(a) United Kingdom

India Office Records (IOR), British Library.

United Kingdom National Archives (TNA), Kew, England, coded as follows:

ADM: Admiralty

AIR: Air Ministry

ASSI: Assizes records

CAB: Cabinet Office

CO: Colonial Office

CRIM: Central Criminal Court

DEFE: Ministry of Defence

FO: Foreign Office

HO: Home Office

HS: Special Operations Executive

HW: Government Communications Headquarters

J: Supreme Court of Judicature

KV: Security Service

MUN: Ministry of Munitions

PREM: Prime Minister’s Office

T: Treasury

WO: War Office

(b) Foreign

Krigsarkivet, Swedish National Archives, Stockholm.

Norges Hjemmefront Museum, Oslo.

Service Historique de la Défense, fonds de l’Armée de Terre (SHD (Terre)), Château de Vincennes, France.

United States National Archives (NARA), College Park, Maryland.


Balfour papers (British Library).

Beddington papers (Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, King’s College London).

Bland papers (Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge).

BP Archive (University of Warwick).

Cadogan papers (Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge).

Churchill papers (Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge).

Cohen papers (in private hands).

Curzon papers (India Office Records, British Library).

Dalton papers (London School of Economics).

Darwin papers (Imperial War Museum).

Derby papers (Liverpool Record Office).

Dewé papers (Archives famille Dewé se rapportant à Walthère Dewé), CEGES (Centre d’Études et de Documentation Guerre et Sociétés contemporaines), Brussels.

Edmonds papers (Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, King’s College London).

Godfrey papers, including ‘The Naval Memoirs of Admiral J. H. Godfrey’ (8 vols, typescript) (Royal Naval Museum, Portsmouth, MSS 319) [Another copy in Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge].

House papers (Yale University Library).

Kirke papers (Imperial War Museum (IWM) and Intelligence Corps Museum (ICM)).

Kirkpatrick papers (Imperial War Museum).

La Dame Blanche papers (Imperial War Museum).

Lloyd George papers (Parliamentary Archives).

Long papers (Wiltshire Record Office).

Mackenzie papers (Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin).

Payne Best papers (Imperial War Museum (IWM) and Intelligence Corps Museum (ICM)).

Polk papers (Yale University Library).

Reid papers: Letters and Papers of Margaret Grant Reid (Leeds University Library).

Reilly papers (Bodleian Library, Oxford).

Rumbold papers (Bodleian Library, Oxford).

Service Clarence papers (Imperial War Museum).

Sinclair papers (National Maritime Museum).

Sudan Archive (University of Durham).

Templewood (Sir Samuel Hoare) papers (Cambridge University Library).

Vansittart papers (Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge).

Wilkinson papers (Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge).

Wilson papers (Imperial War Museum).

Wiseman papers (Yale University Library).

Woollcombe papers (in private hands).


Documents on British Foreign Policy

Documents on British Policy Overseas


Agar, Augustus, Baltic Episode: A Classic of Secret Service in Russian Waters (London, 1963).

Aldrich, Richard J., The Hidden Hand: Britain, America and Cold War Secret Intelligence (London, 2001).

Intelligence and the War against Japan: Britain, America and the Politics of Secret Service (Cambridge, 2000).

Andrew, Christopher, ‘The British Secret Service and Anglo-Soviet relations in the 1920s, Part I: From the trade negotiations to the Zinoviev Letter’, Historical Journal, 20/3 (1977), 673-706.

The Defence of the Realm: The Authorized History of MI5 (London, 2009) [published in the USA as Defend the Realm].

‘F. H. Hinsley and the Cambridge moles: two patterns of intelligence recruitment’, in Richard Langhorne (ed.), Diplomacy and Intelligence during the Second World War: Essays in Honour of F. H. Hinsley (Cambridge, 1985), 22-40.

For the President’s Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush (London, 1995).

Secret Service: The Making of the British Intelligence Community (London, 1985) [published in the USA as Her Majesty’s Secret Service: The Making of the British Intelligence Community].

—and Dilks, David (eds), The Missing Dimension: Governments and Intelligence Communities in the Twentieth Century (London, 1984).

—and Noakes, Jeremy (eds), Intelligence and International Relations, 1900-1945 (Exeter, 1987).

Aubin, Chantal, ‘Contre-espionnage et sécurité intérieure pendant les années 1930: structures, défis et réponses’, in Frédéric Guelton et Abdil Bicer (eds), Naissance et évolution du renseignement dans l’espace européen (1870-1940) (Vincennes, 2006), 247-76.

Barker, Elisabeth, British Policy in South-East Europe in the Second World War (London, 1976).

Baxter, Christopher, ‘Forgeries and spies: the Foreign Office and the “Cicero” case’, Intelligence and National Security, 23/6 (Dec. 2008), 807-26.

The Great Power Struggle in East Asia, 1944-50: Britain, America and Post-War Rivalry (Basingstoke, 2009).

—‘The Secret Intelligence Service and the case of Hilaire Noulens’, in FCO Historians, Records, 54-64.

—‘Sir Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen and Turkish neutrality, 1942-1944’, in Christopher Baxter and Andrew Stewart (eds), Diplomats at War: British and Commonwealth Diplomacy in Wartime (Leiden, 2008), 253-74.

Bazhanov, Boris, Bazhanov and the Damnation of Stalin, ed. David W. Doyle (Athens, Ohio, 1990).

Beach, James, ‘British Intelligence and the German Army, 1914-1918’ (PhD thesis, London University, 2005).

Bennett, Gill, ‘A most extraordinary and mysterious business’: The Zinoviev Letter of 1924 (London, 1999).

Churchill’s Man of Mystery: Desmond Morton and the World of Intelligence (London, 2006).

Benton, Kenneth, ‘The ISOS years: Madrid 1941-3’, Journal of Contemporary History, 30/3 (July 1995), 355-410.

Bertrand, Gustave, Enigma ou la plus grande énigme de la guerre 1939-1945 (Paris, 1973).

Best, Antony, British Intelligence and the Japanese Challenge in Asia, 1914-1941 (Basingstoke, 2002).

—‘Intelligence, diplomacy and the Japanese threat to British interests, 1914-41’, Intelligence and National Security, 17/1 (March 2002), 85-100.

—‘“We are virtually at war with Russia”: Britain and the Soviet menace in East Asia, 1923-40’ (forthcoming).

Best, S. Payne, The Venlo Incident (London, n.d. [1950]).

Bethge, Eberhard, Dietrich Bonhoeffer: A Biography (London, 1970).

Blake, Robert, ‘How Churchill became Prime Minister’, in Robert Blake and Roger Louis (eds), Churchill (Oxford, 1993), 257-90.

Blishen, A. O., ‘Sir Stewart Graham Menzies’, ‘Sir Richard Gambier-Parry’ and ‘Valentine Patrick Terrell Vivian’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online version at , accessed 11 Mar. 2010).

Brogan, Hugh, The Life of Arthur Ransome (London, 1984).

Bruce Lockhart, John, ‘Sir William Wiseman Bart - agent of influence’, RUSI Journal, 134/2 (Summer 1989), 63-7.

Bruce Lockhart, R. H., Memoirs of a British Agent (London, 1932).

Bywater, Hector C., and Ferraby, H. C., Strange Intelligence: Memoirs of Naval Secret Service (London, 1934).

Cecil, Robert, ‘“C”’s war’, Intelligence and National Security, 1/2 (May 1986), 170-88.

—‘Five of Six at war: Section V of MI6’, Intelligence and National Security, 9/2 (April 1994), 345-53.

Churchill, Winston, The World Crisis, 1911-1914 (London, 1923).

Ciechanowski, Jan Stanisław, and Tebinka, Jacek, ‘Cryptographic cooperation - Enigma’, in Stirling et al., Intelligence Co-operation, 442-62.

Clive, Nigel, A Greek Experience 1943-1948 (London, 1985).

Cockerill, Sir George, What Fools We Were (London, n.d. [1944]).

Collier, Basil, The Defence of the United Kingdom (London, 1957).

Cook, Andrew, Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly (2nd edn, London, 2004).

Cross, John, Red Jungle (London, 1957).

Cruickshank, Charles, SOE in the Far East (Oxford, 1983).

SOE in Scandinavia (Oxford, 1986).

Curry, John, The Security Service, 1908-1945: The Official History (London, 1999).

Dalton, Hugh, The Fateful Years: Memoirs, 1931-1945 (London, 1957).

Debruyne, Emmanuel, La Guerre secrète des espions belges, 1940-1944 (Brussels, 2008).

Decock, Pierre, ‘La Dame Blanche: un réseau de renseignements de la grande guerre 1916-1918’ (PhD thesis, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1981).

Denham, Henry, Inside the Nazi Ring: A Naval Attaché in Sweden 1940-1945 (London, 1964).

Denniston, A. G., ‘The Government Code and Cypher School between the wars’, Intelligence and National Security, 1/1 (Jan. 1986), 48-70.

de Young de la Marck, David, ‘De Gaulle, Colonel Passy and British intelligence, 1940-42’, Intelligence and National Security, 18/1 (Spring 2003), 21-40.

Donnison, F. S. V., Civil Affairs and Military Government North West Europe, 1944-1946 (London, 1961).

Dukes, Sir Paul, Red Dusk and the Morrow: Adventures and Investigations in Soviet Russia (London, 1922).

The Story of ‘ST 25’ (London, 1938).

Efrati, Yoram (ed.), Yoman Aharon Aharonson 1916-1919 (Tel Aviv, 1970).

Erskine, Ralph, ‘Eavesdropping on “Bodden”: ISOS v. the Abwehr in the Straits of Gibraltar’, Intelligence and National Security, 12/3 (July 1997), 110-29.

FCO Historians, The Records of the Permanent Under-Secretary’s Department: Liaison between the Foreign Office and British Secret Intelligence, 1873-1939 (London, 2005).

FCO Historical Branch, ‘“My Purdah Lady”: The Foreign Office and the Secret Vote 1782-1909’ (FCO History Notes, no. 7, 1994).

Ferguson, Harry, Operation Kronstadt (London, 2008).

Ferris, John, ‘“Far too dangerous a gamble”? British intelligence and policy during the Chanak Crisis’, in Erik Goldstein and B. J. C. McKercher (eds), Power and Stability: British Foreign Policy, 1865-1965 (London, 2003), 139-84.

—‘“Indulged in all too little”? Vansittart, intelligence and appeasement’, Diplomacy and Statecraft, 6/1 (Mar. 1995), 122-75.

—‘The road to Bletchley Park: the British experience with signals intelligence, 1892-1945’, Intelligence and National Security, 17/1 (March 2002), 53-84.

Foot, M. R. D., SOE in France (London, 1966).

SOE in the Low Countries (London, 2001).

—and Langley, J. M., MI9: The British Secret Service that Fostered Escape and Evasion 1939-1945 and its American Counterpart (London, 1979).

Forcade, Olivier, La République secrète: histoire des services spéciaux français de 1918 à 1939 (Paris, 2008).

Fourcade, Marie-Madeleine, L’Arche de Noé (Paris, 1968); English translation, Noah’s Ark (London, 1973).

Fowler, W. B., British-American Relations 1917-1918: The Role of Sir William Wiseman (Princeton, NJ, 1969).

Freeman, Peter, ‘The Zimmermann Telegram revisited: a reconciliation of the primary sources’, Cryptologia, 30/2 (2006), 98-150.

Garliński, Józef, The Swiss Corridor: Espionage Networks in Switzerland during World War II (London, 1981).

Gaunt, Guy, The Yield of the Years: A Story of Adventure Afloat and Ashore (London, 1940).

Gilbert, Martin, Winston S. Churchill, iv, companion part 3 (London, 1977).

Gisevius, Hans Bernd, To the Bitter End (London, 1948).

Goodman, Michael, Official History of the Joint Intelligence Committee (forthcoming).

Grahame-White, Montague, At the Wheel Ashore and Afloat (London, n.d. [1935]).

Guttridge, Roger, The Royal Motor Yacht Club: The First 100 Years, 1905-2005 (Poole, Dorset, n.d. [2005]).

Hamilton, Keith, ‘Dockside diplomacy: the Foreign Office and the Constantinople Quays Company’, in FCO Historians, Records, 19-26.

Hart-Davis, Duff (ed.), King’s Counsellor. Abdication and War: The Diaries of Sir Alan Lascelles (London, 2006).

Hartley, Harold, and Gabor, D., ‘Thomas Ralph Merton’, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, vol. 16 (Nov. 1970), 421-40.

Hazelhoff, Erik, Soldier of Orange (London, 1972).

Hiley, Nicholas, ‘The failure of British counter-espionage against Germany, 1907-14’, Historical Journal, 28/4 (Dec. 1985), 835-62.

—‘The failure of British espionage against Germany, 1907-14’, Historical Journal, 26/4 (Dec. 1983), 867-89.

Hinsley, F. H., British Intelligence in the Second World War: Its Influence on Strategy and Operations, 3 vols (London, 1979-88).

—‘British intelligence in the Second World War’, in Andrew and Noakes (eds), Intelligence and International Relations, 209-18.

—and Simkins, C. A. G., British Intelligence in the Second World War, iv, Security and Counter Intelligence (London, 1990).

Hoare, Samuel, The Fourth Seal: The End of a Russian Chapter (London, 1930).

Holt, Thaddeus, The Deceivers: Allied Military Deception in the Second World War (London, 2004).

Howard, Michael, British Intelligence in the Second World War, v, Strategic Deception (London, 1990).

The Continental Commitment: The Dilemma of British Defence Policy in the Era of Two World Wars (Harmondsworth, 1974).

Howarth, Patrick, Intelligence Chief Extraordinary: The Life of the Ninth Duke of Portland (London, 1986).

Hyde, H. Montgomery, The Quiet Canadian: The Secret Service Story of Sir William Stephenson (London, 1962).

Insall, A. J. G., ‘The relationship between the British and Norwegian Labour parties from 1945 to 1951’ (PhD thesis, London University, 2007).

James, Robert Rhodes (ed.), Memoirs of a Conservative: J. C. C. Davidson’s Memoirs and Papers, 1910-37 (London, 1969).

James, Sir William, The Eyes of the Navy: A Biographical Study of Admiral Sir Reginald Hall (London, 1955).

Jeffery, Keith, The British Army and the Crisis of Empire, 1918-22 (Manchester, 1984).

Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson: A Political Soldier (Oxford, 2006).

—‘British military intelligence following World War I’, in K. G. Robertson (ed.), British and American Approaches to Intelligence (London, 1987), 55-84.

—‘The Government Code and Cypher School: a memorandum by Lord Curzon’, Intelligence and National Security, 1/3 (Sept. 1986), 454-8.

—and Hennessy, Peter, States of Emergency: British Governments and Strikebreaking since 1919 (London, 1983).

—and Sharp, Alan, ‘Lord Curzon and secret intelligence’, in Andrew and Noakes (eds), Intelligence and International Relations, 103-26.

Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri, American Espionage: From Secret Service to CIA (London, 1977).

Johns, Philip, Within Two Cloaks: Missions with SIS and SOE (London, 1979).

Jones, H. A., The War in the Air: Appendices (Oxford, 1937).

Jones, R. V., Most Secret War (London, 1978).

Reflections on Intelligence (London, 1989).

Jones, Thomas, Whitehall Diary, ed. Keith Middlemas, i, 1916-1925 (London, 1969).

Judd, Alan, The Quest for C: Mansfield Cumming and the Founding of the Secret Service (London, 1999).

Kahn, David, The Codebreakers: The Story of Secret Writing (London, 1966).

Kennedy, Paul, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (London, pbk edn, 1989).

Kirby, S. Woodburn, The War against Japan, i, The Loss of Singapore (London, 1957).

Kitchen, Martin, ‘SOE’s man in Moscow’, Intelligence and National Security, 12/3 (July 1997), 95-109.

Knoblock, Edward, Round the Room (London, 1939).

Landau, Henry, All’s Fair: The Story of the British Secret Service behind the German Lines (New York, 1934).

Secrets of the White Lady (New York, 1935).

Spreading the Spy Net: The Story of a British Spy Director (London, n.d. [1938]).

Laqueur, Walter, and Breitman, Richard, Breaking the Silence: The Secret Mission of Eduard Schulte, who Brought the World News of the Final Solution (London, 1986).

Liebreich, Fritz, Britain’s Naval and Political Reaction to the Illegal Immigration of Jews to Palestine, 1945-1948 (London, 2005).

Lycett, Andrew, Ian Fleming (London, pbk edn, 1996).

Lympany, Moura, Moura: Her Autobiography (London, 1991).

McCarthy, Helen, ‘Petticoat diplomacy: the admission of women to the British Foreign Service, c. 1919-1946’, Twentieth Century British History, 20/3 (2009), 285-321.

McKay, C. G., From Information to Intrigue (London, 1993).

—‘The Krämer case: a study in three dimensions’, Intelligence and National Security, 4/2 (April 1989), 268-94.

Mackenzie, Compton, Ægean Memories (London, 1940).

First Athenian Memories (London, 1931).

Greek Memories (London, 1932).

My Life and Times: Octave Four, 1907-1915 (London, 1965); Octave Five, 1915-1923 (London, 1966); Octave Seven, 1931-1938 (London, 1968).

Water on the Brain (London, 1933).

Mackenzie, W. J. M., The Secret History of SOE: The Special Operations Executive 1940-1945 (London, 2000).

Macklin, Graham D., ‘Major Hugh Pollard, MI6, and the Spanish Civil War’, Historical Journal, 49/1 (2006), 277-80.

McLachlan, Donald, Room 39: Naval Intelligence in Action, 1939-45 (London, 1968).

McLaren, Angus, ‘Smoke and mirrors: Willie Clarkson and the role of disguises in inter-war England’, Journal of Social History, 40/3 (Spring 2007), 597-618.

Madeira, Victor, ‘British official and Intelligence responses to Soviet subversion against the United Kingdom, 1917-1929’ (PhD thesis, Cambridge University, 2009).

—‘Moscow’s interwar infiltration of British Intelligence, 1919-1929’, Historical Journal, 46/4 (2003), 915-33.

Magill, J. H., Tasavalta tulikokeessa (Mikkeli, Finland, 1981).

Maugham, W. Somerset, Ashenden, or the British Agent (London, 1928).

The Partial View (London, 1954)

The Summing Up (London, 1938).

Mersey, Viscount, A Picture of Life 1872-1940 (London, 1941).

Moberly, F. J., The Campaign in Mesopotamia, 1914-1918, 4 vols (London, 1923-7).

Moravec, Frantisek, Master of Spies: The Memoirs of General Frantisek Moravec (London, 1975).

Morris, A. J. A., C. P. Trevelyan, 1870-1958: Portrait of a Radical (Belfast, 1977).

Mure, David, Master of Deception: Tangled Webs in London and the Middle East (London, 1980).

Murray, Arthur C., Master and Brother: Murrays of Elibank (London, 1945).

Naftali, Timothy J., ‘Intrepid’s last deception: documenting the career of Sir William Stephenson’, Intelligence and National Security, 8/3 (July 1993), 72-99.

National Archives, Special Forces in the Desert War, 1940-1943 (Kew, 2001).

Neilson, Keith, ‘“Joy rides”?: British intelligence and propaganda in Russia, 1914-1917’, Historical Journal, 24/4 (1981), 885-906.

Newbolt, Henry, Naval Operations, v, From April 1917, to the End of the War (London, 1931).

O’Halpin, Eunan, ‘Financing British intelligence: the evidence up to 1945’, in K. G. Robertson (ed.), British and American Approaches to Intelligence (Basingstoke, 1987), 187-217.

Head of the Civil Service: A Study of Sir Warren Fisher (London, 1989).

Spying on Ireland: British Intelligence and Irish Neutrality during the Second World War (Oxford, 2008).

—(ed.), MI5 and Ireland, 1939-1945: The Official History (Dublin, 2003).

Olsen, Oluf Reed, Two Eggs on my Plate (London, 1952).

Onslow, Sue, ‘Britain and the Belgrade coup of 27 March 1941 revisited’, Electronic Journal of International History, no. 8 (March 2005) ( ) (accessed 9 July 2007).

Paillole, Paul, Services spéciaux: 1935-1945 (Paris, 1975).

Pidgeon, Geoffrey, The Secret Wireless War (rev. repr., St Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex, 2006).

Pinero, Arthur W., The Gay Lord Quex (London, 1899).

Popplewell, Richard J., Intelligence and Imperial Defence: British Intelligence and the Defence of the Indian Empire, 1904-1924 (London, 1995).

Porch, Douglas, ‘French intelligence and the fall of France’, Intelligence and National Security, 4/1 (Jan. 1989), 28-58.

Pringle, Jack, Colditz Last Stop: Six Escapes Remembered (London, 1988).

Proctor, Tammy M., Female Intelligence: Women and Espionage in the First World War (London, 2003).

Read, Anthony, and Fisher, David, Colonel Z: The Life and Times of a Master of Spies (London, 1984).

‘Rémy’ [Gilbert Renault], Le Livre du courage et de la peur, 3 vols (Paris, 1945-7).

Richards, Brooks, Secret Flotillas, 2 vols: i, Clandestine Sea Operations to Brittany, 1940-1944; ii, Clandestine Sea Operations in the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Adriatic, 1940-1944 (both London, 2004).

Rigden Denis, How to be a Spy: The World War II SOE Training Manual (Toronto, 2004).

Riste, Olav, The Norwegian Intelligence Service, 1945-1970 (London, 1999).

Rivet, Géneral Louis, Carnets secrets du chef des services spéciaux 1936-1944, ed. Olivier Forcade and Sébastien Laurent (Paris, 2010).

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The War at Sea 1939-1945, 3 vols (London, 1954-61).

Rygor Słowikowski, Mieczysław Z., In the Secret Service: The Lighting of the Torch (London, 1988).

Seaman, Mark (ed.), Special Operations Executive: A New Instrument of War (London, 2006).

Seligmann, Matthew S., Spies in Uniform; British Military and Naval Intelligence on the Eve of the First World War (Oxford, 2006).

—(ed.), Naval Intelligence from Germany: The Reports of the British Naval Attachés in Berlin, 1906-1914 (Aldershot, Hants, 2007).

Sheffy, Yigal, ‘British Intelligence and the Middle East, 1900-1918: how much do we know?’, Intelligence and National Security, 17/1 (March 2002), 37-52.

British Military Intelligence in the Palestine Campaign, 1914-1918 (London, 1998).

Shelly, Adam, ‘British Intelligence in the Middle East, 1939-1946’ (PhD thesis, Cambridge University, 2007).

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Smith, Michael, Foley: The Spy Who Saved 10,000 Jews (London, 1999).

Spence, Richard B., Boris Savinkov: Renegade on the Left (Boulder, Colo., 1991).

—‘Englishmen in New York: the SIS American Station, 1915-21’, Intelligence and National Security, 19/3 (Autumn 2004), 511-37.

—‘Interrupted journey: British intelligence and the arrest of Leon Trotskii, April 1917’, Revolutionary Russia, 13/1 (June 2000), 1-28.

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Stirling, Tessa, Nałęcz, Daria, and Dubicki, Tadeusz (eds), Intelligence Co-operation between Poland and Great Britain during World War II, 2 vols: i, The Report of the Anglo-Polish Historical Committee (London, 2005); ii, Documents, ed. Jan Stanisław Ciechanowski (Warsaw, 2005).

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Thomas, Edward, ‘Norway’s role in British wartime intelligence’, in Patrick Salmon (ed.), Britain and Norway in the Second World War (London, 1995), 121-8.

Thorne, Christopher, ‘MacArthur, Australia and the British, 1942-1943: the secret journal of MacArthur’s British Liaison Officer’ (Parts I and II), in Australian Outlook, 29/1 and 2 (April and Aug. 1975), 53-67 and 197-210.

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Trevor-Roper, Hugh, The Philby Affair: Espionage, Treason, and Secret Services (London, 1968).

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Williams, Valentine, The World of Action (London, 1938).

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