Hymn to Rā when he riseth.

[From the Papyrus of Ani (Brit. Mus. No. 10,470, sheet, 1).]


Vignette: The scribe Ani standing, with hands raised in adoration, before a table of offerings consisting of haunches of beef, loaves of bread, and cakes, vases of wine and oil, fruits, and flowers. He wears a fringed linen garment and has a wig, necklace, bracelets, &c. Behind him stands his wife Thuthu, a member of the College of Åmen-Rā at Thebes; she is similarly robed and holds a sistrum, a vine branch, and a menāt, or emblem of pleasure, in her hands.1

Text: (1) A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA¯ WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN. Behold Osiris,1 Ani the scribe of the holy offerings of all the gods, (2) who saith:—

“Homage to thee, O thou who hast come as Kheperā, “Kheperā2 the creator of the gods. Thou risest, thou “shinest, (3) thou makest light [in] thy mother [the “goddess Nut3]; thou art crowned king of the gods. “[Thy] mother Nut doeth an act of homage unto thee “with both her hands. (4) The land of Manu4 re-” ceiveth thee with satisfaction, and the goddess Maāt5 “embraceth thee both at morn and at eve. May he “(i.e. Rā) give glory, and power, and triumph, (5) and “a coming forth as a living soul to see imageeru-khuti6“(i.e., Horus of the two horizons) to the double (ka)7 “of Osiris, the scribe Ani, victorious before Osiris, (6) “who saith:—Hail, all ye gods of the Temple of the “Soul,1 who weigh heaven and earth in the balance, “and who provide sepulchral meals2 in abundance. “Hail, Tatunen,3 thou One, (7) thou Creator of man-” kind and Maker of the substance of the gods of the “south and of the north, of the west and of the east. “O come and acclaim ye Rā, the lord of heaven, “(8) the Prince (Life, Health, Strength!), the Creator “of the gods, and adore ye him in his beautiful form “at his rising in the A¯t·et4 boat. (9) They who dwell “in the heights and they who dwell in the depths5 “worship thee. The god Thoth6 and the goddess “Maāt have written down [thy course] for thee daily “and every day. Thine enemy the serpent hath been “given over to (10) the fire, the serpent-fiend Sebāu “hath fallen down headlong; his arms have been “bound in chains, and his legs hath Rā hacked off “from him. The children of (11) impotent revolt shall “never more rise up. The Temple of the Aged One7 “keepeth festival, and the voice of those who rejoice is “in the mighty dwelling. (12) The gods exult when. “they see Rā as he riseth, and when his beams flood “the world with light. The Majesty (13) of the holy “god goeth forth and advanceth even unto the land of “Manu; he maketh brilliant the earth at his birth “each day: he journeyeth on to the place where he “was yesterday. (14) O be thou at peace with me, “and let me behold thy beauties;1 may I journey forth “upon earth, may I smite the Ass;2 may I crush “(15) the serpent-fiend Sebāu;3 may I destroy A¯pep4 “in his hour; may I see the Åbāu5 fish at his season, “and the Ånt5 fish [piloting] (16) the Ånt boat in its “lake. May I see Horus acting as steersman, with “the god Thoth and the goddess Maāt, one on each “side of him; may I grasp the bows of the (17) Sekāel “boat,6 and the stern of the A¯t·et boat. May he (i.e., “Rā) grant unto the double (ka) of Osiris Ani to behold “the disk of the Sun and to see the Moon-god without “ceasing, each and every day; and (18) may my soul “come forth and walk hither and thither (19) and “whithersoever it pleaseth. (20) May my name be “proclaimed (21), and may it be found upon the board “(22) of the table of offerings; may offerings (23) be “made unto me in my presence, even as [they are made “unto] the followers (24) of Horus; may there be made “ready for me (25) a seat in the boat of the Sun on the “day when (26) the god goeth forth; and may I be “received (27) into the presence of Osiris in the land of “victory.”


Hymn to Rā when he riseth.

[From the Papyrus of Qenna (see Leemans, Papyrus Égyptiens,
T. 2, Plate 2).]

Vignette: Qenna and his wife standing with hands raised in

Text: (1) A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA¯ WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN. Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, (2) who saith:—

“Homage to thee, O Rā, when thou risest [and to “thee], O Temu,1 in thy risings of beauty. Thou risest, “thou risest, thou shinest, (3) thou shinest, at dawn of “day. Thou art crowned king of the gods, and the “goddesses Maāti2 perform an act of homage unto “thee. The company (4) of the gods praise thee from “the places of sunrise and sunset. Thou passest over “the height of heaven and thy heart is filled with “gladness. The Sektet boat draweth on, and [Rā] “advanceth (5) in the A¯t·et boat wāth fair winds. Rā “rejoiceth, Rā rejoiceth. Thy father is Nu, thy “mother is Nut, O (6) thou who art crowned as “Rā-imageeru-khuti1 (Rā-Harmachis), thy divine boat “advanceth in peace. [Thine enemy] hath been given “over [to the flame, and he] hath fallen; his head hath “been cut off. (7) The heart of the Lady of Life “(i.e., Isis) is glad [because] the foe2 of her lord hath “fallen headlong. The mariners of Rā have content of “heart and Annu (Heliopolis) exulteth.” (8)

The merchant Qenna, victorious, saith:—

“I have come to thee, O Lord of the gods, Temu-” imageeru-khuti3 (Temu-Harmachis) whom Maāt directeth “(9).….… I know that whereby thou dost live.4 “Grant thou that I may be like unto one of those who “are thy favoured ones (10) [among] the followers of “the Great God; may my name be proclaimed, may it “be found, may it be set (11) with their [names?]. “The oar[s] have been taken into the Sektet boat, and “the boat of the Sun advanceth in peace. (12) May I “see Rā when he appeareth in the sky at dawn and “when his Enemy hath fallen at the block. (13) May “I see Horus working the rudder on each side and “bringing along the boat. May I see the Åbāu fish at “[its] time of (14) coming into being (?); may I see “the Ånt fish as it becometh the pilot of the Ånt boat “in its waters. O thou only One, O thou Perfect One, “O thou (15) who dost endure, who sufferest never an “evil moment, who canst not be smitten down by him “that doeth deeds of might, none other shall have “power and might over the things which belong to “thee. (16) None shall obtain by fraud possession of “the things which belong to the divine Father, who “hath need of abundance, the tongue (?) of veneration, “(17) the lord of Åbāu (Abydos).”

The merchant Qenna, victorious, saith: “Homage “to thee, O imageeru-khuti-Temu imageeru (18) Kheperā,1 “thou mighty hawk, who makest glad the body [of “man], thou beautiful of face by reason of thy two “great plumes! Awake, (19) O lord of beauty, at “dawn when the company of the gods and mortals say “unto thee, ‘Hail!’ They (20) sing hymns of praise “unto thee at eventide, and the starry deities also “adore thee. O thou firstborn, who dost lie motionless “(21), thy mother sheweth loving-kindness unto thee “daily. Rā liveth, and the serpent-fiend Nāk2 is dead; “thou art in good case, for thine enemy (22) hath fallen “headlong. Thou sailest over heaven with life and “strength. The goddess Neāebka1 is in the A¯t·et boat, “and thy boat rejoiceth; (23) thy heart is glad, and “the two uraei goddesses rise upon thy brow.”


Hymn to Rā when he riseth.

[From the Papyrus of Qenna (see Leemans, Papyrus Égyptiens,
T. 2, Plate 4).]

Vignette: Qenna and his wife standing with hands raised in

Text: (1) A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA¯ WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN. Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, victorious,2 (2) who saith:—

“Homage to thee, O thou who risest in Nu, and “who at thy manifestation dost make the world bright “with light; the whole company of gods sing hymns “of praise unto thee after thou hast come forth. “(3) The divine Merti3 who minister unto thee “cherish thee as King of the North and South, thou “beautiful and beloved Man-child. When thou risest, “men and women live. (4) The nations rejoice in “thee, and the Souls of Ånnu (Heliopolis) sing unto “thee songs of joy. (5) The souls of the cities of “Pe1 and Nekhen2exalt thee, the apes of dawn adore “thee, and (6) all beasts and cattle praise thee with “one accord. The goddess Sebå overthroweth thine “enemies, therefore rejoice thou within (7) thy boat; “thy mariners are content thereat. Thou hast attained “unto the A¯t·et boat, and thy heart swelleth with joy. “O lord of the gods, when thou didst create (8) them “they ascribed unto thee praises. The azure goddess “Nut doth compass thee on every side, and the god “Nu3 (9) floodeth thee with his rays of light. O cast “thou thy light upon me and let me see thy beauties, “me the Osiris (10) Qenna the merchant, victorious, “and when thou goest forth over the earth I will sing “praises unto thy fair face. Thou risest in heaven’s “horizon, (11) and [thy] disk is adored [when] it “resteth upon the mountain to give life unto the “world.”

Saith Qenna the merchant, victorious: (12) “thou “risest, thou risest, and thou comest forth from the “god Nu. Thou dost renew thy youth and thou dost “set thyself in the place where thou wast yesterday. “O divine youth who hast created thyself, (13) I am “not able [to describe] thee. Thou hast come with “thy diadems,1 and thou hast made heaven and earth “bright with thy rays of pure emerald light. (14) The “land of Punt2 is stablished [to give] the perfumes “which thou smellest with thy nostrils. Thou risest, “O marvellous Being,3 (15) in heaven, the two serpent-” goddesses Merti are stablished upon thy brow, and “thou art the giver of laws, O lord of the world and of “the inhabitants thereof; (16) all the gods and Qenna “the merchant, victorious, adore thee.”


Hymn to Rā when he riseth.

[From the Papyrus of Hu-nefer (Brit. Mus. No. 9901, sheet 1).]

Text: (1) A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA¯ WHEN HE RISETH IN THE (2) EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN. Behold Osiris, Hu-nefer, (3) victorious, who saith:—

“Homage to thee, O thou who art Rā when thou “risest (4) and Temu when thou settest. Thou risest, “thou risest, thou shinest, thou shinest, (5) thou who “art crowned king of the gods. Thou art the lord of “heaven, [thou art] the lord of earth; [thou art] the “creator of those who dwell (6) in the heights and of “those who dwell in the depths.1 [thou art] the God “One who came into being (7) in the beginning of “time. Thou didst create the earth, thou didst fashion “man, (8) thou didst make the watery abyss of the “sky, thou didst form imageāpi,2 thou didst create the “watery abyss, (9) and thou dost give life unto all that “therein is. Thou hast knit together the mountains, “thou hast made (10) mankind and the beasts of the “field to come into being, thou hast made the heavens “and the earth. Worshipped be thou whom the “goddess Maāt embraceth at morn and at eve. Thou “dost travel across the sky with heart swelling with “joy; the Lake of Testes3 (11) becometh contented “thereat. The serpent-fiend Nāk hath fallen and his “two arms are cut off. TheSektet boat receiveth fair “winds, and the heart of him that is in the shrine “thereof rejoiceth. Thou art crowned (12) Prince of “heaven, thou art the One dowered [with all sove-” reignty] who comest forth from the sky. Rā is “victorious! O thou divine youth, thou heir of “everlastingness, thou self-begotten one, O thou who “didst give thyself birth! O One (13), mighty [one], “of myriad forms and aspects, king of the world, “Prince of Ånnu (Heliopolis), lord of eternity and “ruler of everlastingness,1 the company of the gods “rejoice when thou risest and when thou sailest “(14) across the sky, O thou who art exalted in the “Seket boat.”

“Homage to thee, O Åmen-Rā, who dost rest upon “Maāt,2 and who passest over the heaven, every face “seeth thee. Thou dost wax great (15) as thy Majesty “doth advance, and thy rays are upon all faces. Thou “art unknown and no tongue is worthy (?) to declare “thy likeness; only thou thyself [canst do this]. Thou “art One, even as is he (16) that bringeth the imageena “basket. Men praise thee in thy name [Rā], and they “swear by thee, for thou art lord over them. Thou “hearest with thine ears and thou seest with thine “eyes. (17) Millions of years have gone over the “world; I cannot tell the number of those through “which thou hast passed. Thy heart hath decreed a “day of happiness in thy name of ‘Traveller.’ thou “dost pass over (18) and dost travel through untold “spaces [requiring] millions and hundreds of thousands “of years [to pass over]; thou passest through them in “peace, and thou steerest thy way across the watery “abyss to the place which thou lovest; this thou doest “in one (19) little moment of time, and then thou dost “sink down and dost make an end of the hours.”

Behold Osiris, the governor of the palace of the lord of the two lands,1 Hu-nefer, victorious, saith: (20) “Hail, my lord, thou who passest through eternity, “whose being is everlasting. Hail, thou Disk, lord of “beams of light, thou risest and thou makest all mankind” to live. Grant thou that I may behold thee at “dawn each day.”


Hymn to Rā when he riseth.

[From the Papyrus of Nekht (Brit. Mus. No. 10,471, sheet 21).]

Text: A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA¯ by Nekht, the royal scribe, the captāin of soldiers, who saith:—

“Homage to thee, O thou glorious Being, thou who “art dowered [with all sovereignty]. O Tem imageeru-khuti “(Tem-Harmachis), when thou risest in the horizon of “heaven, a cry of joy cometh forth to thee from the “mouth of all peoples. O thou beautiful Being, thou “dost renew thyself in thy season in the form of the “Disk within thy mother Hathor;2 therefore in every “place every heart swelleth with joy at thy rising, for “ever. The regions of the North and South come to “thee with homage, and send forth acclamations at thy “rising in the horizon of heaven; thou illuminest the “two lands with rays of turquoise light. O Rā, thou “who art imageeru-khuti (Harmachis), the divine man-” child, the heir of eternity, self-begotten and self-born, “king of earth, prince of the imageuat,1 governor of the “regions of Åuāert;2 thou comest forth from the “water, thou hast sprung from the god Nu, who “cherisheth thee and ordereth thy members. O thou “god of life, thou lord of love, all men live when thou “shinest; thou art crowned king of the gods. The “goddess Nut doeth homage unto thee, and the goddess “Maāt embraceth thee at all times. Those who are in “thy following sing unto thee with joy and bow down “their foreheads to the earth when they meet thee, “thou lord of heaven, thou lord of earth, thou king of “Right and Truth, thou lord of eternity, thou prince “of everlastingness, thou sovereign of all the gods, “thou god of life, thou creator of eternity, thou maker “of heaven wherein thou art firmly established! The “company of the gods rejoice at thy rising, the earth is “glad when it beholdeth thy rays; the peoples that “have been long dead come forth with cries of joy to “see thy beauties every day. Thou goest forth each “day over heaven and earth and art made strong each “day by thy mother Nut. Thou passest through the “heights of heaven, thy heart swelleth with joy; and “the Lake of Testes1 is content thereat. The Serpent-” fiend hath fallen, his arms are hewn off, the knife “hath cut asunder his joints. Rā liveth by Maāt2 the “beautiful. The Sektet boat draweth on and cometh “into port; the South and the North, the West and “the East turn to praise thee, O thou primeval “substance of the earth who didst come into being of “thine own accord. Isis3 and Nephthys4 salute thee, “they sing unto thee songs of joy at thy rising in the “boat, they protect thee with their hands. The souls “of the East follow thee, the souls of the West praise “thee. Thou art the ruler of all the gods and thou “hast joy of heart within thy shrine; for the serpent-” fiend Nāk hath been condemned to the fire, and thy “heart shall be joyful for ever. Thy mother Nut is “adjudged to thy father Nu.”


Hymn to Osiris Un-nefer.

[From the Papyrus of Ani (Brit. Mus. No. 10,470, sheet 2).]


Vignette: The scribe Ani standing, with both hands raised in adoration, before a table of offerings consisting of haunches of beef, loaves of bread and cakes, vases of wine and oil, fruits and flowers, &c. He wears a double linen garment and a wig, bracelets, &c. Behind him stands his wife Thuthu, a member of the College of Åmen-Rā at Thebes; she is similarly robed and holds a sistrum, a vine branch, and a menāt in her hands.

Text: (1) “Glory be to Osiris Un-nefer, the great “god within Åbāu (Abydos), king of eternity, lord of “everlastingness, who passeth through millions of years “in his existence. Eldest son of the (2) womb of Nut, “engendered by Seb1 the Erpāt,2 lord of the crowns of “the North and South, lord of the lofty white crown: “as prince of gods and of men (3) he hath received the “crook, and the whip, and the dignity of his divine “fathers. Let thy heart, which is in the Mountain of “Åment,1 be content, for thy son Horus is established “upon thy throne. (4) Thou art crowned lord of “imageaimageimageu2 and ruler in Abāu (Abydos). Through thee “the world waxeth green in (5) triumph before the might “of Neb-er-tcher.3 He leadeth in his train that which “is, and that which is not yet, in his name of ‘Ta-imageer-” (6) sta-nef’;4 he toweth along the earth by Maāt in “his name of ‘Seker’;5 he is exceedingly mighty (7) “and most terrible in his name ‘Osiris’;6 he endureth “for ever and for ever7 in his name of ‘Un-nefer.’”

(8) “Homage to thee, King of kings, Lord of lords, “Prince of princes, who from the womb of Nut hast “ruled (9) the world and Aāert.8 Thy body is of “bright and shining metal, thy head is of azure blue, “and the brilliance of the turquoise encircleth thee. “O god An1 of millions of years, (10) all-pervading with “thy body and beautiful in countenance in Ta-tchesert,2 “grant thou to the Ka (i.e., double) of Osiris, the scribe “Ani, splendour in heaven, and might upon earth, and “triumph in the underworld; and grant that I may “sail down (11) to imageat·t·u like a (12) living soul and up “to (13) Åbāu (Abydos) like a Bennu3 bird; and that “I may go in and come out (14) without repulse at the “pylons4 (15) of the lords of the underworld. May “there be given unto me (16) loaves of bread in the “house of coolness, and (17) offerings of food in Annu “(Heliopolis), and a homestead (18) for ever in “Sekhet-Åru5 with wheat and barley therefor.”




THE Judgment Scene, of which a description is here given, forms a very important section of the Book of the Dead as contained in papyri of the XVIIIth, XIXth, and following Dynasties. It follows the two or more hymns with which a large papyrus opens, and seems to occupy a suitable place, and to form a fitting introduction to the selections of the chapters of Coming Forth by Day which follow it. These chapters refer to and deal with the events which took place in the life of the deceased, who has succeeded in entering the realm of Osiris, the god of the dead, but they, of necessity, were absolutely useless to any one who had not passed the judgment and been permitted by this god to enter his dominions. Those who were condemned in the judgment were devoured straightway by the Eater of the Dead, and ceased to exist. The Judgment Scene, as given in the large papyri, seems to have been developed from the vignette which illustrates one of the Chapters of the Heart (XXXB.), in which special reference is made to the weighing of the heart, or from one which, properly speaking, belonged to the CXXVth Chapter. Where and when the judgment took place is unknown, but the original idea seems to have been that the broad heavens, or a certain portion of them, formed the Judgment Hall, and that the judgment took place in the presence of the three Companies of the gods; as the head of the funereal Company Osiris occupied a very prominent position, and he eventually became the sole judge of the dead. The judgment of each individual seems to have taken place soon after death, and annihilation or everlasting life and bliss to have been decreed at once for the souls of the dead; there are no sufficient grounds for assuming that the Egyptians believed either in a general resurrection, or in protracted punishment. How far they thought that the prayers of the living for the dead were efficacious in arresting or modifying the decree of doom cannot be said, but very considerable importance was attached by them to funeral prayers and ceremonies in all ages, and there is no doubt that they were the outcome of the firm belief that they would result in the salvation and well-being of the souls of the dead.

The Scene of the Weighing of the
Heart of the Dead.

[From the Papyrus of Ani (Brit. Mus. No. 10,470, plates 3 and 4).]

Vignette: The scribe Ani and his wife Thuthu enter the Hall of Double Maāt, wherein the heart, symbolic of the conscience, is to be weighed in the balance against the feather, emblematical of Right and Truth. In the upper register are the gods who sit in judgment, whose names are “Harmachis, the great god in his boat, Temu, Shu, Tefnut the lady of heaven, Seb, Nut the lady of heaven, Isis, Nephthys, Horus the great god, Hathor the lady of Amenta, imageu and Sa.” On the standard of the scales sits the dog-headed ape, the companion of Thoth, the scribe of the gods; and the god Anubis, jackal-headed, tests the tongue of the balance. On the left of the balance, facing Anubis are:—(1) Ani’s “Luck”; (2) the Meskhen or “cubit with human head,” thought by some to be cānnected with the place of birth; (3) the goddesses Meskhenet and Renenet who presided over the birth, birth-place, and early education of children; and (4) the soul of Ani in the form of a human-headed bird standing on a pylon. On the right of the balance, behind Anubis, stands Thoth, the scribe of the gods, who holds in his hands his reed-pen and palette with which to record the result of the trial. Behind Thoth stands the monster called either A¯mām, the “Devourer,” or A¯m-mit, the “Eater of the Dead.”

Text: Osiris, the scribe Ani, saith:—

“My1 heart my mother, my heart my mother, my “heart my coming into being. May there be nothing “to resist me at [my] judgment; may there be no “opposition to me from the Tchatcha;2 may there be “no parting of thee from me in the presence of him “that keepeth the scales. Thou art my Ka (i.e., double) “within my body [which] knitteth together and “strengtheneth my limbs. Mayest thou come forth “to the place of happiness to which I am advancing. “May the Shenit3 not cause my name to stink, “and may no lies be spoken against me in the “presence of the god. Good, good is it for thee to “hear”…….

Thoth, the judge of Right and Truth of the great company of the gods who are in the presence of Osiris, saith:—“Hear ye this judgment. The heart of “Osiris hath in very truth been weighed, and his soul “hath stood as a witness for him; it hath been found “true by trial in the Great Balance. There hath not “been found any wickedness in him; he hath not “wasted the offerings in the temples; he hath not “done harm by his deeds; and he hath uttered no evil “reports while he was upon earth.”

The great company of the gods reply to Thoth who dwelleth in Khemennu (Hermopolis):—“That which “cometh forth from thy mouth shall be declared true. “Osiris, the scribe Ani victorious, is holy and righteous. “He hath not sinned, neither hath he done evil against “us. It shall not be allowed to the devourer Amemet “to prevail over him. Meat-offerings and entrance “into the presence of the god Osiris shall be granted “unto him, together with a homestead for ever in “Sekhet-imageetepu,1 as unto the followers of Horus.”

Vignette: The scribe Ani is led by Horus, the son of Isis, into the presence of Osiris who is enthroned within a shrine in the form of a funeral chest. Osiris has upon his head the Atef crown, and he holds in his hands the crook, the sceptre and the whip, emblematic of authority, dominion, and sovereignty; from his neck hangs the menāt. His title here is “Osiris, the lord of everlastingness.” Behind him stand Nephthys, his sister, on his right hand and Isis, his sister and wife, on his left. Before him, standing on a lotus flower, are the gods of the cardinal points or, as they are sometimes called, “the Children of Horus” and “Children of Osiris.” The first, Mesthå, has the head of a man; the second, imageāpi, the head of an ape; the third, imageuamāutef, the head of a jackal; and the fourth, Qebāsennuf, the head of a hawk. Near the lotus hangs the skin of an animal. The side of the throne of Osiris is painted to resemble that of a funeral chest. The roof of the shrine is supported on pillars with lotus capitals, and is surmounted by a figure of Horus-Sept or Horus-Seker, and by rows of uraei. The pedestal on which the shrine rests is in the form of the hieroglyphic which is emblematic of Maāt or “Right and Truth.” Before the shrine is a table of offerings by which, on a reed mat, kneels Ani with his right hand raised in adoration; in the left hand he holds the Kherp sceptre. He wears on his head a whitened wig and the so-called “cone,” the signification of which is unknown.

Text: (1) Saith Horus the son of Isis: “I have “come to thee, O Un-nefer, and I have brought unto “thee the Osiris Ani. His heart is [found] righteous, “(2) and it hath come forth from the balance; it hath “not sinned against any god or any goddess. Thoth “hath weighed it according to the decree pronounced “(3) unto him by the company of the gods; and it is “most true and righteous. Grant that cakes and ale “may be given unto him, and let him appear in the “presence of the god Osiris; (4) and let him be like “unto the followers of Horus for ever and for ever.”

(1) And Osiris Ani (2) saith: “Behold, I am in thy “presence, O lord of (3) Åmentet. There is no sin in “my (4) body. I have not spoken that which is not “true (5) knowingly, nor have I done aught with a “false heart. Grant thou that I may be like unto “those favoured ones who are in thy following, (6) and “that I may be an Osiris greatly favoured of the “beautiful god, and beloved of the lord of the world. “[I] who am, indeed, a royal scribe who loveth thee, “Ani, victorious before the god Osiris.”

The details of the Judgment Scene vary considerably in the papyri of different periods, and it seems as if every scribe or artist felt himself free to follow out his own ideas of its treatment. First, as regards the Great Balance. The beam is always exactly horizontal, a fact which proves that the Egyptian was only asked to make his heart or conscience to just counterbalance, and not outweigh the feather of Maāt. The pillar of the Balance is at times (see pp. 23 and 32) surmounted by the ape of Thoth, at others by the head of Maāt (see p. 31), at others by the head of Anubis (see p. 31), and at others by the head of Thoth himself. The feather of Maāt, image, which is in one pan of the scales, is often exchanged for the figure of the goddess herself image (see p. 32). The actúal weighing of the heart is performed sometimes by Anubis (see pp. 31, 32), and sometimes by Maāt (see p. 31); usually the deceased enters the Hall of Judgment alone or accompanied by his wife, but sometimes he is led in by Anubis, and sometimes by a dog-headed god who carries a knife in his left hand. The Eater of the Dead sometimes sits, and sometimes stands by the side of the pillar of the Balance; in the Papyrus of Hu-nefer (see p. 31) a description of her appears above her head, thus:— “A¯m-mit, her forepart [is that of] crocodiles, her hind-” part [is that of a] hippopotamus, and her middle [is “that of a] lion.” In details the Judgment Scene as given in the Papyrus of Ani is very full (see p. 23), and very few papyri contain the “Luck” and the nursing goddesses Meskhenet and Renenet in human form. The arrangement of one part of the Scene in the Papyrus of Anhai (see p. 32) is most unusual. In the upper register we have the Great and Little Companies of the gods arranged facing each other; the former contains five gods and the latter six. Now a paut, or Company of gods, rarely contained less than nine gods, though often more. Each Company is seated before a meagre table of offerings. Below these gods are two human-headed objects which are called respectively Shai and Renenet; each has the head of a woman, but one, Shai, should have had that of a man, and a beard. It is noteworthy that the Eater of the Dead is not seated by Anubis, and that the god Anubis grasps one of the cords by which the pan of the Balance that contains the heart is suspended, as if to steady the beam. The text above the head of Anubis is unusual (see also the Scene from the Papyrus of Ani, p. 23), and contains an exhortation addressed to the ape of Thoth seated on the top of the pillar, that this god will give his careful attention to the correct weighing of the heart of the deceased in the Balance. The text above the Eater of the Dead is a prayer by the deceased, who entreats the god, saying, “Set my heart upon the throne of right in the presence of the Great God.” The result of the weighing of the heart is always noted by Thoth, who records it upon his palette. The deceased is sometimes led into the presence of Osiris by Horus, the son of Isis, and sometimes by Anubis. In papyri wherein the the vignettes are not very elaborate, Osiris stands or sits in his shrine alone, but in fully illustrated papyri he is accompanied by Isis and Nephthys, and by the four children of Horus, who stand on a lotus flower (see pp. 27, 35). The stem of this flower springs from ouimage of the waters of a lake, whereon the throne of Osiris is placed (see the following illustration from the Papyrus of Hu-nefer); this lake was fed by the celestial Nile, or by one of its branches, and was the source whence the beatified, as well as the gods, drank. This scene is of considerable interest from the point of view of comparative mythology, for many Semitic writers held the opinion that the throne of the deity was placed, or rested upon, a stream of water, or a river. Even in the Book of Revelation we have a reference to a “pure river of water, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God” (see chapter xxii. 1).

The Weighing of the Heart. (From the Papyrus of Hu-nefer.)

The Weighing of the Heart. (From the Papyrus of Qenna.)


The god Osiris seated in his shrine in the Hall of Judgment.
(From the Papyrus of Hu-nefer.)



[From the Papyrus of Ani (Brit. Mus. No. 10,470, sheets 5 and 6).]

Vignette: The funeral procession to the tomb, and the ceremony thereat, are here depicted. The mummy of the deceased, lying in a funeral chest placed in a boat, is being drawn along by oxen: figures of the goddesses Nephthys and Isis stand at the head and foot respectively. By the side kneels the wife of the deceased. In front of the boat stands the Sem priest, dressed in a panther’s skin, burning incense and sprinkling water, and behind follow eight male mourners; in the rear are servants drawing a small funeral chest surmounted by a figure of Anubis, and carrying vases of unguents along with the couch, staff, chair, palette, &c., of the deceased. Preceding the oxen drawing the funeral boat are men carrying on yokes boxes of flowers, vases of unguents, &c., and a group of wailing women with uncovered heads and breasts, who smite their heads and faces in token of grief. Close by stand a cow and her calf, intended to be slaughtered for the funeral feast, and tables loaded with offerings of herbs, fruits, &c. At the door of the tomb stands the god of the dead, Anubis, clasping the mummy of the deceased, before which kneels the weeping wife. At a table of funeral offerings stand two priests. One, the Sem priest, Wears a panther’s skin and holds in his hand a libation vase and censer; the other holds in his right hand the instrument UR imageEKA1 in the form of a ram-headed serpent, the head of which is surmounted by an uraeus, and in his left hand an instrument in the shape of an adze image. With the former he is about to touch the mouth and eyes of the mummy, and with the latter the mouth. On the ground, by their side, lie the instruments which are to be employed in the ceremony of opening the mouth, i.e., the ceremony which will give the deceased the power to eat, and to drink, and to talk in the next world, namely the Meskhet image, the group of instruments in the form of adzes image, the Pesh-en-kef image, the libation vases, the boxes of purification, the bandlet, the feather, &c. Behind them stands the “Reader,” who recites the funeral service from a papyrus roll, and to the rear is a ministrant who holds the haunch of beef which is to be used in the ceremony at the door of the tomb.

In the upper register we see the tomb in the Theban hills, with a sepulchral stele inscribed with prayers by the deceased. Anubis supports the mummy, before which kneel Hu-nefer’s wife, and, probably, his daughter. Two priests performing ceremonies connected with “opening the mouth,” and the “Reader” burning incense and sprinkling water. In the lower register are the instruments used in the ceremonies, priests, and animals for sacrifice.


Saith Osiris Ani, (4) Osiris the scribe Ani:—

“Homage to thee, O Bull of Åmentet,2 the god “Thoth, (5) the king of eternity, is with me. I am “the Great God near the divine boat, I have fought “(6) for thee. I am one of the gods, those divine “chiefs, who make (7) Osiris to be victorious over his “enemies on the day of the weighing of words. (8) I “am thy mediator (?), O Osiris. I am [one] of the “gods (9) born of the goddess Nut, who slay the foes “of Osiris and who hold in bondage (10) for him the “fiend Sebāu. I am thy mediator (?), O Horus. (11) I “have fought for thee, and I have put to flight the “enemy for thy name’s sake. I am Thoth, who made “Osiris to be victorious3 (12) over his enemies on the “day of the weighing of words4 (13) in the great House ‘of the Aged One (i.e., Rā) who dwelleth in Ånnu “(Heliopolis). I am imageet·t·et·i, the son of imageet·t·et·i; (14) I “was begotten in imageat·t·u, I was born in (15) imageat·t·u.1 I “am with those who weep and with the women who “bewail (16) Osiris in the two lands of the Rekht,2 and “I make Osiris to be victorious over his enemies. “(17) Rā commanded Thoth to make Osiris victorious “over his enemies; and that which was decreed [for “Osiris] (18) Thoth did for me. I am with Horus on “the day of the clothing of (19) Teshtesh3 and of the “opening of the wells of water for the purification of “the divine being whose heart moveth not,4 (20) and “of the drawing the bolt of the door of the concealed “things in Re-stau.5 I am with Horus who [acteth] “(21) as the guardian of the left shoulder of Osiris in “Sekhem (Letopolis),6 (22) and I go in and I come forth “from among the divine flames on the day of the “destruction of the (23) Sebāu fiends in Sekhem. I “am with Horus on the days (24) of the festivals of “Osiris, and of the making of offerings on the Sixth “day festival,7 and on the Tenāt festival8 [which is “celebrated] in (25) Ånnu.

“I am the āb1 priest who poureth out libations in “imageat·t·u [for] Rere (?) the dweller in the Temple of “Osiris,2 [on the day of] (26) casting up the earth. I “see the things which are concealed in Re-stau, (27) I “read from the book of the festival of the divine Ram3“[which is] in imageat·t·u. I am the Sem4 priest (28) [and “I perform] his course. I [perform the duties of] the “Great Chief of the Work5 on the day of placing the “imageennu6 boat (29) of the god Seker7 upon its sledge. “I have grasped the spade (30) on the day of digging “the ground in Suten-h·enen (Heracleopolis Magna).”

“O ye who make perfected souls (31) to enter into “the Temple of Osiris, may ye cause the perfected soul “of Osiris, the (32) scribe Ani, to be victorious with “you in the Temple of Osiris. May he hear as ye “hear; may he see (33) as ye see; may he stand as ye “stand; may he sit as ye (34) sit [therein].”

“O ye who give cakes and ale to perfected souls in “the Temple (35) of Osiris, give ye cakes and ale at “the two seasons (i.e., at morn and at eve, or sunrise “and sunset) to the soul of Osiris Ani, who is “(36) victorious before all the gods of Åbāu (Abydos), “and who is victorious with you.”

“O ye who open the way (37) and lay open the paths “to perfected souls in the Temple (38) of Osiris, open “ye the way and lay open the paths (39) to the soul of “Osiris, the scribe and steward of all the divine “offerings, Ani [who is victorious] (40) with you. “May he enter in confidence, and may he come forth in “peace from the Temple of Osiris. May he not (41) be “rejected, may he not be turned back, may he enter “in [as he] pleaseth, may he come forth [as he] “(42) desireth, and may he be victorious. May the “things which he commandeth be performed in the “Temple of Osiris; may he walk (43) and may he talk “with you, and may he become a glorious being along “with you. He hath not been found to rise up “(44) there,1 and the Balance [having weighed him] is “now empty.”

In the Turin papyrus this Chapter ends with the following lines, for which no equivalent occurs in the earlier texts:—(16) “Let not the decree of judgment “passed upon me be placed,” or, according to another “reading, “made known in the mouths of the multitude. “May my soul lift itself up before (17) [Osiris], having “been found to have been pure when on earth. May I “come before thee, O lord of the gods; may I arrive at “the nome of Double Right and Truth; may I be “crowned1 like a god endowed with life; may I give “forth light like the company of the gods who dwell in “heaven; may I become (18) like one of you, lifting “up [my] feet in the city of Kher-āh·aut;2 may I see “the Sekt·et boat of the sacred Saāu3 passing forth “over the sky; may I not be driven away from the “sight of the lords of the imageuat“4 (19) or, according to another reading, “the company of the gods; may I “smell the sweet savour of the food of the company of “the gods, and may I sit down with them. May the “Kher-h·eb (i.e., the Reader)5 make invocation at [my] “coffin, and may I hear the prayers which are recited “[when] the offerings [are made]. May I draw nigh “(20) unto the Neshem6 boat and may neither my “soul nor its lord be turned back.”

“Homage to thee, O thou who art at the head of “Åmentet, thou Osiris who dwellest in the city of “Nifu-ur.7 Grant thou that I may arrive in peace in “Åmentet and that the lords of Ta-tchesertet8 may “receive me and may (21) say unto me, ‘Hail! Hail, “[thou that comest] in peace!’ May they prepare for “me a place by the side of the Chief in the presence of “divine chiefs; may Isis and Nephthys, the two divine “nursing goddesses, receive me at the seasons, and “may I come forth (22) into the presence of Un-nefer “(i.e., Osiris) in triumph. May I follow after Horus “through Re statet, and after Osiris in imageat·t·u; and “may I perform all the transformations according to “my heart’s desire in every place wheresoever my ka “(double) pleaseth so to do.”

RUBRIC: If this text be known [by the deceased] upon earth, (23) or if he causeth it to be done in writing upon [his] coffin, then will he be able to come forth on any day that he pleaseth, and to enter into his habitation without being driven back. The cakes, and ale, and haunches of meat (24) which are upon the altar of Rā shall be given unto him, and his homestead shall be among the fields in the Sekhet-Åanru, and to him shall be given wheat and barley therein, for he shall be vigorous there even as he was upon earth.



[From the Papyrus of Nekhtu-Åmen (Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I. Bl. 5).]


Vignette: The god Anubis, jackal-headed, standing by the
side of the bier on which lies the mummy.


“Homage to thee, O thou that dwellest in Set-” Tchesert2 of Åmentet: (3) Osiris, the royal scribe “Nekhtu-Åmen, victorious, knoweth thee, (4) and he “knoweth thy name. Deliver thou him from the “worms (5) which are in Re-stau, which live upon the “bodies of men and women and (6) which feed upon “their blood, for Osiris, the favoured one of the god of “his city, (7) the royal scribe, Nekhtu-Åmen, victori-” ous, knoweth you, and he knoweth your names. “[Let this be] the first bidding of Osiris Neb-er-tcher1 “(8) who keepeth hidden his body. May he give air “[and escape] from the Terrible One who dwelleth in “the Bight2 of the Stream of Åmentet, and may he “decree (9) the actions of him that is rising up. Let “him pass on unto him whose throne is within the “darkness, who giveth glory in Re-stau. (10) O lord “of light, come thou and swallow up the worms “which are in Åmentet. The great god who dwelleth “imageat·t·u, (11) and who is unseen, heareth his prayers, “but those who are in affliction fear him as he cometh “forth (12) with the sentence to the divine block. I “Osiris, the royal scribe, Nekhtu-Åmen, have come “bearing the decree of (13) Neb-er-tcher, and Horus “hath taken possession of his throne for him. His “father, the lord of those who are (14) in the boat of “father Horus, hath ascribed praise unto him. He “cometh with tidings… and may he see (15) Ånnu “(Heliopolis). Their chief standeth upon the earth “before him, and the scribes magnify him at the door “of their assemblies, (16) and they bind his swathings “in Ånnu. He hath led captive heaven, and he hath “seized the earth in [his] grasp. Neither the heavens “nor the earth (17) can be taken away from him, for “behold, he is Rā, the first-born of the gods. His “mother suckleth him and she giveth [to him] her “breast (18) in the horizon.”

RUBRIC: The words of this chapter are to be recited after [the deceased] is laid to rest in Åmentet, whereby the region Tanenet is made to be content with her lord. Then shall Osiris, the royal scribe, Nekhtu-Åmen, triumphant, come forth, (19) and he shall embark in the boat of Rā, and [his] body upon its bier shall be counted [with those therein], and he shall be stablished in the imageuat (underworld).



[From the Papyrus of Ani (Brit. Mus. No. 10,470, sheet 18).]

Vignette: A man, standing upright, holding a staff.


“Hail, One, shining from the Moon! (2) Hail, One, “shining from the Moon! Grant that this Osiris Ani “may come forth among those multitudes which are “(3) outside; and let him be established as a dweller “(or let him go about) among the denizens of heaven; “and let the underworld be opened unto him. And “behold, Osiris, (4) Osiris Ani, shall come forth by day “to do whatsoever he pleaseth upon the earth among “the living ones.”



[From the Papyrus of Nu (Brit. Mus. No. 10,477, sheet 13).]

Vignette: This Chapter has no vignette.

Text: (1) ANOTHER CHAPTER LIKE UNTO THE PRECEDING. The overseer of the house of the overseer of the seal, Nu, triumphant, saith:— (2)

“Hail, thou god Tem, who comest forth from the “Great Deep,1 and who shinest with glory under the “form of the double Lion-god,2 send out with might “thy words unto those who are in thy presence, (3) and “let the overseer of the house of the overseer of the “seal, Nu, triumphant, enter into their assembly. He “hath performed the decree which hath been spoken to “the mariners of Rā at eventide, (4) and the Osiris “Nu, triumphant, liveth after he hath died, even as “doth Rā day by day…… As Rā is born from “(5) yesterday even so shall the Osiris Nu be born “[from yesterday], and every god shall rejoice at the “life of the Osiris Nu, even as they rejoice at (6) the “life of Ptah· when he maketh his appearance from the “great Temple1 of the Aged One which is in Ånnu.”



[From the Papyrus of Nu (Brit. Mus. No. 10,477, sheet 19).]

Vignette: This Chapter has no vignette.

Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF PASSING OVER THE CELESTIAL ROAD (2) OF RE-STAU. The overseer of the house of the overseer of the seal, the Osiris Nu, triumphant, saith:—

“I open out a way over the watery abyss which “formeth a path between the two Combatants2 and I “have come; may the fields of Osiris be given over “into my power.”


[From the Papyrus of Nebseni (Brit. Mus. No. 9900, sheet 11).]


Vignette: A seated man (see Papyrus of Sutimes, plate 1.)

Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING WORK BE DONE IN THE UNDERWORLD by Nebseni, the scribe and draughtsman in the Temple of Ptah·, who saith:—

“I lift up the hand of the man who is inactive. I “have come from the city of Unnu (Hermopolis). I “am the divine Soul which liveth, and I lead with me “the hearts of the apes.”1


[From the Papyrus of Nebseni (Brit. Mus. No. 9900, sheet 10).]


Vignette: A standing, boarded male figure, or a man
stretching out his hands to a god.

Text: (1) THE CHATTER OF MAKING THE SHABTĀ1 FIGURE TO DO WORK FOR A MAN IN THE UNDERWORLD. The scribe Nebseni, the draughtsman in the Temples (2) of the North and South, the man highly venerated in the Temple of Ptah·, saith:—

“O thou shabti figure (3) of the scribe Nebseni, the “son of the scribe Thena, victorious, and of the lady of “the house Mutrestha, victorious, (4) if I be called, or “if I be adjudged to do any work whatsoever of the “labours which are to be done in the underworld— “behold, [for thee] opposition will there be (5) set “aside—by a man in his turn, let the judgment fall “upon thee instead of upon me always, in the matter “of sowing the fields, of filling (6) the water-courses “with water, and of bringing the sands of this east [to] “the west.”

[The shabti figure answereth], “Verily I am here “[and will come] whithersoever thou biddest me.”



[From the Papyrus of Nu (Brit. Mus. No. 10,477, sheet 22).]


Vignette: The deceased spearing a serpent (see Pap. Funéraire
de Nebset
, ed. Pierret and Devéria, pl. 5).

Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF PASSING OVER THE ABOMINABLE BACK OF (2) AREP. The overseer of the house of the overseer of the seal, Nu, triumphant, saith:—

“Hail, thou creature of wax,1 who leadest away “[victims] and destroyest them, and who livest upon “the weak and helpless, may I never become weak and “helpless (3) [before] thee, may I never suffer collapse “[before] thee. And thy poison shall never enter into “my members, for my members are [as] the members of “the god Tem; and since thou thyself dost not suffer “collapse [I shall not suffer collapse]. O let not the “pains of death (4) which come upon thee enter into “my members. I am the god Tem, and I am in the “foremost part of Nu (i.e., the sky), and the power “which protecteth me is that which is with all the “gods for ever. I am he whose name is hidden, and “whose habitation is holy for millions of years. I am “he who dwelleth therein (?) and I come forth along “with the god Tem. I am he who shall not be “condemned (?); I am strong, I am strong.”



[From the Papyrus of Ani (Brit. Mus. No. 10,470, sheet 18).]


Vignette: The emblem of Åmenta, towards which Ani, clad in white and holding a staff in his left hand and a bandlet in the right, is walking.


“The city of Unnu (Hermopolis) is opened. My “head (2) is sealed up, O Thoth, and strong is the Eye “of Horus. I have delivered the Eye of Horus which “shineth with splendours on the forehead of Rā, “(3) the father of the gods. I am the same Osiris, “the dweller in Åmentet. Osiris knoweth his day, and “that he shall live through his period of life; and “shall not I do likewise? (4) I am the Moon-god, “who dwelleth among the gods, I shall not perish. “Stand up, therefore, O Horus, for [Osiris] hath “reckoned thee among the gods.”


[From the Papyrus of Ani (Brit. Mus. No. 10,470, sheet 18).]


Vignette: A ram having upon his head the Atef crown standing upon a pylon-shaped pedestal, which rests on a green reed-mat; before him is an altar upon which stand a libation vase and a lotus flower. The scribe Ani, clothed in white, stands with both hands raised in adoration.


“Hail Soul, thou mighty one of strength! (2) Verily “I am here, I have come, I behold thee. I have “passed through the imageuat (underworld), I have seen “(3) [my] divine father Osiris, I have scattered the “gloom of night. I am his beloved one. I have “come; I have seen my divine father Osiris. I have “stabbed the heart of Suti.1 [I] have performed [all] “the ceremonies for my divine father Osiris, (5) I have “opened every way in heaven and in earth. I am the “son who loveth his father Osiris. (6) I have become “a sāh·u,1 I have become a khu,2 I am furnished [with “what I need]. Hail, every god, hail every khu! I “have made a path [for myself, I] Osiris, the scribe “Ani, victorious.”



[From the Papyrus of Ani (Brit. Mus. No. 10,470, sheet 18).]


Vignette: Ani, clad in white, spearing a serpent.


“I have divided the heavens, (2) I have cleft the “horizon, I have traversed the earth, [following] upon “his footsteps. The Mighty KHU taketh possession of “me and carrieth me away, because, behold, (3) I am “provided with his magical words for millions of years. “I eat with my mouth, I crush my food with my “jawbones. (4) Behold, I am the god who is the lord “of the imageuat (underworld); may there be given unto “me, Osiris Ani, these things in perpetuity without fail “or lessening.”



[From the Papyrus of Nu (Brit. Mus. No. 10,477, sheet 21).]

Vignette: This Chapter is without a vignette in both the Theban and Saïte Recensions.

Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF [A MAN] COMING FORTH AGAINST HIS ENEMIES IN THE UNDERWORLD. The overseer of the house of the overseer of the seal, Nu, triumphant, saith:—(2)

“O thou god who eatest thine arm,2 have departed “from thy road. I am Rā, and I have come forth “from the horizon against my enemies, and he hath “granted to me that they shall not escape (3) from me. “I have made an offering, and my hand is like that of “the lord of the Ureret crown. I have lifted up my “feet even as the uraei goddesses rise up. My over-throw” shall not be accomplished, (4) and as for mine “enemy he hath been given over into my power and he “shall not be delivered from me. I shall stand up like “Horus, and I shall sit down like Ptah·, and I shall be “mighty like Thoth, (5) and I shall be strong like “Tem. I shall, therefore, walk with my legs, I shall “speak with my mouth, I shall go round about in “quest of mine enemy, and [as] he hath been delivered “over to me he shall not escape from me.”



[From the Papyrus of Nu (Brit. Mus. No. 10,477, sheet 9).]

Vignette: This Chapter is without a vignette in both the Theban and Saïte Recensions.


“Hymns of praise to thee, O Rā! thou keeper (?) of “secret (2) gates which are on the brow of the god “Seb,1 by the side of the Balance of Rā, wherein he lifteth “up Right and Truth (Maāt) (3) day by day. In very “truth I have burst through the earth,2 grant [thou] “unto me that I may go forward and arrive at the “state of old age.”



[From the Papyrus of Nebseni (Brit. Mus. No. 9900, sheet 12).]

Vignette: This Chapter is without a vignette in both the Theban and Saïte Recensions.


[Osiris, the scribe Nebseni, victorious, saith:—]

“……mortals………I go in like the “Hawk and I come forth like the Bennu bird, the “morning star (?) of Rā. May a path be made for me “whereby I may enter in peace into the beautiful “Åmentet; and may I be by the Lake of Horus; [and “may I lead the greyhounds of Horus]; and may a path “be made for me whereby I may enter in and adore “[Osiris, the lord of Life].”

In the Theban Recension this Chapter appears without a rubric, but in the Saïte Recension as given in the Turin Papyrus (Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Bll. 4 and 45) we have the following:—

RUBRIC: [This Chapter] is to be recited over a ring [made] of ānkham flowers, which shall be laid on the right ear of the khu, together with another ring wrapped up in a strip of byssus cloth, whereon the name of Osiris, Åuf-ānkh, victorious, born of the Lady Shert-Åmsu, victorious, shall be done [in writing] on the day of sepulture.



[From the Papyrus of Mes-em-neter (Naville, Todtcnbuch, Bd. I. Bl. 13).]

Vignette: This Chapter has no vignette either in the Theban or in the Saïte Recension.

Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF PUTTING AN END TO ANY SHAME THAT MAY BE IN THE HEART OF THE GOD for the chief deputy of Åmen, [the scribe] Mes-em-neter, victorious, [who saith :—]

“Hymns of praise to thee, O thou god who makest “the moment to advance, (2) thou dweller among “mysteries of every kind, thou guardian of the word “which I speak. Behold, the god hath shame of me, “but let my faults be washed away and let them fall “(3) upon both hands of the god of Right and Truth. “Do away utterly with the transgression which is in “me, together with [my] wickedness and sinfulness, O “god of Right and Truth. May this god be at peace “with me! Do away utterly with the (4) obstacles “which are between thee and me. O thou to whom “offerings are made in the divine [city] of K·enur,1 grant “thou that I may bring to thee the offerings which will “make peace [between thee and men] whereon thou “livest, and that I also may live thereon. Be thou at “peace (5) with me and do away utterly with all the “shame of me which thou hast in thy heart because “of me.”



[From the Papyrus of Ani (Brit. Mus. No. 10,470, sheets 18 and 19).]


Vignette: Ani standing, with both hands raised in adoration, before Rā, hawk-headed, and seated in a boat floating upon the sky. On a platform in the bows sits the god imageeru-pa-khrat1 with his right hand raised to, his mouth, which he touches with one finger; the side of the boat is ornamented with feathers of Maāt and with an Utchat.2 The handles of the oars and the tops of the rowlocks are in the form of hawks’ heads, and on the blades of the oars are Utchats.


“Homage to thee, (2) O Rā, when thou risest [as] “Tem-imageeru-khuti.3 Thou art adored [by me when] “thy beauties are before mine eyes, and [when thy] “(3) radiance [falleth] upon [my] body. Thou goest “forth to thy setting in the Sektet boat with [fair] “winds, and thy heart is glad; the (4) heart of the “MĀt·et4 boat rejoiceth. Thou stridest over the heavens “in peace, and all thy foes are cast down; the never “resting stars (5) sing hymns of praise unto thee, and “the stars which rest, and the stars which never fail “glorify thee as thou (6) sinkest to rest in the horizon “of Manu,5 O thou who art beautiful at morn and at “eve, O thou lord who livest and art established, O “my lord!

“Homage to thee, O thou who art Rā when thou “risest, and (7) Tem when thou settest [in] beauty. “Thou risest and shinest on the back of thy mother “[Nut], O thou who art crowned king (8) of the gods! “Nut doeth homage unto thee, and everlasting and “never-changing order1 embraceth thee at morn and at “eve. Thou stridest over the heaven, being glad of “heart, and the Lake of Testes2 (9) is content [thereat]. “The Sebāu Fiend hath fallen to the ground; his arms “and his hands have been hacked off, and the knife hath “severed the joints of his body. Rā hath a fair wind “(10); the Sektet boat goeth forth and sailing along it “cometh into port. The gods of the south and of the “north, of the west and of the east, praise (11) thee, O “thou divine substance, from whom all forms of life “come into being. Thou sendest forth the word, and “the earth is flooded with silence, O thou only One, “who didst dwell in heaven before ever the earth and “the mountains came into existence. (12) O Runner, “O Lord, O only One, thou maker of things which are, “thou hast fashioned the tongue of the company of the “gods, thou hast produced whatsoever cometh forth “from the waters, and thou springest up from them “over the flooded land of the Lake of Horus. (13) Let “me snuff the air which cometh forth from thy nostrils, “and the north wind which cometh forth from thy “mother [Nut]. O make thou to be glorious my “shining form (khu), O Osiris, (14) make thou to be “divine my soul (ba)! Thou art worshipped [in] peace “(or [in] setting), O lord of the gods, thou art exalted “by reason of thy wondrous works. Shine thou with “thy rays of light upon my body day by day (15) [upon “me], Osiris the scribe, the teller of the divine offerings “of all the gods, the overseer of the granary of the “lords of Åbāu (Abydos), the royal scribe in truth who “loveth thee; Ani, victorious in peace.”


Hymn and Litany to Osiris.

[From the Papyrus of Ani (Brit. Mus. No. 10,470, sheet 19).]


Vignette: “Osiris Ani, the royal scribe in truth, who loveth “him, the scribe and teller of the divine offerings of all the “gods,” and “Osiris Thuthu, the lady of the house, the singing “woman of Amen,” with hands raised in adoration presumably before the god Osiris who, accompanied by the goddess Isis, stands in a shrine made in the form of a funeral chest.1

Text: “Praise be unto thee, O Osiris, lord of “eternity, Un-nefer, imageeru-Khuti (Harmachis), whose “forms are manifold, and whose attributes are majestic, “(2) Ptah·-Seker-Tem2 in Ånnu (Heliopolis), the lord “of the hidden place, and the creator of imageet-ka-Ptah·3“and of the gods [therein], the guide of the underworld, “(3) whom [the gods] glorify when thou settest in Nut. “Isis embraceth thee in peace, and she driveth away “the fiends from the (4) mouth of thy paths. Thou “turnest thy face upon Åmentet, and thou makest the “earth to shine as with refined copper. Those who “have lain down (i.e., the dead) rise up to see thee, “they (5) breathe the air and they look upon thy face “when the disk riseth on its horizon; their hearts are “at peace inasmuch as they behold thee, O thou who “art Eternity and Everlastingness!”


(1) Petition.—“Homage to thee, [O lord of] starry “deities in Ånnu, and of heavenly beings in Kher-āh·a; “thou god Unti,1 who art more glorious than the gods “who are hidden in Ånnu.”

Response.—(10) “O grant2 thou unto me a path “whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; “I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done “aught with deceit.”

(2) Petition.—“Homage to thee, O Ån in Åntes (?), “imageeru-khuti (Harmachis), with long strides thou “stridest over heaven, O imageeru-khuti.”

Response.—(10) “O grant thou unto me a path “whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; “I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done “aught with deceit.”

(3) Petition.—“Homage to thee, O Soul of everlastingness”, thou Soul that dwellest in imageat·t·u, Un-nefer, “son of Nut; thou art lord of Åk·ert.”

Response.—(10) “O grant thou unto me a path “whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; “I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done “aught with deceit.”

(4) Petition.—“Homage to thee in thy dominion “over imageat·t·u; the Ureret crown is established upon thy “head; thou art the One who maketh the strength “which protecteth himself, and thou dwellest in peace “in imageat·t·u.”

Response.—(10) “O grant thou unto me a path “whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; “I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done “aught with deceit.”

(5) Petition.—“Homage to thee, O lord of the Acacia “Tree, the Seker boat is set upon its sledge; thou “turnest back the Fiend, the worker of evil, and thou “causest the Utchat to rest upon its seat.”

Response.—(10) “O grant thou unto me a path “whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; “I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done “aught with deceit.”

(6) Petition.—“Homage to thee, O thou who art “mighty in thine hour, thou great and mighty Prince, “dweller in Ån-rut·-f,1 lord of eternity and creator of ever-” lastingness, thou art the lord of Suten-h·enen.”2

Response.—(10) “O grant thou unto me a path “whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; “I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done “aught with deceit.”

(7) Petition.—“Homage to thee, O thou’who restest “upon Right and Truth, thou art the lord of Åbāu “(Abydos), and thy limbs are joined unto Ta-tchesertet; “thou art he to whom fraud and guile are hateful.”

Response.—(10) “O grant thou unto me a path “whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; “I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done “aught with deceit.”

(8) Petition.—“Homage to thee, O thou who art “within thy boat, thou bringest imageāpi (i.e., the Nile) “forth from his source; the light shineth upon thy body “and thou art the dweller in Nekhen.”1

Response.—(10) “O grant thou unto me a path “whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; “I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done “aught with deceit.”

(9) Petition.—“Homage to thee, O creator of the “gods, thou King of the North and of the South, O “Osiris, victorious one, ruler of the world in thy “gracious seasons; thou art the lord of the celestial “world.”2

Response.—(10) “O grant thou unto me a path “whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; “I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done “aught with deceit.”

Hymn to Rā.

[From the Papyrus of Ani (Brit. Mus. No. 10,470, sheet 20).]

Vignette: Osiris, wearing the white crown and holding the crook, whip, and sceptre, standing in a shrine; behind him is the goddess Isis in the character of the Divine Mother.

Text: (1) A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA¯ WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN. Those who are in his train (2) rejoice, and lo ! Osiris Aāi victorious, saith :—


“Hail, thou Disk, “thou lord of rays, “(3) who risest on “the horizon day by “day ! Shine thou “with thy beams “of light upon the “face of Osiris Ani, “who is victorious; “for he singeth “hymns of praise “unto thee at (4) “dawn, and he “maketh thee to set “at eventide with “words of adoration”. May the “soul of Osiris Ani, the triumphant one, come forth “(5) with thee into heaven, may he go forth in the MĀt·et “boat. May he come into port in the Sektet boat, and “may he cleave his path among the never (6) resting “stars in the heavens.”

Osiris Ani, being in peace and in triumph, adoreth his lord, (7) the lord of eternity, saying: “Homage to thee, “O imageeru-khuti (Harmachis), who art the god Kheperā, “the self-created; when thou risest on the (8) horizon “and sheddest thy beams of light upon the lands of “the North and of the South, thou art beautiful, yea “beautiful, and all the gods rejoice when they behold “thee, (9) the King of heaven. The goddess Nebt-” Unnut1 is stablished upon thy head; and her uraei “of the South and of the North are upon thy brow; “(10) she taketh up her place before thee. The god “Thoth is stablished in the bows of thy boat to destroy “utterly all thy foes. (11) Those who are in the imageuat “(underworld) come forth to meet thee, and they bow “in homage as they come towards thee, to behold [thy] “(12) beautiful Image. And I have come before thee “that I may be with thee to behold thy Disk every “day. May I not be shut up in [the tomb], may I not “be (13) turned back, may the limbs of my body be “made new again when I view thy beauties, even as “[are those of] all thy favoured ones, (14) because I “am one of those who worshipped thee [whilst I lived] “upon earth. May I come in unto the land of eternity, “may I come even (15) unto the everlasting land, for “behold, O my lord, this hast thou ordained for me.”

And lo, Osiris Ani triumphant in peace, the triumphant one, saith : (16) “Homage to thee, O thou who “risest in thy horizon as Rā, thou reposest upon law “[which changeth not nor can it be altered]. Thou “passest over the sky, and every face watcheth thee “(17) and thy course, for thou hast been hidden from “their gaze. Thou dost shew thyself at dawn and at “eventide day by day. (18) The Sektet boat, wherein “is thy Majesty, goeth forth with might; thy beams “[shine] upon [all] faces; [the number] of thy red and “yellow rays cannot be known, nor can thy bright (19) “beams be depicted. The lands of the gods, and the “eastern lands of Punt1 must be seen before they can “be described and before that which is hidden (20) “[in thee] may be measured. Alone and by thyself” thou dost manifest thyself [when] thou comest “into being above Nu (i.e., the sky). May Ani (21) “advance, even as thou dost advance; may he never “cease [to go forward], even as thy Majesty ceaseth not “[to go forward], even though it be for a moment; for “with strides dost thou (22) in one little moment pass “over the spaces which would need hundreds of thou-” sands and millions of years [for man to pass over; “this] thou doest, and then dost thou sink to rest. “Thou (23) puttest an end to the hours of the night, “and thou dost count them, even thou; thou endest “them in thine own appointed season, and the earth “becometh light. (24) Thou settest thyself before thy “handiwork in the likeness of Rā; thou risest in the “horizon.”

THE SUNRISE. The imageet·, image, or tree-trunk which held the body of Osiris, standing between Isis and Nephthys, who kneel in adoration, one on each side of it. From the imageet· proceeds the emblem of life, which has arms that support the Disk of the Sun. The six apes represent the spirits of the dawn. (This scene is from the Papyrus of Ani, plate 2.)

Osiris, the scribe Ani, victorious, declareth (25) his praise of thee when thou shinest, and when thou risest at dawn he crieth in his joy at thy birth: (26) “Thou “art crowned with the majesty of thy beauties; thou “mouldest thy limbs as thou dost advance, and thou “bringest them forth without birth-pangs in the form “of (27) Rā, as thou dost rise up into the upper air. “Grant thou that I may come unto the heaven which “is everlasting, and unto the mountain where dwell “thy favoured ones. May I be joined (28) unto those “shining beings, holy and perfect, who are in the “underworld; and may I come forth with them to “behold thy beauties when thou shinest (29) at eventide” and goest to thy mother Nut.1 Thou dost place “thyself in the west, and my two hands are [raised] in “adoration [of thee] (30) when thou settest as a living “being. Behold, thou art the maker of eternity, and “thou art adored [when] thou settest in the heavens. “I have given my heart unto thee (31) without wavering”, O thou who art mightier than the gods.”

THE SUNRISE. (From the Papyrus of Qenns, plate 1.)

Osiris Ani, triumphant, saith: “A hymn of praise to “thee, O thou who risest (32) like unto gold, and who “dost flood the world with light on the day of thy birth. “Thy mother giveth thee birth upon [her] hand, and “thou dost give light unto the course of the Disk (33). “O thou great Light who shinest in the heavens, thou “dost strengthen the generations of men with the Nile-flood”, and thou dost cause gladness in all lands, and “in all cities (34), and in all the temples. Thou art “glorious by reason of thy splendours, and thou makest “strong thy KA (i.e., Double), with h·u and tchefau “foods.1 O thou who art the mighty one of victories, “(35) thou who art the power of [all] Powers, who “dost make strong thy throne against evil fiends; who “art glorious in majesty in the Sektetboat, and who “art exceeding mighty (36) in the A¯t·et boat, make “thou glorious Osiris Ani with victory in the underworld”; grant thou that in the netherworld he may be “(37) without evil. I pray thee to put away [his] “faults behind thee: grant thou that he may be one of “thy venerable servants (38) who are with the shining “ones; may he be joined unto the souls which are in Ta-” tchesertet; and may he journey into the Sekhet-Åaru2 “(39) by a prosperous and happy decree, he the Osiris, “the scribe, Ani, triumphant.”

THE SUNRISE. Horus-Rā, wearing a disk encircled by a serpent, and standing beneath the vaulted heaven, being adored by seven apes. The imageet· below has human arms and hands, which grasp the symbols of power of Osiris; on the left stands Isis, the “divine mother,” and on the right Nephthys. (From the Papyrus of Hu-nefer, plate 1.)

(And the god saith:—)

(40) “Thou shalt come forth into heaven, thou shalt “pass over the sky, thou shalt be joined unto the starry “deities. Praises shall be offered (41) unto thee in “thy boat, thou shalt be hymned in the A¯t·et boat, (42) “thou shalt behold Rā within his shrine, thou shalt “set together with his Disk day by day, thou shalt “see (43) the Ånt1 fish when it springeth into being in “the waters of turquoise, and thou shalt see (44) the “Åbāu1 fish in his hour. It shall come to pass that the “Evil One shall fall when he layeth a snare to destroy “thee, (45) and the joints of his neck and of his back “shall be hacked asunder. Rā [saileth] with a fair “wind, and the Sektet boat draweth on (46) and cometh “into port. The mariners of Rā rejoice, and the heart “of Nebt-ānkh2 is glad, (47) for the enemy of her lord “hath fallen to the ground. Thou shalt behold Horus “on the standing place3 of the pilot of the boat, and “Thoth and Maāt shall stand one upon each side of “him. (48) All the gods shall rejoice when they “behold Rā coming in peace (49) to make the hearts of “the shining ones to live, and Osiris Ani, victorious, “the scribe of the divine offerings of the lord of Thebes, “shall be along with them!”

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