‘Fourth Plan’, meeting most of Karlsbad demands

12 September

Hitler's speech at Nuremberg Rally

15 September

First Hitler-Chamberlain meeting, at Berchtesgaden

22–23 September

Second Hitler-Chamberlain meeting, at Godesberg

29–30 September

Munich Conference — Germany, Italy, Britain and France

9–10 November

Kristallnacht in Germany — attacks on Jews and Jewish property

1939

15 March

Prague coup — Germany occupies Bohemia and Moravia; Hungary occupies Ruthenia

23 March

Germany occupies Memel

28 March

End of Spanish Civil War

31 March

British and French guarantees to Poland

7 April

Italy annexes Albania

13 April

British and French guarantees to Greece and Rumania

22 May

Pact of Steel — alliance between Germany and Italy

May-September

Battle of Khalkin-Gol, Japan-Soviet Union (Manchurian border)

23 August

German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

1 September

Germany invades Poland

3 September

Britain and France declare war on Germany

17 September

Soviet Union invades Poland

30 November

Soviet attack on Finland — start of Soviet-Finnish War (Winter War)

1940

12 March

End of Soviet-Finnish War

9 April

German attacks on Denmark and Norway

10 May

German offensive in the West

10 June

Italy declares war on France and Britain

22–24 June

French armistices with Germany and Italy

27 September

Tripartite Pact — Germany, Italy, Japan

23 October

Hitler meets Franco at Hendaye

24 October

Hitler meets Pétain at Montoire — agreement on ‘collaboration’

28 October

Italy attacks Greece

12–13 November

Molotov's visit to Berlin — meetings with Hitler and Ribbentrop

1941

6 April

German attacks on Yugoslavia and Greece

22 June

Operation Barbarossa — German invasion of Soviet Union

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