Military history

Notes

1. IRAQ

1. "Hall of Valor: Travis L. Manion," Military Times, http://militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards/recipient.php?recipientid=3739 (last accessed May 26, 2010).

2. CHINA

1. Nova Online, "Shackleton's Voyage of Endurance: Meet Shackleton's Team," www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/shackleton/1914/team.html (last accessed May 26, 2010).

4. BOSNIA

1. John Kifner, "In North Bosnia, a Rising Tide of Serbian Violence," New York Times, March 27, 1994, www.nytimes.com/1994/03/27/world/in-north-bosnia-a-rising-tide-of-serbian-violence.html (last accessed March 30, 2010).

2. Brett Dakin, "The Islamic Community in Bosnia and Herzegovina v. The Republika Srpska: Human Rights in a Multi-Ethnic Bosnia," Harvard Human Rights Journal 15 (Spring 2002), www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/hrj/iss15/dakin.shtml (last accessed March 30, 2010).

3. Roy Gutman, "Death Camp Lists: In Town After Town, Bosnia's 'Elite' Disappeared," Newsday, November 8, 1992.

4. Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide (New York: Harper Perennial, 2003), 256.

5. Roy Gutman, "Unholy War: Serbs Target Culture, Heritage of Bosnia's Muslims," Newsday, September 2, 1992.

6. Eric Greitens, Strength and Compassion: Photographs and Essays (Washington, D.C.: Leading Authorities Press, 2008), 132.

7. United Nations, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic, case no. IT-98-33-T, August 2, 2001, p. 72, available at http://icr.icty.org.

5. RWANDA

1. "Rwanda: A Historical Timeline," Frontline, www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/rwanda/etc/cron.html (last accessed March 30, 2010).

2. United Nations Children's Fund, "State of the World's Children 1996: Children in War," www.unicef.org/sowc96/1cinwar.htm (last accessed March 30, 2010).

3. Stefan Lovgren, "'Hotel Rwanda' Portrays Hero Who Fought Genocide," National Geographic, December 9, 2004, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/12/ 1209_041209_hotel_rwanda_2.html (last accessed March 10, 2010).

4. Akagera National Park, www.expertafrica.com/area/Akagera_National_Park.htm (last accessed March 10, 2010).

5. Rwanda Safaris Guide, "Rwanda Primate Safari Monkeys: Nyungwe's Monkeys," www.rwandasafarisguide.com/rwanda-national-parks/nyungwe-forest/rwanda- primate-safari-monkeys.php (last accessed May 28, 2010).

6. Eric Greitens, Strength and Compassion: Photographs and Essays (Washington, D.C.: Leading Authorities Press, 2008), 6.

7. Ibid., 11.

8. Samantha Power, "Bystanders to Genocide," Atlantic Monthly, September 2001, www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2001/09/bystanders-to-genocide/4571/6/ (last accessed March 30, 2010).

9. Philip Gourevitch, We Wish to Inform You That We Will Be Killed Tomorrow (New York: Picador, 1998), 150–51.

10. Online NewsHour, "Search for Stability: Promoting Peace," March 25, 1998, www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/africa/jan-june98/rwanda_3-25a.html (last accessed May 28, 2010).

11. Greitens, Strength and Compassion, 13.

12. Ibid., 12.

6. BOLIVIA

1. Edith Hamilton, The Greek Way (New York: Norton, 1964), 9.

2. William Jennings Bryan, ed., The World's Famous Orations (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1906), available at www.bartleby.com/268/8/33.html (last accessed August 26, 2010).

7. OXFORD

1. Albert Camus, The Plague, trans. Stuart Gilbert (New York: Modern Library), 231.

2. Eric Greitens, "The Treatment of Children During Conflict," in War and Underdevelopment, vol. 1, edited by Frances Stewart and Valpy FitzGerald (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 149–67.

3. Caroline Moorehead, Dunant's Dream: War, Switzerland, and the History of the Red Cross (London: HarperCollins, 1998), 3–4.

4. Population Research Institute, "Israel's Demographic Geopolitics," November 29, 1999, www.pop.org/00000000190/israels-demographic-geopolitics (last accessed August 24, 2010).

5. ReliefWeb, "The Gaza Blockade: Children and Education Fact Sheet," July 28, 2009, www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/LSGZ-7UDDVG?OpenDocument (last accessed May 26, 2010).

6. Moorehead, Dunant's Dream, 6.

7. Eric R. Greitens, "Children First: Ideas and the Dynamics of Aid in Western Voluntary Assistance Programs for War-Affected Children Abroad" (DPhil diss., Oxford University, 2000).

8. John Stuart Mill, "The Contest in America," reprinted by the Penn State Electronic Classic Series, www2.hn.psu.edu/faculty/jmanis/jsmill/Contest-america.pdf (last accessed May 29, 2010).

8. OFFICER CANDIDATE SCHOOL

1. United States Navy Officer Candidate School, "Officer Candidate Regulations," www.ocs.navy.mil/pdfs/Updated.Gouge.Pack.OCS2.pdf (last accessed April 7, 2010).

9. SEAL TRAINING

1. NFL Players Association, "NFL Collective Bargaining Agreement 2006–2012," March 8, 2006, 179, http://images.nflplayers.com/mediaResources/files/PDFs/General/NFL %20COLLECTIVE%20BARGAINING%20AGREEMENT%202006%20-%202012.pdf (last accessed April 7, 2010).

2. Navy Cyberspace, "Military Pay Chart 2010," www.navycs.com/2010-military-pay-chart.html (last accessed May 28, 2010).

10. HELL WEEK

1. Department of Defense, The Armed Forces Officer, 1.

2. Fred J. Pushies, Weapons of the Navy SEALs (St. Paul, MN: MBI Publishing Company, 2004), 18.

3. Derrick Wright, Tarawa 1943: The Turning of the Tide (Oxford: Osprey Press, 2000), 93.

4. Abraham Lincoln Online, "First Political Announcement," March 9, 1832, http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/speeches/1832.htm (last accessed August 13, 2010).

5. This translation of the epitaph, which is attributed to Simonides, is in the historical note preceding Steven Pressfield's Gates of Fire (New York: Bantam, 1999).

6. Mir Banhmanyar, U.S. Navy SEALs (Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2005), 3.

11. ADVANCED COMBAT TRAINING

1. Dick Couch, Finishing School: Earning the Navy SEAL Trident (New York: Crown, 2004), 135–36. Actual phrasing is slightly different (original passage is "The ocean is the hardest element for any soldier to operate in—but we must be masters of the sea").

12. AFGHANISTAN

1. Stephen Tanner's Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the Fall of the Taliban (New York: Da Capo Press, 2002) is the source for historical information on Afghanistan in this chapter unless noted otherwise.

2. Steve Lohr, "Moscow's Millions of Deadly Seeds: Afghan Mines," New York Times, March 2, 1989, www.nytimes.com/1989/03/02/world/moscow-s-millions-of-deadly- seeds-afghan-mines.html (last accessed May 28, 2010).

3. Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), 25.

4. Michael Evans, "Warlords Set to Reap Profits of Poppy Harvest," Times, November 26, 2001, www.opioids.com/afghanistan/warlords.html (last accessed March 10, 2010).

5. Doug Stanton, Horse Soldiers: Extraordinary Story of a Band of U.S. Soldiers Who Rode to Victory in Afghanistan (New York: Scribner, 2009), 96–97.

6. Barbara Crossette, "Taliban Seem to Be Making Good on Opium Ban, U.N. Says," New York Times, February 7, 2001, www.nytimes.com/2001/02/07/world/taliban- seem-to-be-making-good-on-opium-ban-un-says.html?scp=10&sq=taliban%20 opium&st=cse (last accessed May 26, 2010).

7. Stanton, Horse Soldiers, 98–99.

8. Military Force Authorization Resolution, Public Law 107–40, 107th Cong., 1st sess., September 18, 2001, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname= 107_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ040.107 (last accessed May 26, 2010).

9. Stanton, Horse Soldiers, 58–60.

10. Ibid., 345. For casualty count up to the fall of Kandahar on December 7, 2001, see www.icasualties.org/OEF/Fatalities.aspx.

11. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction, "Standing Rules of Engagement for US Forces," January 15, 2000, www.fas.org/man/dod-101/dod/docs/cjcs_sroe.pdf, A-5 (last accessed May 26, 2010).

12. United Nations Development Programme, "Human Development Report 2007/ 2008: Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World," 261, http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_20072008_EN_Complete.pdf (last accessed May 28, 2010).

13. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports, "Composite Indicies—HDI and Beyond," http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/indices/ (last accessed May 29, 2010).

14. Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, "Afghanistan Briefing Transcript," www.cceia.org/resources/transcripts/0235.html (last accessed May 27, 2010).

15. See David R. Moran, "About Sherwood Ford Moran: 1885–1983," http://home.comcast.net/~drmoran/home.htm (last accessed March 31, 2010), and Stephen Budiansky, "Truth Extraction," Atlantic Monthly, June 2005, www.theatlantic.com/doc/200506/budiansky (last accessed May 27, 2010).

16. Jack Cloonan, "No Torture, No Exception," Washington Monthly, January 2008, www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2008/0801.cloonan.html (last accessed May 26, 2010).

17. Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, "Afghanistan Briefing Transcript."

18. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, "Census 2000 Population Statistics," February 9, 2004, www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/census/cps2k.htm (last accessed May 26, 2010).

13. SOUTHEAST ASIA

1. "Mark V Special Operations Craft," www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/ mark_v.htm (last accessed March 31, 2010).

2. "Patrol Boat Mark V Special Operations Craft (SOC)," www.militaryfactory.com/ ships/detail.asp?ship_id=Patrol-Boat-Mark-V-SOC (last accessed May 26, 2010).

3. "Mark V Special Operations Craft (MK V SOC)," www.americanspecialops.com/ boats/mark-v-special-operations-craft/ (last accessed March 31, 2010).

4. Sea, Air, Land Online, "SEAL Code: A Warrior Creed," www.navyseals.com/?q=seal- code-warrior-creed (last accessed August 26, 2010).

5. Theodore Roosevelt, "1902 State of the Union Address," www.presidentialelection.com/students/wiki/index.php/Students_1902_State_of_the_Union_Address (last accessed May 29, 2010).

6. "Country Comparison: Population," CIA World Fact Book, www.cia.gov/library/ publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html (last accessed March 31, 2010).

7. Dennis Blair and Kenneth Lieberthal, "Smooth Sailing: The World's Shipping Lanes Are Safe," Foreign Affairs 86, no. 3 (May–June 2007), 7.

8. Michael Shuman, "How to Defeat Pirates: Success in the Strait," Time, April 22, 2009, www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1893032,00.html#ixzz0p5UEDZms (last accessed May 26, 2010).

9. Zachary Abuza, "Balik-Terrorism: The Return of the Abu Sayyaf," Strategic Studies Institute at the Army War College, September 2005, 2, www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub625.pdf (last accessed May 28, 2010).

10. BBC News, "Guide to the Philippines Conflict," http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia- pacific/1695576.stm.

11. Online NewsHour, "Profile: Abu Sayaaf," January 2002, www.pbs.org/newshour/ terrorism/international/abu_sayyaf.html (last accessed May 27, 2010).

12. BBC News, "Philippine TV Shows Beheading Video," February 19, 2002, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1829211.stm (last accessed March 31, 2010).

13. Gracia Burnham, In the Presence of My Enemies (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House, 2003), 20.

14. Mark Bowden, "Jihadists in Paradise," Atlantic Monthly, March 2007, www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2007/03/jihadists-in-paradise/5613/2/ (last accessed May 27, 2010).

15. John W. Fountain, "A Phone Call Brings Sad News but Fails to Dent Faith," New York Times, June 8, 2002, www.nytimes.com/2002/06/08/world/a-phone-call-brings-sad- news-but-fails-to-dent-faith.html?scp=7&sq=gracia%20burnham&st=cse (last accessed May 27, 2010).

16. Bowden, "Jihadists in Paradise."

17. United Nations Development Programme, "Human Development Report 2007/2008: Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World," 238, http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_20072008_EN_Complete.pdf (last accessed May 28, 2010).

14. KENYA

1. Sun Tzu, The Art of War, ed. James Clavell (New York: Dell, 1983), 15.

2. Jason Burke, Al Qaeda: The True Story of Radical Islam (New York: I. B. Tauris, 2003), 158–59.

3. Karl Vick and T. R. Reid, "It Was an Ordinary Day, Then Horror," Washington Post, August 10, 1998, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/eafricabombing/ stories/explode081098.htm (last accessed May 27, 2010).

4. Samuel M. Katz, Relentless Pursuit: The DSS and the Manhunt for the Al-Qaeda Terrorists (New York: Forge Books, 2002), 243–44.

5. "3 Killed as U.S. Chopper Is Shot Down in Somalia," New York Times, September 25, 1993, www.nytimes.com/1993/09/25/world/3-killed-as-us-chopper-is-shot-down-in- somalia.html?pagewanted=1 (last accessed May 27, 2010).

6. Jane Perlez, "Somalia Aid Workers Split on Troops," New York Times, November 27, 1992, www.nytimes.com/1992/11/27/world/somalia-aid-workers-split-on-troops.html?pagewanted=1 (last accessed May 27, 2010).

7. United Nations Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Somalia," October 11, 2005, http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/ N05/544/15/PDF/N0554415.pdf?OpenElement (last accessed April 7, 2010).

8. United Nations Development Programme, "Crisis Prevention and Recovery: Fast Facts—Somalia," www.undp.org/cpr/whats_new/Regions/somalia.shtml (last accessed May 27, 2010).

9. Famine Early Warning System Network, "The Impact of Piracy on Livelihoods and Food Security in Somalia," www.fews.net/docs/Publications/1000872.pdf (last accessed April 7, 2010)

10. Henry A. Kissinger, "America's Assignment: What Will We Face in the Next Four Years?" Newsweek, November 8, 2004, www.henryakissinger.com/articles/nw110404.html (last accessed March 23, 2010).

11. P. Mangelus, Lamu: Preservation and Presentation of Its Cultural Heritage (Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 1983), 1, http:// unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0005/000582/058202eo.pdf (last accessed May 29, 2010).

12. Education International, "Kenya: Teachers Demand Immediate Salary Increases and Respect for Union Rights," www.ei-ie.org/en/news/show.php?id=953&theme=rights &country=kenya (last accessed May 26, 2010).

15. IRAQ

1. Iraq Coalition Casualty Count, "Iraq Coalition Casualties: Fatalities by Year and Month," www.icasualties.org/Iraq/ByMonth.aspx (last accessed May 27, 2010).

2. Homer, The Iliad, trans. Robert Fagles (New York: Penguin Classics, 1991), 210.

EPILOGUE: THE MISSION CONTINUES

1. National Public Radio, "A Grandfather's War Stories," October 9, 2007, www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=15127337 (last accessed August 26, 2010).

2. This quotation has been attributed to many people, including Mahatma Gandhi, Henry Drummond and William Penn.

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