c. 5000–c. 3100 BC Predynastic Period

c. 3100–2686 BC Early Dynastic Period

c. 3150–3050 BC Dynasty “O”


c. 3050–2890 BC First Dynasty

c. 3100 BC Narmer: wars that led to unification of Egypt.

c. 3050 BC Djer: Nubian campaign recorded at Gebel Sheikh Suleiman.

c. 2985 BC Den: military action in Asia or Sinai?

c. 2890–2686 BC Second Dynasty

c. 2600 BC Khasekhemwy: civil war; action in Ta-Sety (Nubia).

c. 2686–2181 BC Old Kingdom

c. 2686–2613 BC Third Dynasty

c. 2686–2613 BC Sanakhte: action in Sinai.

2648–2640 BC Sekhemkhet: action in Sinai.

c. 2613–2494 BC Fourth Dynasty

2613–2589 BC Snefru, Nubian campaign captured 7,000 people. Defensive system of walls and forts built on eastern border.

2589–2566 BC Khufu: battle reliefs (?).

2558–2532 BC Khafre: battle reliefs (?).

c. 2498–2345 BC Fifth Dynasty

2494–2487 BC Userkaf: troops depicted in scene from temple, but not specifically military.

2487–2475 BC Sahure: military actions against Libyans, Asia, and Nubia implied in reliefs from king’s temple. Expedition to Punt.

2375–2345 BC Unas: battle scene from temple shows Asiatics or Libyans.

c. 2345–2181 BC Sixth Dynasty

2287–2278 BC Nemtyemsaf: expeditions of Harkhuf to Yam.

2278–2184 BC Pepi II: expeditions of Harkhuf to Yam: emergence of united kingdom of Wawat in Lower Nubia; references to raid on eastern border of Egypt.

c. 2181–2000 BC First Intermediate Period

c. 2181–2125 BC Seventh/Eighth Dynasties

c. 2160–2130 BC Ninth Dynasty. Period of conflict between local rulers (“civil war”).

c. 2130–2040 BC 10th Dynasty. Rulers of Herakleopolis.

c. 2125–1985 BC 11th Dynasty. The rulers of Thebes, Intef I and Intef II, expanded their power northward.

c. 2040–1795 BC Middle Kingdom

11th Dynasty (continued).

2055–2004 BC Nebhepetre Menthuhotep II: wars of reunification of Egypt (taking 40 years); campaigns in Nubia, Sinai, and against Libyans.

c. 1985–1795 BC 12th Dynasty

1985–1955 BC Amenemhat I: Nubian campaigns over 20 years, under Inyotef-iqer: construction of fortress at Buhen; construction of the Walls of the Ruler on the eastern border.

1955 Murder of Amenemhat I.

1965–1920 BC Senusret I: Nubian campaigns: forts built around Second Cataract.

1922–1878 BC Amenemhat II: year 28 expedition to Punt.

1880–1874 BC Senusret II: wall built between Aswan and the head of the First Cataract.

1874–1855 BC Senusret III

c. 1867 Year 8. Nubian campaign.

c. 1866 Year 9. Nubian campaign.

c. 1865 Year 10. Nubian campaign south of Second Cataract.

c. 1859 Year 16. Fortress of Uronarti completed.

c. 1857 Year 19. Fortresses completed. Perhaps this year, campaign in Asia; attack on Shechem.

1855–1808 BC Amenemhat III

c. 1782–1650 BC 13th Dynasty

Loss of Nubia to Kushite kingdom of Kerma. Fortresses (e.g., Buhen) sacked and burned. Kushite garrisons later installed in some fortresses. Hyksos take over the Delta and establish their main center at Avaris.

c. 1650–1550 BC 15th Dynasty (Hyksos)

c. 1585–1550 BC Apepi War with Theban rulers Tao and Kamose.

c. 1580–1550 BC 17th Dynasty (Theban rulers)

c. 1560 BC Tao: conflict with Hyksos; campaign in Nubia?

c. 1555–1550 BC Kamose: campaign in Nubia, Buhen regained; conflict with Hyksos, capture of Nefrusy, advance on Avaris.

c. 1550–1069 BC New Kingdom

c. 1550–1295 BC 18th Dynasty

1550–1525 BC Ahmose

Campaign in Nubia. The Egyptian army reoccupied and restored the fortress of Buhen, installing a garrison and viceroy. Military expansion south of the Second Cataract against Kerma, followed by the construction of a fortress on the island of Sai.

Wars with Hyksos. A naval battle at Avaris. The Hyksos were defeated. This was followed by actions in Canaan, including the siege of Sharuhen (three years or three campaigns).

To consolidate his position, Ahmose led another campaign in Lower Nubia, against Aata, probably a local ruler, and defeated Teti-an, probably an anti-Theban rebel in Egypt. The army sailed to Bylos, then campaigned inland.

1525–1504 BC Amenhotep I

To consolidate his position, Amenhotep campaigned in Nubia, with further building in the fortress on Sai. In western Asia there was a campaign in the Orontes Valley near Tunip.

1504–1492 BC Thutmose I

Thutmose I led the army into Nubia and attacked Kerma. The city was burned, but later rebuilt. The army marched to the Fifth Cataract. Campaign in Asia. The army sailed to Byblos, then marched inland to the Euphrates as a show of strength against the kingdom of Mitanni.

1492–1479 BC Thutmose II

At the pharaoh’s accession, there was a rebellion by the Kushite princes. Thutmose led his army into Nubia and defeated the Kushites in battle.

1479–1425 BC Thutmose III (sole reign from 1456).

1472–1458 BC Hatshepsut and Thutmose III, joint rule.

Four campaigns in Nubia, the first probably led by Hatshepsut in person. One expedition was led by Thutmose III and one reached Miu.

1456 Year 22–23. First campaign of Thutmose III’s sole reign. The army marched from Tjel to Gaza, then north into Syria to confront a coalition led by the rulers of Qadesh and Megiddo. Battle of Megiddo, followed by seven-month siege, and the city’s capture. Return march through Lebanon, where a fortress was built. Return to Egypt.

Year 25. Third campaign, apparently a peaceful tour of inspection.

Year 29. Fifth campaign, in Djahi: Arvad captured.

Year 30. Sixth campaign, against Qadesh, Sumur, and Retenu.

Year 33. Eighth campaign, against Naharin (Mitanni). The army crossed the Euphrates, engaged in battle in Naharin, and captured Carchemish. A boundary stela was set up replicating that of Thutmose I. Thutmose III received tribute from Babylon and the Hittites.

Year 34. Ninth campaign; Thutmose III received tribute from Retenu, Djahy, Nukhashshe, and Cyprus.

Year 35. 10th campaign against Djahy, following the “rebellion” of Naharin.

Year 38. 13th campaign, in Nukhashshe.

Year 39. 14th campaign, against the Shasu.

Year 42. 17th campaign, against Qadesh and Tunip.

Year 47. Thutmose III returned to Nubia, sailing to Gebel Barkal at the Fourth Cataract, where a fortress was built.

1427–1400 BC Amenhotep II

1425 BC Year 3. Asiatic campaign against Takhsy.

1421 BC Year 7. Amenhotep led his army across the Orontes, then south through Takhsy and Galilee.

1419 BC Year 9. Campaign against Qaqa, chief of Qebaasumin, near Megiddo.

1400–1390 BC Thutmose IV

1393 BC Year 8. The army was sent on campaign into Nubia, precise location unknown.

1390–1352 BC Amenhotep III

1386 BC Year 5. Campaign in Nubia, possibly followed by two more campaigns in Nubia.

1352–1336 BC Akhenaten

c. 1343/1340 BC Year 10 (+?). The Nubian army, led by the viceroy campaigned against Ikayta, in the Eastern Desert.

c. 1340/1336 BC Hittites under their king, Suppiluliuma, take Amurru from Egyptian control.

1336–1327 BC Tutankhamun

There might have been a campaign in Nubia. Egyptian conflict with the Hittites in Syria. This was perhaps a victory led by General Horemheb.

1323–1295 BC Horemheb

c. 1295–1186 BC 19th Dynasty

1294–1279 BC Sety I

1294/1293 BC Campaign against the Shasu; capture of Beth-Shean and Yenoam. Campaigns ensured Egyptian control of Damascus, Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, and Sumur.

1290/1289 BC Egyptians regained Qadesh, but the city soon returned to Hittite rule.

Libyan War.

Year 8. Rebellion of Irem, followed by retaliatory campaign, perhaps led by Crown Prince Ramesses.

1279–1213 BC Ramesses II

1275 BC Year 4. First campaign: march along coast of Canaan and Lebanon, returning via Byblos, Tyre, and Nahr el-Kelb.

1274 BC Year 5. Campaign to Syria against Hittite coalition led by Muwatalli. Battle of Qadesh: Ramesses II claimed an Egyptian victory.

1271 BC Year 8. Ramesses ensured Egyptian control of coastal cities of Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, and Byblos.

1269 BC Year 10. Ramesses had a stela carved at Nahr el Kelb on the army’s return from Tunip or Dapur.

Year 21. Peace treaty with Hittites.

Year 40. Rebellion of Irem.

1213–1203 BC Merneptah

Action in Canaan, with the capture of Gezer, Ashkelon, and Yenoam.

Year 4. Rebellion in Lower Nubia, suppressed.

c. 1208/1207 BC Year 5. Invasion of Libyan tribes, dominated by the Libu, allied with groups of the Sea Peoples. Battle near Memphis.

1203–1200 BC Amenmesses (or entirely within the reign of Sety II): dynastic war.

1200–1194 BC Sety II

c. 1186–1069 BC 20th Dynasty

1184–1153 BC Ramesses III

c. 1180 BC Year 5. First Libyan War, in which an alliance of Meshwesh, Libu, and Seped invaded Egypt, but were repulsed.

Syrian War, including siege of Arzawa and Tunip.

Nubian War, probably directed against Irem.

c. 1177 BC Year 8. Battle with the Sea Peoples.

c. 1174 BC Year 11. Second Libyan War dominated by the Meshwesh.

1153 BC “Harim conspiracy” in which Ramesses III was, perhaps, murdered.

1153–1147 BC Ramesses IV

1151 BC The army was involved in a major expedition to the quarries of the Eastern Desert.

1143–1136 BC Ramesses VI

The garrison towns of Megiddo, Beth Shean, and Gaza were destroyed by fire, marking the end of the Egyptian Empire in western Asia.

1126–1108 BC Ramesses IX

Nubian troops defeated the Shasu.

1099–1069 BC Ramesses XI

c. 1088 BC Anarchy in Thebes; the viceroy Panehesy brought the Kushite army into Upper Egypt. This was followed by a campaign farther north into Middle Egypt or the Delta, and a battle.

c. 1083 BC Year 17. Panehesy and the army had returned to Nubia, leaving the general and High Priest of Amun, Herihor, in control in Thebes.

c. 1080–1069 BC Years 20–30. Wars conducted by the High Priest of Amun, Paiankh, against the viceroy Panehesy in Lower Nubia. End of the Egyptian Empire in Nubia.

Third Intermediate Period c. 1069–656 BC

c. 1069–945 BC 21st Dynasty

984–978 BC Osorkon “the elder”

978–959 BC Siamun

c. 945–715 BC 22nd Dynasty

945–924 BC Sheshonq I

945 BC Sheshonq I establishes a dynasty of Libyan chiefs as pharaohs of Egypt.

925 BC Campaign of “Shishak” against Judah captures Jerusalem.

924–889 BC Osorkon I

874–850 BC Osorkon II

853 BC Battle of Qarqar. Army of Shalmaneser III of Assyria defeated a coalition of western Asiatic rulers led by Damascus, including a contingent from Egypt.

850–825 BC Takeloth II. Rebellion in Khmunu and Thebes crushed by Crown Prince Osorken.

c. 750–656 BC 25th Dynasty

c. 750–736 BC Kashta. Kushite power acknowledged in Thebes and Upper Egypt.

c. 736–712 BC Piye (Piankhy)

Tefnakht ruler of Sau expanded power and took control of Memphis. A coalition of Libyan dynasts led by Tefnakht marched into Middle Egypt. Nimlot of Khmunu, a Kushite vassal, joined Tefnakht. Piye sent the Kushite army based in Thebes against Tefnakht. Despite several confrontations, the Kushite army failed to defeat the coalition. Piye led second army to Egypt and besieged Nimlot in Khmunu. A part of the army was sent north and relieved the Kushite ally, Peftjauawybast, who had been besieged within Herakleopolis. Khmunu yielded, and Piye led his army north. Tefnakht fled back to Sau. The Kushites captured Memphis and Piye received the submission of the Libyan dynasts at Athribis; Tefnakht swore his oath of fealty at Sau.

720 BC Battle of Qarqar. Sargon II of Assyria defeated Yau’bidi, ruler of Hamath, then marched south, recapturing Damascus and Samaria. The Assyrian army defeated an Egyptian force at the battle of Raphia, and captured the Egyptian vassal ruler of Gaza. The Assyrians were left in control of the Egyptian border at Brook-of–Egypt.

c. 711–695 BC Shabaqo

710 BC Year 2. Shabaqo and the Kushite army marched into Egypt, defeating the Saite pharaoh Bakenranef in battle.

701 BC A joint Egyptian-Kushite army marched to support Hezekiah of Judah in his rebellion against Assyria. The army of Sennacherib defeated them at the Battle of Eltekeh.

c. 695–690 BC Shebitqo

690–664 BC Taharqo

679 BC Esarhaddon led the Assyrian army to Brook-of-Egypt.

678 BC Taharqo might have been active in the Levant while Esarhaddon confronted problems in Babylonia.

677 BC Esarhaddon attacked Sidon, Taharqo’s ally.

674 BC The Assyrian army marched to Egypt but was defeated in battle.

671 BC The Assyrians invaded Egypt again. The Egyptian-Kushite army marched to meet them, and there were two battles between Gaza and Memphis. There was a third battle on 11 July 671, at Memphis, which was captured and sacked. Taharqo fled.

669 BC Taharqo regained control of Memphis and Lower Egypt and the Assyrian army returned to oust him, but Esarhaddon died en route and the campaign was abandoned.

667 BC The new Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal, marched his army to Egypt and defeated Taharqo, capturing Memphis. Taharqo fled. There was a rebellion against the Assyrian army by the Libyan dynasts. In response the Assyrians attacked Sau and other Delta cities, massacring the population.

664–656 BC Tanwetamani

664 BC Tanwetamani led a Kushite army to Memphis, where he defeated and killed the Assyrian vassal, Nekau I of Sau. Nekau was succeeded by Psamtik I.

663 BC Ashurbanipal led his army to Egypt and pursued Tanwetamani from Memphis to Thebes, which was sacked. Tanwetamani fled to Napata. The Assyrians withdrew, leaving Psamtik I as their vassal ruler in Lower Egypt.

664–332 BC Late Period

664–525 BC 26th Dynasty

664–610 BC Psamtik I

c. 664–656 BC Psamtik I established himself as sole ruler of Lower Egypt, reducing the power of the other Delta dynasts.

656 BC Year 9. Following diplomatic moves the Kushites withdrew from Thebes and Upper Egypt, leaving Psamtik as sole ruler of the whole of Egypt.

654 BC Year 11. Psamtik led his army against Libyans to the west of Egypt.

610–595 BC Nekau II

609 BC Nekau led the Egyptian army to aid the Assyrian king besieged in Carchemish. At the battle of Megiddo, the Egyptian army defeated Josiah, king of Judah. Nekau installed Jehoiakim as king of Judah.

606 BC The Egyptian army marched into Syria. The siege of Kimuhu was followed by an Egyptian victory over the Babylonians at Quramati.

605 BC At the battle of Carchemish, the Egyptian army was defeated by the Babylonians under prince Nebuchadnezzar. A second Egyptian defeat at Hamath followed.

601 BC Nebuchadnezzar II attempted to invade Egypt, but was prevented by the Egyptian army at the battle of Migdol (Tell el-Heir). Nekau II pursued the retreating Babylonian army and recaptured Gaza. Nekau may have led his army into Kush.

595–589 BC Psamtik II

593 BC The Egyptian army, with Ionian and Carian mercenaries, invaded Kush and gained a victory in battle at Pnubs.

589–570 BC Wahibre (Apries)

588/587 BC Wahibre attacked Tyre and Sidon while Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonian army was besieging Jerusalem.

570 BC Wahibre sent the army to Cyrene. The expedition failed, the army rebelled and acclaimed the general, Ahmose, pharaoh.

570–526 BC Ahmose II (Amasis)

570/569 BC Wahibre attempted to regain throne with help from Cyprus. He was defeated in battle and fled to Asia.

568/567 BC Nebuchadnezzar II and the Babylonian army attempted to restore Wahibre. Wahibre was killed in battle.

526–525 BC Psamtik III

525 BC Egypt was invaded by the Persian army and fleet led by Cambyses. A battle at Pelusion was followed by the siege and capture of Memphis, and of Psamtik III, who was later put to death.

525–404 BC 27th Dynasty (Persian Kings)

525–521 BC Cambyses

There were probably military activities on the southern border in Lower Nubia and perhaps in Kharga Oasis.

521–485 BC Darius I

An Egyptian dynast, Pedubast III, rebelled against Persian rule. The satrap of Egypt led the army on a disastrous expedition to Cyrenaica.

485 BC A rebellion (perhaps led by Psamtik IV) broke out in Egypt.

485–465 BC Xerxes

Xerxes suppressed the Egyptian rebellion.

ca. 480–470 BC A second Egyptian rebellion against Persian rule.

465–424/423 BC Artaxerxes I

c. 460–454 BC The rebellion of Inaros and Amyrtaios of Sau, aided by Athens.

459 BC Memphis captured, except for a Persian garrison. The Persian satrap was killed at the battle of Papremis.

ca. 456 BC The Persian army invaded Egypt. Memphis was recaptured. The rebel Egyptians and Athenians were besieged at Prosopitis in the Delta.

454 BC An Athenian relief expedition was destroyed by Persian forces in the Delta. Inaros was captured and executed.

423–404 BC Darius II

404–399 BC 28th Dynasty

404–400/399 BC Amyrtaios

404 BC Amyrtaios established himself as pharaoh after several years of guerrilla warfare.

400/399 BC Amyrtaios was defeated by the rival dynast, Nefaarud, and executed.

399–379 BC 29th Dynasty

ca. 399/398–394/393 BC Nefaarud I

396–395 BC Nefaarud sent aid to Agesilaos I of Sparta in the Greek War against Persia.

393/392–381–380 BC Hakor

389 BC Hakor formed an anti-Persian alliance with Evagoras of Salamis in Cyprus.

385 BC Persian attack on Egypt; Egyptian actions in Phoenicia.

380–341 BC 30th Dynasty

ca. 379/378–362/361 BC Nakhtnebef (Nectanebo I)

ca. 380 BC Harsiyotef, king of Meroe, campaigned with his army in Lower Nubia.

373 BC The Persian king, Artaxerxes II, sent Pharnabazos and the army to Egypt. They failed to enter via Pelusion, but were successful through the Mendesian branch of the Delta. The Nile flood caused disaster and forced the Persian forces to retreat.

361/360–360–359 BC Djedhor

Djedhor led an army of Egyptians and Greek mercenaries into Palestine. He disagreed with the Greek commander, Agesilaos II of Sparta, who then supported the rebellion of Djedhor’s nephew, Nekhthorheb. A rival claimant in Mendes was defeated by Agesilaos.

359/358–342/341 BC Nekhthorheb (Nectanebo II)

351–350 BC An attempted Persian invasion by the forces of Artaxerxes III was driven back.

343 BC An invasion by the Persian army was successful, and Nekhthorheb fled.

Second Persian Dynasty 343–332 BC

343–338 BC Artaxerxes III

c. 338 Khabbash established himself as pharaoh. He was acknowledged in Memphis and the Delta.

c. 340–330 BC Nastasen, king of Meroe, with his army in Lower Nubia (difficult to date precisely). The army of Darius III regained control of Egypt for Persia.

333 BC The Macedonian adventurer, Amyntas, captured Pelusion but was defeated outside Memphis.

332 BC, Sept.–Nov. Alexander III besieged Gaza. In December, he captured Pelusion.

Macedonian Kings 332–305 BC

332–323 BC Alexander III the Great

332 BC Alexander was crowned pharaoh at Memphis.

331 BC Alexander visited Siwa and founded Alexandria before leaving Egypt.

323 BC, June Alexander died at Babylon. Philip Arrhidaios and Alexander IV were proclaimed joint kings.

323 BC Ptolemy governing as satrap of Egypt for Philip Arrhidaios (323–317 BC) and Alexander IV (323–305 BC).

322/321 BC Ptolemy was invited into Cyrene. He installed Ophellas as governor.

321 BC First War of the Diadochoi: Perdikaas killed by his troops in Egypt.

319 BC Second War of the Diadochoi; Syria and Phoenicia annexed by Ptolemy.

314–311 BC Third War of the Diadochoi.

313 BC Ptolemy crushed revolt in Cyprus.

313/312 BC Rebellion of Cyrene led by Ophellas.

312 BC Ptolemy I and Seleukos I led expedition into Syria. Demetrios defeated by Ptolemy at the battle of Gaza; but at the battle of Myus, Ptolemy was defeated by Demetrios.

311 BC Peace reached.

310 BC Ptolemy led an expedition against Cilicia and occupied Cyprus.

309 BC Ptolemy led an expedition to Lycia and Caria, gaining control of Phaselis, Xanthos, Kaunos, Myndos, and Iasos.

309/308 BC Ophellas was murdered and Ptolemy regained Cyrene.

308 BC Ptolemy led a naval expedition against Greece, occupying Korinth, Sikyon, and Megara.

306 BC Ptolemy’s fleet defeated at Salamis (Cyprus) by Demetrios who then occupied Cyprus (306–295/294). Antigonos Monophthalmos and his son Demetrios assumed title of kings. In autumn, they attempted an invasion of Egypt, which was foiled by bad weather.

305 BC The other diadochoi, including Ptolemy, proclaimed themselves kings.

The Ptolemies 305–30 BC

305 BC Ptolemy I Soter assumed title of king.

304–300 BC Magas installed as governor of Cyrene.

303–301 BC Fourth War of the Diadochoi.

302/301 BC Ptolemy gained Coele Syria.

301 BC Ipsos, the “Battle of the Kings.”

295/294 BC Ptolemy annexed Cyprus, Phoenicia, Pamphylia, and possibly part of Lycia.

294 BC Ptolemy’s attempted relief of Athens failed because of Demetrios’s superior fleet.

288–285 BC Fifth War of the Diadochoi.

288 BC Ptolemy’s fleet in Greece.

286 BC Demetrios’s Phoenician admiral, Philokles, king of Sidon, allied himself to Ptolemy I and took the best of the fleet, including the Phoenician contingents. Ptolemy thereby acquired Tyre and Sidon and gained control of the sea and the Island League, without fighting. He also acquired Thera.

285 BC Philokles captured Caunos, which gave Ptolemy a footing in Caria.

283 BC Samos, Halikarnassos, and Cnidos become Egyptian.

Ptolemy II Philadelphos

274–271 BC First Syrian War.

274 BC Antiochos I formed an alliance with Magas of Cyrene. Magas marched toward Egypt and nearly reached Alexandria because of a mutiny by Ptolemy II’s mercenary Gauls, but a rebellion in Libya compelled him to return to Cyrene.

273 BC Ptolemy inspected the defenses at Heroonpolis in the Wadi Tumilat. Invasion of Arabs; by 269 a protecting canal and wall had been constructed.

272 BC The end of the war left Ptolemy in possession of: Cilicia west of the Calycydnus; eastern coast of Pamphylia with Phraselis and perhaps Aspendes; Lycia south of the Milyad; in Caria and Ionia-Caunus, Halikarnassos, Myndus, Knidos, and probably Miletos; in Aegean—besides Samos, Thera, and the Cyclades, Ptolemy held Samothrace and Itanos in Crete; Coele Syria (retained Marsyas Valley); acquired Aradus and Marathus, making all of Phoenicia Egyptian.

267–261 BC Chremonidean War.

260–253 BC Second Syrian War.

257 BC Campaign in Syria.

255 BC Battle of Kos, end of Egypt’s control of sea.

255? BC Battle of Ephesos, fleet under Chremonides.

255 BC General peace concluded.

252 BC Ptolemy II instigated or supported the revolt of Alexander of Corinth.

Ptolemy III Euergetes I

246–241 BC Third Syrian War (Laodicean War).

246 BC The Egyptians captured Seleukeia in Pieria, Antiocheia on the Orontes, and Soli in Cilicia. In the spring, Ptolemy III started from Antioch, marching to Seleukeia on the Tigris.

246 or 245 BC, spring At the battle of Andros, the Egyptian fleet was defeated by Antigonos Gonatas of Macedon. An uprising in Egypt forced Ptolemy to return.

241 BC Peace concluded between Seleukos II and Ptolemy III.

Ptolemy IV Philopator

Kleomenes of Sparta at Alexandria, started an uprising. He committed suicide when it collapsed.

219–217 BC Fourth Syrian War.

219 BC Antiochos III recovered Seleukeia in Pieria, then made gains in Palestine and Syria, except Sidon.

218 BC The forces of Antiochos III moved south by land and sea, engaging the Ptolemaic army at the battle of Porphyrion near Beirut.

22 June 217 BC Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV defeated Antiochos III, who evacuated Coele Syria and Lebanon. A peace treaty concluded hostilities.

216 BC The beginning of the nationalist rebellion by the Egyptians.

205 BC Beginning of rebellion in the Thebaid. The Egyptian rebel pharaoh, Haronnophris, controlled Upper Egypt from Abydos to Pathyris.

205 BC Ptolemy IV died, but his death was concealed, and his favorite, Agathokles, seized power. Ptolemy’s widow, Arsinoe III, was murdered. Riots in Alexandria ended in the murder of Agathokles and his family.

Ptolemy V Epiphanes

202–195 BC Fifth Syrian War.

Antiochos III acquired Palestine and parts of the Ptolemaic Empire in Asia Minor. The Egyptian army under Skopas was defeated in Palestine and evacuated Coele Syria, but prevented Antiochos from invading Egypt.

201 BC Antiochus took Palestine. Battles at Gaza and Lade.

200 BC Battle of Panion.

200/199 BC Antiochus took Sidon which became, and remained, Seleukid.

198 BC Antiochus reduced the whole of south Syria.

197 BC Beginning of reign of the Egyptian rebel pharaoh, Chaonnophris, in Thebes and Upper Egypt.

195 BC Peace of Lysimacheia.

188 BC Treaty of Apamea, settlement of Asiatic affairs.

187 BC Ptolemaic army regained control of Thebes.

186 BC Chaonnophris defeated.

180 BC Ptolemy V Philadelphos murdered.

Ptolemy VI Philometor

5 October 170 BC Beginning of joint reign of Ptolemy VI Philometor, Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II, and Kleopatra II.

170–168 BC Sixth Syrian War.

winter 170/169 BC Antiochos IV besieged and captured Pelusion and entered Egypt. On his return to Syria, the three Egyptian rulers were reinstated.

168 BC Antiochos IV invaded Egypt again, but the Roman senate intervened and sent Popilius Laenas to Alexandria. He forced Antiochos to withdraw.

165 BC The rebellion of Dionysios Petosarapis spread from Alexandria, followed by a rebellion in Thebes.

164–163 BC Dynastic conflict, which ended when Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II went to Cyrene as king.

147 BC Ptolemy VI Philometor led Egyptian army and navy to Syria, where he became involved in Seleukid dynastic wars to regain control of Coele Syria.

145 BC Philometor died while he was on campaign. Euergetes II returned to Egypt and seized the throne.

132 BC Kleopatra II began a dynastic war and gained Thebes.

131 BC Euergetes II expelled from Alexandria but had returned before 15 January 130 and was preparing an expedition against Kleopatra. An Egyptian rebel, Harsiesis seized power in Thebes.

124 BC Peace and order was restored, with a series of amnesty decrees in the names of Euergetes II, Kleopatra II, and Kleopatra III.

116 BC Death of Euergetes II. The army and the people of Alexandria forced Kleopatra III to appoint her elder son, Ptolemy IX Soter II, as king.

110 BC Soter II expelled from Egypt. Kleopatra III associated her younger son, Ptolemy X Alexander I with her.

109 BC Soter II restored.

108 BC Between 10 March and 28 May, second interruption of Soter’s reign by Alexander I.

107 BC Before 15 November, probably before 19 September, expulsion of Soter by Kleopatra III. Joint rule of Kleopatra III and Alexander I. Soter II spent the next 19 years as king of Cyprus.

103–101 BC Syrian War: actions by Ptolemy IX Soter II, Kleopatra III, and Ptolemy X Alexander I in Palestine. Battle of Asophon.

101 BC Before 26 October, murder of Kleopatra III by Alexander I.

96 BC Ptolemy Apion died bequeathing Cyrene to Rome.

88 BC Alexander I driven into exile by a rebellion of both the army and Greek population of Alexandria, incensed by his pro-Jewish attitude. He fled and was killed in a naval battle off Cyprus. Return of Soter II from Cyprus. Rebellion in the Thebaid.

80 BC March, death of Soter II. Berenike III ruled until the Greeks of Alexandria forced her to look for a coregent. Ptolemy XI Alexander II was chosen, but after 19 days, he had Berenike murdered. In response, the enraged Alexandrians murdered Alexander. The throne was offered to Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (“Auletes”).

58 BC Rome annexed Cyprus. The Alexandrians drove Auletes into exile. His daughters Berenike IV and Kleopatra Tryphaina rule together, until Kleopatra’s death the next year.

55 BC Aulus Gabinius, the Roman governor of Syria, escorted Auletes back to Alexandria. He was accompanied by large military unit, the “Gabinians,” the cavalry commanded by Marcus Antonius. Auletes put Berenike to death.

51 BC Auletes died appointing Kleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII as his successors.

49 BC War between Kleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII. Kleopatra fled to Syria.

48 BC The Roman general, Pompey, landed in Egypt and was put to death by Ptolemy XIII’s advisors. Iulius Caesar arrived in Egypt and reinstated Kleopatra VII alongside her brother. Caesar’s relieving army captured Pelusion. The Alexandrian War.

47 BC Ptolemy XIII killed. Kleopatra VII was confirmed as queen, with Ptolemy XIV as king.

32 BC Octavian and the Roman Republic declared war on Kleopatra.

31 BC Battle of Aktion in Greece. Octavian defeated the fleet of Antonius and Kleopatra and pursued them to Egypt.

Roman Emperors 30 BC–395 AD

30 BC August 3, Alexandria captured.

August 12, death of Kleopatra, followed by the 18 days rule of her children.

August 31, New Year’s Day, Octavian began to date his reign in Egypt.

29 BC Cornelius Gallus suppressed rebellion in the Thebaid; the army then campaigned in Lower Nubia.

c. 25 BC Kushite army led by the Kandake of Meroe, Amanirenas, marched north into Lower Nubia. Attack on Aswan. The prefect Petronius led a campaign to Nubia, involving actions at Qasr Ibrim.

38 AD Anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria.

54–68 AD Nero

55 AD Jewish-Greek riots and conflict in Alexandria.

66 AD Jewish revolt in Jerusalem sparked riots in Alexandria. The prefect Iulius Alexander attacked the Jewish quarter of the city.

69 AD Vespasian proclaimed emperor in Alexandria.

98–117 AD Trajan

115–117 AD Jewish revolt spread from Cyrene to Egypt and Palestine. Greek population in Alexandria besieged until relieved by Marcius Turbo. Fortress of Babylon rebuilt.

171 AD Rebellion of the Boukoloi, led by the priest Isidoros.

172 AD The rebellion was quashed by Avidius Cassius.

175 AD Avidius Cassius proclaimed emperor in Egypt.

215 AD The Emperor Caracalla in Alexandria; ordered massacre of population and divided the city into two parts.

218 AD Conflict in Alexandria between supporters of rival emperors, Macrinus and Elagabalus.

262 AD Alexandrian mob proclaimed Iulius Aemilianus emperor.

268 AD Zenobia of Palmyra captured Alexandria and Egypt.

270–275 AD Aurelian

270 AD Aurelian in Egypt.

c. 272 AD Reputed rebellion of “Firmus.”

286–305 AD Diocletian

296 AD Domitius Domitianus proclaimed as emperor in Alexandria. The Emperor Diocletian in Egypt. Alexandria besieged until 298 AD.

306–337 AD Constantine I

325 AD Council of Nicaea sparked religious riots in Alexandria.

361–363 AD Julian. Riots and attacks on pagan temples in Alexandria.

379–395 AD Theodosius

391 AD Theodosius ordered closure of all pagan temples in Roman Empire; riots and destruction of temples in Alexandria.

Byzantine Emperors 395–642 AD

602–610 AD Phocas

Heraclius and troops landed in Egypt. Persian army of Khosroes II captured Egypt.

610–642 AD Heraclius

639 AD Arab armies led by ‘Amr Ibn-al ‘Asî entered Egypt.

640 AD Defeat of Heraclius at Heliopolis; fortress of Babylon captured.

641 AD Alexandria besieged for 11 months.

September 642 AD Last Byzantine forces left Egypt; beginning of Arab rule.



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