Post-classical history


Only those works cited in the text are included in this bibliography; reasons of space prohibit a more general bibliography of all works consulted or relevant which may lead to some apparent anomalies by the omission of certain standard texts on the subjects discussed.



British History Online:


Calendar of Close Rolls: Edward III–Richard II (HMSO, 1896–1927): BHO and


Calendar of the Charter Rolls, Preserved in the Public Record Office: 15 Edward III–5 Henry V (HMSO, 1916), vol. 5.


Calendar of the Fine Rolls, Preserved in the Public Record Office., ix, Richard II, AD 1377–1383 (HMSO, 1926):


Canterbury Historical and Archaeological Society:


Helena M. Chew and William Kellaway (eds), London Assize of Nuisance 1301–1431: a Calendar (London Record Society, 1973): BHO.


Calendar of Letter-Books of the City of London: H: 1375–1399 (Corporation of the City of London, 1907): BHO.


A. H. Thomas (ed.), Calendar of the Plea and Memoranda Rolls of the City of London: vol. ii: 1364–81 (Cambridge University Press, 1929): BHO.


Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III–Richard II (HMSO, 1891–1916):

Domesday Book:

Ann Williams and G. H. Martin (eds), Domesday Book: A Complete Translation (Penguin Books, 1992).


Geoffrey Brereton (ed. and trans.), Jean Froissart: Chronicles (Penguin Books, 1978).


Thomas Walsingham, Gesta Abbatum Monasterii Sancti Albani: 1349–1411, ed. H. T. Riley (London, 1869), vol. 3.


Thomas Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley (Longmans, Green and Co., 1863–4), 2 vols.


R. H. Hilton and T. H. Aston (eds), The English Rising of 1381 (Cambridge University Press, 1984, repr. 2007).


J. S. Roskell, L. Clark, C. Rawcliffe (eds) The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1386–1421 (Boydell and Brewer, 1993):


W. H. Liddell and R. G. E. Wood (eds), Essex and the Great Revolt of 1381 (Essex Record Office, 1982).

MSS of Lincoln:

The Manuscripts of Lincoln, Bury St Edmunds etc.: Fourteenth Report, Appendix; Part viii (Historical Manuscripts Commission, 1895): BHO.


David M. Walker (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Law (Clarendon Press, 1980).


Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004); online edn, Jan 2008:


Edgar Powell and G. M. Trevelyan (eds), The Peasants’ Rising and the Lollards: A Collection of Documents Forming an Appendix to ‘England in the Age of Wycliffe’ (Longmans, Green and Co., 1899).


The Peasants’ Revolt in Hertfordshire: The Rising and its Background: A Symposium (Hertfordshire Publications, 1981).


Chris Given-Wilson (gen. ed.), The Parliament Rolls of Medieval England 1275–1504 (The Boydell Press, 2005).


James Tait (ed.), Chronica Johannis de Reading et Anonymi Cantuarensis, 1346–67 (Manchester University Press, 1914).

Rippon and Wainwright:

Stephen Rippon and Adam Wainwright, ‘Our Wetland Heritage: An Integrated Approach Towards Managing Coastal Landscapes’:

Rot. Parl.:

Rotuli Parliamentorum, ut et Petitiones, et Placita in Parliamento (London, 1767–77), 6 vols.


Survey of London Online: BHO but links to particular volumes also available at:

Statutes of the Realm:

The Statutes of the Realm (London, 1810), vol. i.


The National Archives, Kew, London.


The Soldier in Later Medieval England database:


Victoria County History: BHO.


David Preest (ed.) and James Gordon Clark (trans.), The Chronica Maiora of Thomas Walsingham (The Boydell Press, 2005).


L.C. Hector and Barbara F. Harvey (eds), The Westminster Chronicle 1381–1394 (Clarendon Press, 1982).

Cited by author’s surname

Adkins, Mary G. M., ‘A Theory about “The Life and Death of Jack Straw”’, The University of Texas Studies in English, 28 (1949), 57–82.

Aers, David, ‘Vox Populi and the Literature of 1381’ in David Wallace (ed.), The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 432–53.

Allen Brown, Reginald, Rochester Castle (HMSO, 1969).

Allmand, Christopher, Henry V (Yale University Press, 1997).

Arnold, Morris S., Select Cases of Trespass from the King’s Courts 1307–99, Seldon Society, 100 (1985) and 103 (1987).

Aston, Margaret, ‘Corpus Christi and Corpus Regni: Heresy and the Peasants’ Revolt’, Past and Present, 143 (1994), 3–47.

Aston (2): ‘Lollardy and Sedition 1381–1431’, Past and Present, 17 (1960), 1–44.

Bailey, Mark, Medieval Suffolk: An Economic and Social History 1200–1500 (The Boydell Press, 2007).

Barber, Richard, Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine (The Boydell Press, 1978).

Barker, Juliet, The Tournament in England, 1100–1400 (The Boydell Press, 1986).

Barker (2): Agincourt: The King, The Campaign, The Battle (Little, Brown, 2005).

Barker (3): Conquest: The English Kingdom of France in the Hundred Years War (Little, Brown, 2009).

Barr, Helen, ‘Wycliffite Representations of the Third Estate’ in Somerset, 197–216.

Barron, Caroline, ‘The Later Middle Ages: 1270–1520’ in Mary D. Lobel and W. H. Johns (eds), The City of London from Prehistoric Times to c.1520 (Oxford University Press, 1989), iii, 42–56.

Barron (2): ‘William Langland: A London Poet’ in Hanawalt, 91–109.

Barron (3): ‘The Burning of the Jubilee Book’ (Lecture to the Guildhall Historical Association, 2002):

Battely, Nicholas, The Antiquities of Canterbury (London, 1703), 2 vols.

Bellamy, J. G., The Law of Treason in England in the Later Middle Ages (Cambridge University Press, 1970).

Bellamy (2): ‘The Northern Rebellions in the Later Years of Richard II’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library (1965), 254–74.

Bellot, Hugh H. L., The Inner and Middle Temple (Methuen, 1902).

Bennett, Michael, ‘Edward III’s Entail and the Succession to the Crown, 1376–1471’, English Historical Review, 113 (1998), 580–609.

Bird, Brian and David Stephenson, ‘Who was John Ball?’, Essex Archaeology and History, 3rd ser., 8 (1976), 287–8.

Bird (2): W. H. B. Bird, ‘The Peasant Rising of 1381: The King’s Itinerary’, English Historical Review, 31 (1916), 124–6.

Bird (3): Ruth Bird, The Turbulent London of Richard II (Longmans, Green & Co., 1949).

Blomefield, Francis, Essay Towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk (1806–7): BHO.

Brie, Friedrich W. D., ‘Wat Tyler and Jack Straw’, English Historical Review, 21 (1906), 106–11.

Britnell, R. H., ‘Feudal Reaction after the Black Death in the Palatinate of Durham’, Past and Present, 128 (1990), 28–47. Growth and Decline in Colchester, 1300–1525 (Cambridge University Press, 1986).

Brooks, Nicholas, ‘The Organization and Achievements of the Peasants of Kent and Essex in 1381’ in Brooks (3), 266–89.

Brooks (2): ‘Rochester Bridge, AD 43–1381’ in Brooks (3), 219–65.

Brooks (3): Communities and Warfare 700–1400 (The Hambledon Press, 2000).

Brown, Peter (ed.), Geoffrey Chaucer (Oxford University Press, 2011).

Butcher, A. F., ‘English Urban Society and the Revolt of 1381’ in H&A, 84–111.

Campbell, Bruce M. S., ‘Population Pressure, Inheritance and the Land Market in a Fourteenth-Century Peasant Community’ in Smith (2), 87–134.

Campbell (2): ‘Agriculture in Kent in the High Middle Ages’ in Sweetinburgh, 25–53.

Carlin, Martha, Medieval Southwark (The Hambledon Press, 1996).

Chaucer, Geoffrey, The Parson’s Tale: (my translation).

Chaucer (2): Canterbury Tales: Nine Tales and the General Prologue, ed. V. A. Kolve and Glending Olson (Norton Critical Editions, 1989): (my translation).

Chrimes, S. B. and A. L. Brown, Select Documents of English Constitutional History (Adam and Charles Black, 1961).

Cole, Andrew, ‘William Langland and the Invention of Lollardy’ in Somerset, 37–58.

Coulson, Charles, ‘Hierarchism in Conventual Crenellation: An Essay on the Sociology and Metaphysics of Medieval Fortification’:

Crane, Susan, ‘The Writing Lesson of 1381’ in Hanawalt, 201–21.

Crook, D., ‘Derbyshire and the English Rising of 1381’, Historical Research, 60 no. 141 (1987), 9–23.

Crouch, David, William Marshal: Knighthood, War and Chivalry,1147–1219 (Pearson Education, 2002).

De Saxe, David, ‘The Hundred of Wye and the Great Revolt of 1381’, Archaeologia Cantiana, 127 (2007), 143–61.

Djordjevic, Igor, Holinshead’s Nation: Ideals, Memory, and Practical Policy in the Chronicles (Ashgate, 2010).

Dobson, R. B., The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 (Macmillan, 1970).

Dobson (2): ‘The Risings in York, Beverley and Scarborough, 1380–1381’ in H&A, 112–42.

Dodd, Gwilym and Alison McHardy (eds), Petitions to the Crown from English Religious Houses c.1272–c.1485, Canterbury and York Society, 100 (2010).

Duffy, Eamon, Marking the Hours: English People and their Prayers 1240–1570 (Yale University Press, 2006).

Dunn, Alastair, The Peasants’ Revolt: England’s Failed Revolution of 1381 (Tempus Publishing, 2002, 2004 edn).

Dyer, Christopher, Everyday Life in Medieval England (The Hambledon Press, 1994).

Dyer (2): ‘The Rising of 1381 in Suffolk: Its Origins and Participants’, Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History, 36 (1988), 274–87.

Dyer (3): ‘The Social and Economic Background to the Rural Revolt of 1381’ in H&A, 9–42.

Dyer (4): ‘Work Ethics in the Fourteenth Century’ in James Bothwell, P. J. P. Goldberg and W. M. Ormrod (eds), The Problem of Labour in Fourteenth-Century England (York Medieval Press, 2000), 21–41.

Dyer (5): ‘The Causes of the Revolt in Rural Essex’ in L&W, 21–36.

Dyer (6): Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages (Cambridge University Press, 1989, revised edn, 1998).

Eiden, Herbert, ‘Joint Action Against “Bad” Lordship: The Peasants’ Revolt in Essex and Norfolk’, History, 83 (1998), 5–30.

Eiden (2): ‘Norfolk, 1382: A Sequel to the Peasants’ Revolt’, English Historical Review, 114 (1999), 370–7.

Faith, Rosamund, ‘The “Great Rumour” of 1377 and Peasant Ideology’ in H&A, 43–73.

Federico, Sylvia, ‘The Imaginary Society: Women in 1381’, Journal of British Studies, 40 no. 2 (2001), 159–83.

Fenwick, Carolyn C. (ed.), The Poll Taxes of 1377, 1379 and 1381 (Oxford University Press, 1998, 2001, 2005), 3 vols.

Flaherty, W. E., ‘The Great Rebellion in Kent of 1381 Illustrated from the Public Records’, Archaeologia Cantiana, 3 (1860), 65–96.

Fryde, E. B., ‘Parliament and the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381’ in E. B. Fryde, Studies in Medieval Trade and Finance (The Hambledon Press, 1983), 75–88.

Fryde (2): ‘The Financial Policies of the Royal Governments and Popular Resistance to Them in France and England’ in E. B. Fryde, Studies in Medieval Trade and Finance (The Hambledon Press, 1983), 824–60.

Fryde (3): Peasants and Landlords in Later Medieval England (Alan Sutton and St Martin’s Press, 1996).

Fuller, Thomas, The Church History of Britain, from the Birth of Jesus Christ until the year MDCXVIII (3rd edn, Thomas Tegg, 1842), vol. 1.

Goldberg, P. J. P. (ed.), Woman is a Worthy Wight: Women in English Society c.1200–1500 (Sutton, 1992).

Goldberg (2): ‘“For Better, For Worse”: Marriage and Economic Opportunity for Women in Town and Country’ in Goldberg, 108–25.

Goldberg (3): ‘Marriage, Migration, and Servanthood: The York Cause Paper Evidence’ in Goldberg, 1–15.

Goodman, Anthony, John of Gaunt: The Exercise of Princely Power in Fourteenth-Century Europe (Longman, 1992).

Gottfried, Robert S., Bury St Edmunds and the Urban Crisis:1290–1539 (Princeton University Press, 1982).

Green, Richard Firth, ‘John Ball’s Letters: Literary History and Historical Literature’ in Hanawalt, 176–200.

Grenville, Jane, ‘Houses and Households in Late Medieval England: An Archaeological Perspective’ in Jocelyn Wogan-Browne et al (eds), Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts in Late Medieval Britain. Essays for Felicity Riddy (Brepols, 2000), 309–28.

Grieve, H. E. P., ‘The Rebellion and the County Town’ in L&W, 37–54.

Hanawalt, Barbara (ed.), Chaucer’s England: Literature in Historical Context (University of Minnesota Press, 1992).

Harding, Alan, ‘The Revolt against the Justices’ in H&A, 165–93.

Harriss, Gerald, Shaping the Nation: England 1360–1461 (Clarendon Press, 2005).

Harvey, Barbara, ‘Draft Letters Patent of Manumission and Pardon for the Men of Somerset in 1381’, English Historical Review, 80 (1965), 89–91.

Hasted, Edward, The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent (Canterbury, 1797–1801), 12 vols: BHO.

Hatcher, John, ‘England in the Aftermath of the Black Death’, Past and Present, 144 (1994), 3–35.

Heath, Sidney, Pilgrim Life in the Middle Ages (T. Fisher Unwin, 1911).

Hewitt, H. J., The Organization of War under Edward III (Manchester University Press, 1966; repr. Pen and Sword, 2004).

Hibbert, Christopher, Tower of London (Newsweek Book Division, 1971).

Hilton, Rodney, Bond Men Made Free: Medieval Peasant Movements and the English Rising of 1381, with a new introduction by Christopher Dyer (Routledge, 2003).

Hinck, Helmut, ‘The Rising of 1381 in Winchester’, English Historical Review, 125 (2010), 112–31.

Holt, Richard, ‘Thomas of Woodstock and Events at Gloucester in 1381’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 58 (1985), 237–41.

Hutton, Ronald, The Rise and Fall of Merry England: The Ritual Year 1400–1700 (Oxford University Press, 1994).

Jewell, Helen, ‘Piers Plowman – A Poem of Crisis: An Analysis of Political Instability in Langland’s England’ in John Taylor and Wendy Childs (eds), Politics and Crisis in Fourteenth-Century England (Sutton Publishing, 1990), 59–80.

Justice, Steven, Writing and Rebellion: England in 1381 (University of California Press, 1994).

Karras, Ruth Mazo, ‘The Regulation of Brothels in Later Medieval England’, Signs, 14 (1989), 399–433.

Keen, Maurice H., England in the Later Middle Ages (2nd edn, Routledge, 2003).

Kelly, Henry Ansgar, ‘Bishop, Prioress, and Bawd in the Stews of Southwark’, Speculum, 75 (2000), 342–88.

Knoop, D. and G. P. Jones, The Medieval Mason (Manchester University Press, 3rd edn, 1967).

Lacey, Helen, ‘“Grace for the Rebels”: The Role of the Royal Pardon in the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381’, Journal of Medieval History, 34 (2008), 36–63.

Larsen, Andrew E., ‘Are All Lollards Lollards?’ in Somerset, 59–72.

Liddy, Christian D., ‘Urban Conflict in Late Fourteenth-Century England: The Case of York in 1380–1’, English Historical Review, 118 (2003), 1–32.

Linebaugh, Peter, The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century (Verso, 2003).

Logan, F. Donald, Excommunication and the Secular Arm in Medieval England (Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1968).

Mate, Mavis, ‘The Economy of Kent, 1200–1500: An Age of Expansion, 1200–1348’ in Sweetinburgh, 1–10.

Matheson, Lister M., ‘The Peasants’ Revolt through Five Centuries of Rumor and Reporting: Richard Fox, John Stow, and their Successors’, Studies in Philology, xcv (1998), 121–51.

McHardy, A. K., (ed.), Clerical Poll-Taxes of the Diocese of Lincoln 1377–81, Lincoln Record Soc., 81 (1992).

McHardy (2): The Church in London 1375–1392, London Record Soc., 13 (1977).

Müller, Miriam, ‘The Aims and Organisation of a Peasant Revolt in Early Fourteenth-Century Wiltshire’, Rural History, 14 (2003), 1–20.

Müller (2): ‘Conflict and Revolt: The bishop of Ely and his peasants at the manor of Brandon in Suffolk c.1300–81’, Rural History, 23 (2012), 1–19.

Musson, Anthony, Medieval Law in Context: The Growth of Legal Consciousness from Magna Carta to the Peasants’ Revolt (Manchester University Press, 2001).

Napier, Jill and Chris, ‘Essex Historic Buildings Group Study Day at Cressing Temple’, Norfolk Historic Buildings Group Newsletter, 10 (2005), 14.

Ohler, Norbert, The Medieval Traveller (Boydell Press, 1989).

Oman, Charles W. C., The Great Revolt of 1381 (Oxford, 1906, repr. Forgotten Books, 2012).

Orme, Nicholas, Medieval Schools: From Roman Britain to Renaissance England (Yale University Press, 2006).

Orme (2): Medieval Children (Yale University Press, 2001).

Ormrod, W. Mark, ‘The Peasants’ Revolt and the Government of England’, Journal of British Studies, 29 (1991), 1–30.

Ormrod (2): ‘The West European Monarchies in the Later Middle Ages’ in Richard Bonney (ed.), Economic Systems and State Finance (Clarendon Press, 1995), 123–60.

Ormrod (3): ‘An Experiment in Taxation: The English Parish Subsidy of 1371’, Speculum, 63 (1988), 58–82.

Ormrod (4): Edward III (Yale University Press, 2011, pbk 2013).

Owst, G. R., Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England (Oxford, 1961).

Palmer, W. M., ‘Records of the Villein Insurrection in Cambridgeshire’, East Anglian (Dec 1896), 81–4, 97–102, 135–9, 167–72, 209–12, 234–7, 243–7.

Robert C. Palmer, English Law in the Age of the Black Death, 1348–1381: A Transformation of Governance and Law (University of North Carolina Press, 1993).

Pedersen, Frederik, ‘The German Hanse and the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 57 (1984), 92–8.

Pettitt, T., ‘“Here Comes I Jack Straw”: English Folk Drama and Social Revolt’, Folklore, 95 (1984), 3–20.

Poos, L. R., A Rural Society after the Black Death: Essex 1350–1525 (Cambridge University Press, 1991).

Powell, Edgar, The Rising in East Anglia in 1381 (Cambridge University Press, 1896).

Prescott, Andrew, Judicial Records of the Rising of 1381 (PhD. thesis, Bedford College, University of London, 1984): Ethos 319371.

Prescott (2): ‘Writing about Rebellion: Using the Records of the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381’, History Workshop Journal, 45 (1998), 1–27.

Putnam, Bertha H., ‘Maximum Wage-Laws for Priests after the Black Death, 1348–1381’, American Historical Review, 21 (1915), 12–32.

Quiney, Anthony, Town Houses of Medieval Britain (Yale University Press, 2003).

Ravensdale, Jack, ‘Population Changes and the Transfer of Customary Land on a Cambridgeshire Manor in the Fourteenth Century’ in Smith (2), 197–225.

Réville, André, Le Soulèvement des Travailleurs d’Angleterre en 1381 (Paris, 1898).

Rich, E. E., ‘The Mayors of the Staples’, Cambridge Historical Journal, iv (1933), 120–42.

Riley, H. T. (ed.), Memorials of London and London Life: In the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries (Longmans, Green and Co., 1868): BHO.

Russell, Josiah Cox, ‘The Clerical Population of Medieval England’, Traditio, 2 (1944), 177–212.

Sabine, Ernest L., ‘City Cleaning in Mediaeval London’, Speculum, 12 (1937), 19–43.

Sargent, Frank, ‘The Wine Trade with Gascony’ in George Unwin (ed.), Finance and Trade Under Edward III (Manchester University Press, 1918), 256–311.

Salmon, Nicholas, ‘A Reassessment of A Dream of John Ball’:

Saul, Nigel, Richard II (Yale University Press, 1997, pbk 1999).

Saul (2): The Batsford Companion to Medieval England (Barnes and Noble, 1983).

Sayles, G. O., ‘Richard II in 1381 and 1399’, English Historical Review, 94 (1979), 820–9.

Schofield, Phillipp R., Peasant and Community in Medieval England, 1200–1500 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).

Searle, Eleanor and Robert Burghart, ‘The Defense of England and the Peasants’ Revolt’, Viator, 3 (1970), 365–88.

Smith, Richard M., ‘Geographical Diversity in the Resort to Marriage in Late Medieval Europe: Work, Reputation, and Unmarried Females in the Household Formation Systems of Northern and Southern Europe’ in Goldberg, 16–59.

Smith (2): (ed.), Land, Kinship and Life-Cycle (Cambridge University Press, 1984).

Somerset, Fiona, Jill C. Havens and Derrick G. Pitard (eds), Lollards and their Influence in Late Medieval England (The Boydell Press, 2003).

Sparvel-Bayly, J. A., ‘Essex in Insurrection, 1381’, Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society, n.s. 1 (1878), 205–19.

Staley, Lynn (ed. and trans.), The Book of Margery Kempe (W. W. Norton & Co, 2001).

Stopford, J., ‘Modes of Production among Medieval Tilers’, Medieval Archaeology (1993):

Storey, Mark, Robert Southey: A Life (Oxford University Press, 1997).

Stubbs, W., Select Charters and Other Illustrations of English Constitutional History (Clarendon Press, 1895).

Suckling, Alfred, The History and Antiquities of the County of Suffolk (John Weale, 1846–8), 2 vols: BHO.

Sumption, Jonathan, Divided Houses: The Hundred Years War III (Faber and Faber, 2012).

Sweetinburgh, Sheila (ed.), Later Medieval Kent, 1220–1540 (The Boydell Press, 2010).

Taylor, Antony, London’s Burning: Pulp Fiction, the Politics of Terrorism and the Destruction of the Capital in British Popular Culture, 1840–2005 (Bloomsbury Academic, pbk 2013).

Taylor, John, English Historical Literature in the Fourteenth Century (Clarendon Press, 1987).

Thornbury, Walter and Edward Walford, Old and New London (Cassell, Petter and Galpin, 1878), 6 vols: BHO.

Thrupp, Sylvia L., The Merchant Class of Medieval London (1300–1500) (University of Chicago Press, 1948).

Tout, T. F., Chapters in the Administrative History of Mediaeval England: The Wardrobe, the Chamber and the Small Seals (Manchester University Press, 1928), vol. iii.

Walford, Edward, Old and New London (Centre for Metropolitan History, 1878), vol. vi.

Walker, S. K., ‘Letters to the Dukes of Lancaster in 1381 and 1399’, English Historical Review, 106 (1991), 68–79.

Walker (2): ‘Rumour, Sedition and Popular Protest in the Reign of Henry IV’, Past and Present, 166 (2000), 31–65.

Webb, E. A., The Records of St Bartholomew’s Priory [and] St Bartholomew the Great, West Smithfield (Oxford University Press, 1921): BHO.

Wilkinson, B., ‘The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381’, Speculum, 15 (1940) 12–35.

Wood, R. G. E., ‘Essex Manorial Records and the Revolt’ in L&W, 67–84.

Wood (2): Margaret Wood, The English Mediaeval House (Bracken Books, 1965).

Woodhouse, A. S. P. (ed.), Puritanism and Liberty (2nd edn, London, 1974).

Wright, Lawrence, Clean and Decent: The Fascinating History of the Bathroom and Water-Closet (Penguin, 2000).

Wyclif, John, Tractatus de Blasphemia, ed. Michael Henry Dziewicki (London, 1893).

Young, Deborah, The Life-Cycle in Western Europe, c. 1300–1500 (Manchester University Press, 2006).

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