The Roman consular year usually began in March and as a result the consuls remained in office for the first few months of the year after the date given here. There is some debate over to what extent the Roman calendar was at this period out of synchronization with the modern year. Numerals in brackets after a name denote whether the man had held the consulship before. Consuls who abdicated after a few days or whose election was declared invalid are not included here.
264 Ap. Claudius Caudex M. Fulvius Flaccus
Outbreak of First Punic War; Roman expedition to relieve Messana.
263 M. Valerius Maximus Messala M. Otacilius Crassus
Hiero surrenders and allies Syracuse with Rome.
262 L. Postumius Megellus Q. Mamilius Vitullus
Siege of Agrigentum.
261 L. Valerius Flaccus T. Otacilius Crassus
Fall of Agrigentum; Punic naval squadrons raid Italian coast; Romans decide to build fleet.
260 Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina C. Duilius
Scipio Asina taken prisoner at Lipara; Duilius wins sea battle off Mylae.
259 L. Cornelius Scipio C. Aquillius Florus
Fighting in Corsica and Sardinia as well as Sicily.
258 A. Adius Caiatinus C. Sulpicius Paterculus
Romans win naval battle off Sulci
257 C. Atilius Regulus Cn. Cornelius Blasio
Romans win naval battle off Tyndaris
256 L. Manlius Vulso Longus M. Atilius Regulus - suff. (II)
Romans win naval battle off Ecnomus and invade Africa; Regulus defeats Punic army at Adys; peace negotiations fail.
255 Ser. Fulvius Paetinus Nobilior M. Aemilius Paullus
Regulus defeated by Xanthippus near Tunis; Roman fleet rescues survivors and defeats Punic navy off Hermaeum; heavy Roman losses in storm.
254 Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina (II) A. Atilius Caiatinus (II)
253 Cn. Servilius Caepio C. Sempronius Blaesus
Roman fleet suffers in storm off Cape Palinurus.
252 C. Aurelius Cotta P. Servilius Geminus
Romans capture more towns in Sicily, including Lipara and Thermae.
251 L. Caecilius Metellus C. Furius Pacilus
Further fighting in Sicily; Carthaginians reinforce their army on the island.
250 C. Atilius Regulus (II) L. Manlius Vulso Longus (II)
Romans win battle outside Panormus and commence siege of Lilybaeum.
249 P. Claudius Pulcher L. Junius Pullus Dictator: A. Atilius Caiatinus Mag. Equ: Caecilius Metellus
Punic navy wins great victory off Drepana; Roman fleet suffers heavily in storm near Camarina; dictator sent to command in Sicily.
248 C. Aurelius Cotta (II) P. Servilius Geminus (II)
Sieges of Lilybaeum and Drepana continue.
247 L. Caecilius Metellus (II) N. Fabius Buteo
Sieges continue; Hamilcar Barca lands in Sicily.
246 M. Otacilius Crassus (II) M. Fabius Licinus
Continued low-intensity fighting in Sicily.
245 M. Fabius Buteo C. Atilius Balbus
Continued low-intensity fighting in Sicily.
244 A. Manlius Torquatus Atticus C. Sempronius Blaesus (II)
Hamilcar moves to Mt Eryx.
243 C. Fundanius Fundulus C. Sulpicius Galus
Continued fighting around Eryx.
242 C. Lutatius Catulus A. Postumius Albinus
New Roman fleet formed.
241 A. Manlius Torquatus Atticus (II) Q. Lutatius Cerco
Romans win decisive sea battle at the Aegates Islands; Carthage accepts peace; end of First Punic War.
240 C. Claudius Centho M. Sempronius Tuditanus
Outbreak of Mercenary War in Africa
239 C. Mamilius Turrinus Q. Valerius Falto
238 Ti. Sempronius Gracchus P. Valerius Falto
Rome annexes Sardinia and threatens Carthage with renewal of war.
237 L. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinius Q. Fulvius Flaccus
End of Mercenary War; Hamilcar Barca sent to Spain.
236 P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus C. Licinius Varus
Gallic raids on northern Italy.
235 T. Manlius Torquatus C. Atilius Balbus (II)
234 L. Postumius Albinus Sp. Carvilius Maximus
233 Q. Fabius Maximus M. Pomponius Matho
232 M. Aemilius Lepidus M. Publicius Malleolus
The tribune C. Flaminius carries a bill to distribute the ager Gallicus to citizens.
231 M. Pomponius Matho C. Papirius Maso
230 M. Aemilius Bardula M. Junius Pera
229 L. Postumius Albinus (II) Cn. Fulvius Centumalus
Death of Hamilcar Barca; succeeded by his son-in-law Hasdrubal; First Illyrian War; Romans establish a protectorate on the Illyrian coast.
228 Sp. Carvilius Maximus (II) Q. Fabius Maximus (II)
227 P. Valerius Flaccus M. Atilius Regulus
The praetor C. Flaminius probably the first governor of Rome's Sicilian province.
226 M. Valerius Messalla L. Apustius Fullo
225 L. Aemilius Papus C. Atilius Regulus
Gallic invaders defeated at Telamon.
224 T. Manlius Torquatus (II) Q. Fulvius Flaccus (II)
223 C. Flaminius P. Furius Philus
Flaminius wins victory over Insubres in Cisalpine Gaul.
222 M. Claudius Marcellus Cn. Cornelius Scipio Calvus
Insubres defeated at Clastidium and their capital, Mediolanum (Milan), captured.
221 P. Cornelius Scipio Asina M. Minucius Rufus
Hasdrubal assassinated and succeeded by Hannibal
220 L. Veturius Philo C. Lutatius Catulus
Construction of Via Flaminia.
219 L. Aemilius Paullus M. Livius Salinator
218 P. Cornelius Scipio Ti. Sempronius Longus
Second Illyrian War; Siege and Fall of Saguntum. Outbreak of Second Punic War; Hannibal's March to Italy; Romans defeated at Ticinus and Trebia; Cn. Scipio lands in Spain.
217 Cn. Servilius Gerninus C. Flaminius (II) Dictator: Q. Fabius Maximus Mag. Equ: M. Minucius Rufus
Flaminius defeated at Lake Trasimene; Romans appoint Fabius Maximus dictator; Fabius avoids contact with Hannibal's army, but fails to prevent his escape from Campania; Minucius defeated in large skirmish; Cn. Scipio wins naval encounter off the River Ebro.
216 L. Aemilius Paullus (II) C. Terentius Varro Dictator: M. Junius Pera Mag. Equ: Ti. Sempronius Gracchus
Hannibal wins massive victory at Cannae; Capua and some other states defect; Cn. and P. Scipio defeat Hasdrubal Barca near the Ebro (Iber); Romans appoint dictator; continued fighting especially around Nola; Roman army massacred in Cisalpine Gaul.
215 Q. Fabius Maximus (III) Ti. Sempronius Gracchus
Further fighting around Nola; Hannibal takes Casilinum; Punic reinforcements arrive at Locri; death of Hiero; alliance between Hannibal and Philip V of Macedon; start of First Macedonian War.
214 Q. Fabius Maximus (IV) M. Claudius Marcellus (II)
Romans retake Casilinum; Gracchus defeats Hanno at River Calor; murder of Hieronymus and defection of Syracuse to Carthage; Marcellus begins to operate in Sicily; Laevinus defeats Macedonians at Apollonia; more fighting near Nola
213 Q. Fabius Maximus the Younger Ti. Sempronius Gracchus (II)
Assault on Syracuse fails and Marcellus begins siege; Carthaginian army lands in Sicily.
212 Ap. Claudius Pulcher Q. Fulvius Flaccus (III)
Hannibal captures Tarentum; Romans start siege of Capua; Hanno defeated at Beneventum; Gracchus killed; Hannibal wins victory at Herdonea; in Sicily Marcellus eventually captures Syracuse.
211 P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus Cn. Fulvius Centumalus Maximus
Hannibal marches on Rome, but fails to prevent the fall of Capua; P. and Cn. Scipio defeated and killed in Spain; alliance between Rome and Aetolian League.
210 M. Valerius Laevinus M. Claudius Marcellus (III)
Hannibal wins second victory at Herdonea; Scipio Africanus appointed to Spanish command; Lilybaeum captured by Romans;
209 Q. Fabius Maximus (V) Q. Fulvius Flaccus (IV)
M. Servilius Pulex Geminus mixed fortunes in Greece; Romans raid African coast.
Tarentum recaptured by Fabius; Scipio takes New Carthage; further fighting in Greece
208 T. Quinctius Crispinus M. Claudius Marcellus (TV)
Both consuls killed in ambush; further Roman raids on African coast; Scipio wins battle of Baecula, but Hasdrubal Barca still leaves Spain.
207 C. Claudius Nero M. Livius Salinator (II)
Hasdrubal Barca invades Italy, but defeated at Metaurus; Philip Vs allies win victory at Mantineia; more Roman raids on African coast.
206 L. Veturius Philo Q. Caecilius Metellus
Aetolians make peace with Philip V; Scipio wins decisive victory at Ilipa and later suppresses Caecilius Metellus rebellion by Spanish tribes.
205 P. Cornelius Scipio P. Licinius Crassus Dives
End of First Macedonian War; Scipio prepares invasion of Africa; more Roman raids on African coast; Locri captured and Pleminius scandal; Mago invades Italy.
204 M. Cornelius Cethegus P. Sempronius Tuditanus
Invasion of Africa.
203 Cn. Servilius Caepio C. Servilius Geminus
Scipio destroys enemy winter camps and wins victory at Great Plains; Hannibal and Mago recalled.
202 Ti. Claudius Nero
Scipio defeats Hannibal at Zama.
201 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus P. Aelius Paetus
Peace formally concluded; end of Second Punic War.
200 P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus (II) C. Aurelius Cotta
heavy fighting in Cisalpine Gaul. Start of Second Macedonian War;
199 L. Cornelius Lentulus P. Villius Tappulus
198 T. Quinctius Flamininus Sex. Aelius Paetus Catus
197 C. Cornelius Cethegus Q. Minucius Rufus
Cethegus wins major victory over Insubres. Flamininus defeats Philip V at Cynoscephalae and ends Second Macedonian War; rebellion in Spain.
196 L. Furius Pupureo M. Claudius Marcellus
Marcellus defeats Insubres; Hannibal elected suffete
195 L. Valerius Flaccus M. Porcius Cato
Hannibal exiled; Cato campaigns in Spain, winning a major battle at Emporion.
194 P. Cornelius Scipio (II) Ti. Sempronius Longus
Victory over Lusitanian tribes, but war continues.
193 L. Cornelius Merula Q. Minucius Thermus
192 L. Quinctius Flamininus Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
Beginning of Syrian War with Antiochus III.
191 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica M. Acilius Glabrio
Antiochus III defeated by Romans at Thermopylae; Scipio defeats Boii in Cisalpine Gaul.
190 L. Cornelius Scipio C. Laelius
Seleucid fleet led by Hannibal defeated.
189 Cn. Manlius Vulso M. Furius Nobilior
Antiochus III defeated by L. Scipio at Magnesia, brings the Syrian War to an end; Vulso attacks the Galatians.
188 M. Valerius Messalla C. Livius Salinator
187 M. Aemilius Lepidus C. Flaminius
Beginning of attacks on Scipios; Via Aemilia and Via Flaminia constructed in northern Italy.
186 Sp. Postumius Albinus Q. Marcius Philippus
Philippus defeated by Ligurians.
185 Ap. Claudius Pulcher M. Sempronius Tuditanus
184 P. Claudius Pulcher L. Porcius Licinus
Exile of Scipio Africanus; Cato's censorship. Death of Scipio Africanus.
183 Q. Fabius Labeo M. Claudius Marcellus
182 L. Aernilius Paullus Cn. Baebius Tamphilus
181 P. Cornelius Cethegus M. Baebius Tamphilus
Major rebellion by Celtiberian tribes.
180 A. Postumius Albinus Luscus C. Calpurnius Piso
179 L. Manlius Acidinus Fulvianus Q. Furius Flaccus
178 A. Manlius Vulso M. Junius Brutus
177 C. Claudius Pulcher Ti. Sempronius Gracchus
176 Cn. Cornelius Scipio Hispallus Q. Petillius Spurinus
175 M. Aemilius Lepidus (II) P. Murcius Scaevola
174 Sp. Postumius Albinus Paullulus Q. Murcius Scaevola
173 L. Postumius Albinus M. Popillius Laenas
172 P. Aelius Ligus C. Popillius Laenas
Both consuls plebeian for the first time; start of Third Macedonian War.
171 P. Licinius Crassus C. Cassius Longinus
170 A. Atilius Serranus A. Hostilius Mancinus
169 Cn. Sevilius Caepio Q. Marcius Philippus (II)
168 L. Aemilius Paullus (II) C. Licinius Crassus
167 Q. Aelius Paetus M. Junius Pennus
Perseus defeated at Pydna, ending the Third Macedonian War; Kingdom of Macedon dissolved.
166 C. Sulpicius Gallus M. Claudius Marcellus
165 T. Manlius Torquatus Cn. Octavius
164 A. Manlius Torquatus Q. Cassius Longinus
163 Ti. Sempronius Gracchus (II) M. Iuventius Thalna
162 P. Cornelius Lentulus Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
161 M. Valerius Messalla C. Fannius Strabo
160 M. Cornelius Cethegus L. Anicius Gallus
159 Cn. Cornelius Dolabella M. Furius Nobilior
158 M. Aemilius Lepidus C. Popillius Laenas (II)
157 Sex. Julius Caesar L. Aurelius Orestes
156 L. Cornelius Lentulus Lupus C. Marcius Figulus
155 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica M. Claudius Marcellus (II)
154 L. Postumius Albinus M. Acilius Glabrio - suff.
Victory over Ligurians; major war begins in Lusitania.
153 Q. Fulvius Nobilior T. Annius Luscus
Major rebellion by Celtiberians.
152 L. Valerius Flaccus M. Claudius Marcellus (III)
151 A. Postumius Albinus L. Licinius Lucullus
Carthage declares war on Masinissa.
150 T. Quinctius Flamininus M. Acilius Balbus
149 L. Marcius Censorinus M. Manilius
Start of Third Punic War; campaign begins with Roman failures; Andriscus invades Macedonia
148 Sp. Postumius Albinus Magnus L.Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus
Poor performance of Roman army in Africa continues.
147 P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus C. Livius Drusus
Scipio given African command and tightens siege of Carthage.
146 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus L. Mummius
Capture and destruction of Carthage; end of Third Punic War.