Afranius, Lucius: one of Pompey’s officers who fought for him in Spain, Macedonia and Africa.

Ahenobarbus, Lucius Domitius: consul in 54 and a leading opponent of Caesar in the build-up to the Civil War. Defeated at Corfinum and Massilia, and finally killed in the aftermath of Pharsalus.

Antony, Mark (c. 81±30): one of Caesar’s subordinate officers, he was given both administrative and military posts. Emerged as one of the main leaders of Caesar’s supporters after his assassination.

Brutus, Marcus Junius (c. 85±42): influential younger member of the Senate who fought against Caesar in 49-48. Captured and pardoned, he was one of the leaders who led the conspiracy against him.

Caelius Rufus, Marcus: friend of Cicero, but sided with Caesar during the Civil War. The unstable Caelius Rufus then rebelled against him and was killed.

Caesar, Caius Julius (100±44): maverick politician and brilliant commander, Caesar rose through Civil War to establish himself as dictator. Murdered by a conspiracy of senators, Caesar’s fame has nevertheless endured to the present day.

Cassius Longinus, Caius (c. 85±42): having won a name for himself by defending Syria after the death of Crassus, Cassius sided with Pompey during the Civil War. Captured and pardoned he and Brutus led the conspiracy against the dictator.

Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106±43): the greatest orator of his day, Cicero was more a politician than soldier. He survived the Civil War only to be executed on Mark Antony’s orders. Cicero’s Correspondence and other writings provide a mass of information about the period.

Cleopatra (c. 69±30): queen of Egypt and subsequently mistress of first Caesar and then Antony.

Crassus, Marcus Licinius (85±53): the man who suppressed Spartacus’ rebellion and later one of the triumvirate with Pompey and Caesar. Crassus mounted an invasion of Parthia in 54 and was killed the next year after the defeat at Carrhae.

Curio, Caius Scribonius: reckless young senator who was bribed to join Caesar and defended his interests as tribune of the plebs in 50. Killed in Africa the following year.

Domitius Calvinus, Cnaeus: one of Caesar’s subordinate officers, elected to the consulship in 53 and 42.

Juba, King: ruler of Numidia and Gaetulia, he sided with Pompey, but took his own life after the defeat in 46.

Marius, Caius (c. 157±87): a man of humble background, but great military talent, Marius reformed the Roman army and had a spectacular career, but also provoked Rome’s first Civil War in 88.

Octavia: sister of Octavian, she was married to Antony to cement their political alliance. However, he subsequently discarded her for Cleopatra.

Octavian/Augustus (Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, 63±AD 14): Caesar’s nephew and adopted son. His rise to power and eventual defeat of all rivals led to the creation of a form of monarchy known as the Principate.

Petreius, Marcus: one of Pompey’s senior subordinates, he commanded large forces in Spain, Macedonia and Africa, but committed suicide after the defeat at Thapsus.

Pompey the Great (Pompeius Magnus),Cnaeus (106±48): Pompey rose to fame at a young age during the Sullan Civil War, forging a career which was as spectacular as it was unconstitutional. Joined with Crassus and Caesar to form the First Triumvirate, but, after the death of Crassus, relations with Caesar broke down and led to Civil War.

Pompeius, Cnaeus: elder son of Pompey, who fought against Caesar in Spain and was defeated and killed at Munda in 45.

Pompeius, Sextus: younger son of Pompey and a gifted naval commander, he fought with success against Octavian until his final defeat in 36.

Scipio, Quintus Metellus Pius Nasica: one of Caesar’s main opponents in the Senate, he proved an inept commander and was defeated at Thapsus in 46.

Sulla, Publius Cornelius the dictator(138±78): the first man to lead a Roman army against Rome and the victor in its first Civil War, he became dictator and attempted to reform the Roman state.

Sulla, Pubius Cornelius: nephew of the dictator, he served as one of Caesar’s officers, but died in 45.

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