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CHAPTER 20: “THE TYCOON IS IN FINE WHACK”

General Orders No. 38…tried by a military court: “General Orders, No. 38,” Department of the Ohio, April 13, 1863, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXIII, Part II, p. 237.

“hurl King Lincoln from his throne”: Clement L. Vallandigham speech, May 1, 1863, quoted in Fletcher Pratt, Stanton: Lincoln’s Secretary of War (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1953), p. 289.

“The door resisted”…a side entrance: Cincinnati Commercial, quoted in Star, May 9, 1863.

found him guilty…habeas corpus was denied: Trial of Clement L. Vallandigham, enclosure in Ambrose E. Burnside to Henry W. Halleck, May 18, 1863, and General Orders, No. 68, Headquarters, Department of the Ohio, May 16, 1863, OR, Ser. 2, Vol. V, pp. 633–46; McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. 597.

the Chicago Times…the paper down: Entry for June 3, 1863, in Browning, The Diary of Orville Hickman Browning, Vol. I, p. 632.

While he later admitted…uphold Burnside: McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. 597; entry for June 3, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 321.

Thurlow Weed deplored the arrest: TW to John Bigelow, June 27, 1863, in John Bigelow, Retrospective of an Active Life. Vol. II: 1863–1865 (New York: Baker & Taylor Co., 1909), p. 23.

Senator Trumbull…“government overthrown”: Entry for May 17, 1863, in Browning, The Diary of Orville Hickman Browning, Vol. I, p. 630.

“by a large and honest”…the loyal states: Nathaniel P. Tallmadge to WHS, May 24, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

Lincoln, searching…Confederate lines: Charles F. Howlett, “Vallandigham, Clement Laird,” in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, ed. Heidler and Heidler, p. 2012.

his Copperhead body…“where his heart already was”: Schuyler Colfax to AL, June 13, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

“general satisfaction…power for evil”: NYT, May 21, 1863.

Vallandigham was removed…escaped to Canada: McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. 597.

Stanton revoked…to suppress newspapers: EMS to Ambrose E. Burnside, June 1, 1863, in OR, Ser. 2, Vol. V, p. 724; General Orders, No. 91, Headquarters, Department of the Ohio, June 4, 1863, OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXIII, Part II, p. 386.

“suppress the…of its citizens”: Carpenter, Six Months at the White House, pp. 156–57.

Upon hearing…opposed his action: Ambrose E. Burnside to AL, May 29, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

Lincoln not only refused…“through with it”: AL to Ambrose E. Burnside, May 29, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 237.

“Often an idea…from every side”: James F. Wilson recollections, quoted in Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The War Years, Vol. II (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1936; 1939), p. 308.

“It has vigor and ability”: Entry of June 5, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 323.

“we are Struggling…in Rhetoric”: MB to AL, June 6, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

The finished letter…“if he shall desert”: AL to Erastus Corning and Others, [June 12,] 1863, in CW, VI, pp. 260–69 (quotes pp. 264, 266–67).

“It is full…and conclusive”: NYT, June 15, 1863.

Edward Everett…“the step complete”: Edward Everett to AL, June 16, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

“It is a grand document…every citizen”: “The President’s Letter,” June 15, 1863, in William O. Stoddard, Dispatches from Lincoln’s White House: The Anonymous Civil War Journalism of Presidential Secretary William O. Stoddard, ed. Michael Burlingame (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2002), p. 160.

Printed in a great variety…10 million people: Donald, Lincoln, pp. 443–44.

Welles noted…“assistant is present”: Entry for June 2, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), pp. 319–20 (quote p. 320).

Blair, frustrated…word with Lincoln: Hendrick, Lincoln’s War Cabinet, p. 387; entry for May 12, 1863, in The Diary of Edward Bates, 1859–1866, p. 292.

“At such a time…interchange of views”: Entry for June 30, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 351.

“There is now…consent of the members”: Entry for May 16, 1863, in The Diary of Edward Bates, 1859–1866, pp. 292–93.

“But how idle…furnish the means”: SPC to David Dudley Field, June 30, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers.

If he were president…“of importance”: SPC to James A. Garfield, May 31, 1863, reel 12, Papers of James A. Garfield, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress [hereafter Garfield Papers, DLC].

Blair decried…of Seward and Stanton: Entry for June 23, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 340.

Lincoln’s unwillingness…restore McClellan: Entry for June 26, 1863, ibid., p. 345.

In Blair’s mind…“throat if he could”: “19 July 1863, Sunday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 65.

Blair’s hatred for Stanton…military information: Entry for June 30, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 352.

“Strange, strange…Stanton and Seward”: Entry for June 15, 1863, ibid., p. 329.

Recognizing Blair’s desire…to get through: For a description of Blair’s innovations with the postal service, see chapter 31 of Smith, The Francis Preston Blair Family in Politics, Vol. II, pp. 90–111.

catch up with his “Neptune”…telegraph office: Entry for July 14, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 370.

When he felt compelled…“admirable success”: AL to GW, July 25, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 349.

A particularly bitter…“be very mad”: AL, quoted in entry for May 26, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 313.

the humorist Orpheus Kerr…“as regards myself”: Entry for June 17, 1863, ibid., p. 333.

William Rosecrans…“to do hastily”: AL to William S. Rosecrans, May 20, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 224.

felt compelled to remove General Samuel Curtis…“faithful, and patriotic”: AL to Samuel R. Curtis, June 8, 1863, in ibid., p. 253.

a note from Governor Gamble…“grossly offensive”: Hamilton R. Gamble to AL, July 13, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

was told “to put it away”: “23 July 1863, Thursday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 66.

“trying to preserve…should offend you”: AL to Hamilton R. Gamble, July 23, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

Milroy railed about “the…hatred” of Halleck: Robert H. Milroy to AL, June 28, 1863, Lincoln Papers. See also Robert H. Milroy to John P. Usher, June 28, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

“I have scarcely seen…you have split”: AL to Robert H. Milroy, June 29, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 308.

“Truth to speak…so, ranks you”: AL to William S. Rosecrans, March 17, 1863, in ibid., p. 139.

Grant had advanced…settled into a siege: Stanley S. McGowen, “Vicksburg Campaign (May–July 1863),” in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, ed. Heidler and Heidler, pp. 2021–25.

“Whether Gen. Grant…brilliant in the world”: AL to Isaac N. Arnold, May 26, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 230.

Stanton had sent Charles Dana…long, detailed dispatches: Bruce Catton, Grant Moves South. Vol. I: 1861–1863 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1960; 1988), pp. 388–89; Thomas and Hyman, Stanton, p. 267.

Requesting that General Banks…“should prefer that course”: Charles A. Dana to EMS, May 26, 1863, reel 5, Stanton Papers, DLC.

In a misguided effort…other valuables behind: “General Orders, No. 11,” Department of the Tennessee, December 17, 1862, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XVII, Part II, p. 424. See also USG to Christopher P. Wolcott, December 17, 1862, in ibid., pp. 421–22; D. Wolff & Bros, C. F. Kaskell, and J. W. Kaswell to AL, December 29, 1862, in ibid., p. 506; Bertram Wallace Korn, American Jewry and the Civil War (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1951), pp. 122–23.

a delegation of Jewish leaders…“have at once”: Leaders quoted in Korn, American Jewry and the Civil War, pp. 124–25.

wrote a note to Halleck: Ibid., p. 125.

after assuring Grant…“necessary to revoke it”: Henry W. Halleck to USG, January 21, 1863, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXIV, Part I, p. 9 (quote); Henry W. Halleck to USG, January 4, 1863, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XVII, Part II, p. 530; Circular, 13th Army Corps, Department of the Tennessee, January 7, 1863, in ibid., p. 544.

Elizabeth Blair heard…“all the time”: EBL to SPL, May 8, 1863, in Wartime Washington, ed. Laas, p. 266.

Bates was told…“bloated” appearance: Entry for May 23, 1863, in The Diary of Edward Bates, 1859–1866, p. 293.

In Grant’s case…“idiotically drunk”: Murat Halstead to SPC, April 1, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

After dispatching investigators to look into: Catton, Grant Moves South, Vol. I, pp. 388–89; Jean Edward Smith, Grant (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001), p. 231.

A memorable story…rest of his generals!: John Eaton, Grant, Lincoln and the Freedmen: Reminiscences of the Civil War (New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1907; New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969), p. 90.

Wade and Chandler told Lincoln…“in reply”: JGN to TB, May 17, 1863, container 2, Nicolay Papers.

Seward accompanied…his garden: See entries for May 1863, in Fanny Seward diary, Seward House, Auburn, New York.

favorite old poplar…“stroke of the axe”: FAS to WHS, June 5, 1863, reel 114, Seward Papers.

Fanny wrote that…“very lonely”: FS to WHS, June 7, 1863, reel 116, Seward Papers.

troubling rumors…“when I am there”: FAS to WHS, June 5, 1863, reel 114, Seward Papers; FS to WHS, June 7, 1863, reel 116, Seward Papers (quote).

Seward noted…“an invasion of Washington”: WHS to [FAS], June 11, 1863, in Seward, Seward at Washington…1861–1872, p. 169.

Mary and Tad left…Continental Hotel: Entry for June 8, 1863, in Lincoln Day by Day, Vol. III, p. 188; MTL to John Meredith Read, June 16, [1863], in Turner and Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln, p. 152 n2.

Welles spoke with Lincoln…“thought best”: Entry for June 8, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 325.

“Think you better…ugly dream about him”: AL to MTL, June 9, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 256.

Seward sent a telegram…“pic-nic to the Lake”: Entry for June 15, 1863, in Johnson, “Sensitivity and Civil War,” p. 813.

Lee had crossed…“adds to our strength”: WHS to [FAS], June 15, 1863, in Seward, Seward at Washington…1861–1872, pp. 169–70.

“Invasion!…in Maryland and Pennsylvania”NYT headline, June 16, 1863.

“It is a matter of choice…anything at all”: AL to MTL, June 16, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 283.

“The country, now…is wide awake”: Entry for June 18, 1863, in French, Witness to the Young Republic, p. 423.

“something of a panic pervades the city”: Entry for June 15, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 329.

he called out a hundred thousand troops: AL, “Proclamation Calling for 100,000 Militia,” June 15, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 277.

“I should think…kindness & Patriotism”: Entry for June 18, 1863, in French, Witness to the Young Republic, p. 424.

the committee charged with…“all he could ask for”: Stoddard, Inside the White House in War Times, p. 117.

Lincoln’s primary concern…“outgeneraled”: Brooks, Mr. Lincoln’s Washington, p. 196.

“observed in Hooker…taken from other points”: Entry for June 28, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 348.

When Hooker delivered a prickly telegram: Joseph Hooker to Henry W. Halleck, June 27, 1863 (9:00 a.m.), in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXVII, Part I, p. 59; Hooker to Halleck, June 27, 1863 (3:00 p.m.), in ibid., p. 60; Halleck to Hooker, June 27, 1863 (8:00 p.m.), in ibid., p. 60.

Lincoln and Stanton replaced him: Henry W. Halleck to George G. Meade, June 27, 1863, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXVII, Part I, p. 61; Meade to Halleck, June 28, 1863, in ibid., pp. 61–62; “Meade, George Gordon (1815–1872),” in Sifakis, Who Was Who in the Union, p. 266.

“Chase was disturbed…cared should appear”: SPC to Joseph Hooker, June 20, 1863, quoted in Schuckers, The Life and Public Services of Salmon Portland Chase, p. 468; entry of June 28, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 348 (quote).

“You must have been…exceeded mine”: SPC to KCS, June 29, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers.

“The turning point…such a suspense”: JGN to TB, July 5, 1863, container 3, Nicolay Papers.

“poor and desultory”…in the telegraph office: Bates, Lincoln in the Telegraph Office, p. 155.

Chandler would “never forget…on the wall”: Zachariah Chandler, quoted in Browne, The Every-Day Life of Abraham Lincoln, pp. 597–98.

a dispatch from Meade…“at all points”: George G. Meade to Henry W. Halleck, July 2, 1863 (8:00 p.m.), in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXVII, Part I, p. 72.

“no reliable advices…anxiety prevails”: NYT, July 3, 1863.

a messenger handed…“reliable”: Entry for July 4, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 357.

a telegram from Meade…after severe losses: George G. Meade to Henry W. Halleck, July 3, 1863, OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXVII, Part I, pp. 74–75.

Casualties were later calculated: Richard A. Sauers, “Gettysburg, Battle of,” in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, ed. Heidler and Heidler, p. 836.

“as being the most…covered with the dead”: McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. 664; Brooks, Mr. Lincoln’s Washington, pp. 202, 203 (quotes).

a celebratory press release: AL, “Announcement of News From Gettysburg,” July 4, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 314.

“the gloomiest Fourth”…Fireworks were set off: Entry for July 4, 1863, Fanny Seward diary, Seward Papers.

“The results…for the moment at least”: Entry for July 6, 1863, Diary of George Templeton Strong, Vol. III, p. 330.

Grant’s forty-six-day siege: McGowen, “Vicksburg Campaign (May–July 1863),” in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, ed. Heidler and Heidler, p. 2026; Foote, The Civil War, Vol. II, p. 607.

Welles had received…dispatch in hand: Entry for July 7, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 364; Brooks, Mr. Lincoln’s Washington, pp. 177 (quote), 201.

“executed a double…excited as he was then”: Brooks, Washington, D.C., in Lincoln’s Time, p. 82.

“caught my hand…‘it is great!’”: Entry for July 7, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 364.

“The Father…to the sea”: AL to James C. Conkling, August 26, 1863, CW, VI, p. 409.

“The rebel troops”…about thirty thousand: Charles A. Dana to EMS, July 5, 1863, reel 5, Stanton Papers, DLC.

“I write this now…and I was wrong”: AL to USG, July 13, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 326.

a large crowd…“the beginning of the end”: NYH, July 8, 1863.

the official bulletins were read…“beasts at sunrise”: Brooks, Mr. Lincoln’s Washington, p. 201.

Mary’s carriage accident: Star, July 2, 1863; NYH, July 11, 1863; Boyden, Echoes from Hospital and White House, pp. 143–44; Pinsker, Lincoln’s Sanctuary, pp. 102–04, 105–06.

“never quite recovered…of her fall”: Robert Todd Lincoln, quoted in Helm, The True Story of Mary, p. 250.

“complete his work…destruction of Lee’s army”: AL to Henry W. Halleck, [July 7, 1863], in CW, VI, p. 319.

both Halleck and Lincoln urged Meade: Henry W. Halleck to George G. Meade, July 8, 1863, OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXVII, Part III, p. 605; note 1 of AL to Henry W. Halleck, [July 7, 1863], in CW, VI, p. 319.

Robert Lincoln later said…“his vindication”: “[Robert Todd Lincoln’s Reminiscences, Given 5 January 1885],” in Nicolay, An Oral History of Abraham Lincoln, pp. 88–89.

he nonetheless failed to move…“anxious and impatient”: “13 July 1863, Monday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 62.

he received a dispatch from Meade: “14 July 1863, Tuesday,” in ibid., p. 62; Circular, Army of the Potomac, July 14, 1863, in OR, Ser. 1, Vol. XXVII, Part III, p. 690; Sauers, “Gettysburg, Battle of,” in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, ed. Heidler and Heidler, p. 836.

Stanton was reluctant to share…president “was not”: Entry for July 14, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), p. 370.

Lincoln caught up…“and discouraged”: Entry for July 14, 1863, ibid., p. 371.

“Our Army held…we did not harvest it”: AL, quoted in “19 July 1863, Sunday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, pp. 64–65.

his profound gratitude…“never sent, or signed”: AL to George G. Meade, July 14, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

Meade’s failure to attack…“I might run away”: Carpenter, Six Months at the White House, pp. 219–20.

the draft: Samantha Jane Gaul, “Conscription, U.S.A.,” in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, ed. Heidler and Heidler, p. 487.

Governor Seymour had told…the black man: Governor Horatio Seymour, quoted in John G. Nicolay and John Hay, Abraham Lincoln: A History, Vol. VII (New York: Century Co., 1917), p. 17.

Daily News…“kill off Democrats”: New York Daily News, quoted in ibid., p. 18.

A provision in the Conscription Act: Gaul, “Conscription, U.S.A.,” in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, ed. Heidler and Heidler, p. 488.

“a rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight”: Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The War Years, Vol. II, p. 362.

the first day of the draft proceeded: NYT, July 14, 1863; Nicolay and Hay, Abraham Lincoln, Vol. VII, p. 18.

“Scarcely had two dozen”…continued unchecked for five days: NYT, July 14, 1863 (quotes); NYT, July 16, 1863; Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The War Years, Vol. II, p. 360; Gaul, “Conscription, U.S.A.” and “New York City Draft Riots (13–17 July 1863),” in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, ed. Heidler and Heidler, pp. 488, 1414–15.

“the all engrossing topic of conversation”: Brooks, Mr. Lincoln’s Washington, p. 219.

“have the power for a week”: SPC to William Sprague, July 14, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers.

The mob violence finally ended…go forward: NYT, July 18, 1863.

Auburn’s draft…“apprehension of a riot”: FAS to Augustus Seward, July 20, 1863, reel 115, Seward Papers.

she reported that Copperheads…riots in New York: FAS to WHS, July 18, 1863, reel 114, Seward Papers.

several Irishmen fought…the Seward home: FAS to WHS, June 28, 1863, reel 114, Seward Papers; FAS to WHS, July 12, 1863, reel 114, Seward Papers; FAS to FWS, July 23, 1863, reel 115, Seward Papers.

Frances awoke one morning…“I possessed”: Janet W. Seward, “Personal Experiences of the Civil War,” Seward Papers, NRU.

“Do not give yourself…not without benefit”: WHS to FAS, July 21, 1863, in Seward, Seward at Washington…1861–1872, p. 177.

“As to personal injury…willing to assist them”: FAS to WHS, July 18, 1863, reel 114, Seward Papers.

everyone was “somewhat”…police force: FAS to FWS, July 23, 1863, reel 115, Seward Papers.

“The best of order…Our recent victories”: NYT, July 24, 1863.

Seward had predicted…“up a long time”: WHS to [FAS], July 17, 1863, quoted in Seward, Seward at Washington…1861–1872, p. 176.

“incitement…resist the government”: FAS to WHS, July 15, 1863, reel 114, Seward Papers.

John Hay learned…handling of the situation: “25 July 1863, Saturday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 67.

“lost ground…best men”: John A. Dix to EMS, July 25, 1863, reel 5, Stanton Papers, DLC.

“The nation is great…in 1850 to 1860!”: WHS to [FAS], July 25, 1863, quoted in Seward, Seward at Washington…1861–1872, p. 177.

“President was in…sack Phil-del”: “19 July 1863, Sunday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, pp. 64, 306 n80.

“A few days having passed…a true man”: AL to Oliver O. Howard, July 21, 1863, in CW, VI, p. 341.

the six straight hours…power to pardon: JH to JGN, [July 19, 1863], in Hay, At Lincoln’s Side, p. 45.

Hay marveled…“instead of shooting him”: “18 July 1863, Saturday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 64.

Lincoln acknowledged…“upon him unawares”: Eaton, Grant, Lincoln and the Freedmen, p. 180.

“overcome by a physical…the battle begins”: “Conversation with Hon. J. Holt, Washington Oct 29 1875,” in Nicolay, An Oral History of Abraham Lincoln, p. 69.

Rather than fearing…deserters were executed: Eaton, Grant, Lincoln and the Freedmen, p. 180.

“where meanness or cruelty were shown”: “18 July 1863, Saturday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 64.

the case of a captain…“Count Peeper”: “[July–August 1863],” in ibid., p. 76.

“Men and horses…every day”: JH to JGN, August 13, 1863, in Hay, At Lincoln’s Side, p. 50.

“The garments cling…is over everything”: Brooks, Mr. Lincoln’s Washington, p. 223.

“hot, dusty weather…discomfort of Washington”: EMS to Ellen Stanton, August 25, 1863, quoted in Gideon Stanton, ed., “Edwin M. Stanton” (quotes); Pinsker, Lincoln’s Sanctuary, pp. 116–17.

“Nearly everybody…skeddadled from the heat”: Brooks, Mr. Lincoln’s Washington, p. 223.

Mary fled the capital…through most of August: AL to MTL, August 8, 1863, Lincoln Papers; Turner and Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln, pp. 153–54.

A correspondent…“smiling face”: Boston Journal, August 10, 1863.

Lincoln talked about the heat…“distress about it”: AL to MTL, August 8, 1863, Lincoln Papers.

Only in mid-September…with her and with Tad: AL to MTL, September 21 and 22, 1863, in CW, VI, pp. 471, 474.

Mary understood…“to letter writing”: MTL to AL, November 2, [1862], in Turner and Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln, p. 139.

“I wish I could gain…put to the test”: FAS to WHS, June 17, 1863, reel 114, Seward Papers.

“Every day…gone to the field”: WHS to [FAS], July 25, 1863, quoted in Seward, Seward at Washington…1861–1872, p. 177.

she despaired when…“killed & wounded”: FAS to WHS, July 5, 1863, reel 114, Seward Papers.

Only with Frances…exhaustion: WHS to FAS, June 8, 1863, reel 112, Seward Papers.

“Thenceforth…constant devotion to business”: Robert Todd Lincoln to Dr. J. G. Holland, June 6, 1865, box 6, folder 37, William Barton Collection, Special Collections of the Regenstein Library at the University of Chicago.

the Equinox House…dining facilities: “From The Beginning,” historical pamphlet, Equinox House, Manchester, Vt.

Mary climbed a mountain…Doubleday and his wife: Randall, Mary Lincoln, p. 229; NYH, September 1,1863.

“We did again…fortunes”: William Sprague to KCS, May 27, 1866, Sprague Papers.

his immense manufacturing company…weekly: “The Rhode Island Spragues,” December 5, 1883, unidentified newspaper, KCS vertical file, DWP.

“I want to show you…undone or destroyed”: William Sprague to KCS, May 1, 1863, Sprague Papers.

“The Gov and Miss Kate…into their fold”: William Sprague to Hiram Barney, May 18, 1863, Salmon Portland Chase Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia [hereafter Chase Papers, Phi.].

“The business…lost its identity”: William Sprague to KCS, June 16, 1863, Sprague Papers.

“a wilderness, a blank”: William Sprague to KCS, July 1, 1863, Sprague Papers.

He kept her miniature…“strong a hold”: William Sprague to KCS, June 3, 7 and 8, 1863, Sprague Papers (quotes from June 7 letter).

“I am my darling up…with the sunshine”: William Sprague to KCS, May 21, 1863, Sprague Papers.

“I hope my darling…morning and adieu”: William Sprague to KCS, June 1, 1863, Sprague Papers.

Chase opened the discussion…“any due to me”: SPC to William Sprague, June 6, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers.

“Probably no woman…her successes”: Washington Post, August 1, 1899.

“Scarcely a person…lent a charm to the whole”: FS to LW, February 1, 1863, reel 116, Seward Papers.

Kate persuaded William: William Sprague to SPC, May 31, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers; William Sprague to KCS, June 12, 1863, Sprague Papers; SPC to William Sprague, July 14, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers.

“idea of taking…So I yield the point”: SPC to William Sprague, July 14, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers.

Chase would continue…William would cover: SPC to William Sprague, July 14, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers; William Sprague to KCS, July 22, 1863, Sprague Papers; Niven, Salmon P. Chase, p. 342.

“the delicate link…united father & daughter”: William Sprague to SPC, November 4, 1863, reel 29, Chase Papers.

Sprague wisely decided…“enduring love”: William Sprague to KCS, June 12, 1863, Sprague Papers.

“Katie showed me…full wealth of her affections”: SPC to William Sprague, June 6, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers.

“as much of the pecuniary burden as possible”: William Sprague to SPC, May 31, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers.

to divest himself: Belden and Belden, So Fell the Angels, pp. 84–85.

he informed Jay Cooke…“all right-minded men”: SPC to Jay Cooke, June 1, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers.

he returned a check…“as be right”: SPC to Jay Cooke, June 2, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers.

Chase joined Kate…returned to Washington: Lamphier, Kate Chase and William Sprague, p. 54.

his only companion…“sympathetic way”: SPC to Janet Chase Hoyt, August 19, 1863, reel 28, Chase Papers (quote). See also note 2 to published edition of August 19 letter in The Salmon P. Chase Papers. Vol. IV: Correspondence, April 1863–1864, ed. John Niven (Kent, Ohio, and London: Kent State University Press, 1997), p. 106 n2.

He chastised Nettie…carelessness pained him: SPC to Janet Chase Hoyt, August 19, 1863, reel 28, Chase Papers.

he reprimanded Kate…vacation expenses: SPC to KCS, August 19, 1863, reel 28, Chase Papers.

a warm correspondence…“her letters”: Belden and Belden, So Fell the Angels, pp. 88–89 (quote p. 89).

Mrs. Eastman described…“of his own idolatry?”: Charlotte S. Eastman to SPC, July 19, 1863, reel 27, Chase Papers.

“What a sweet letter”…attend to the president: SPC to Charlotte S. Eastman, August 22, 1863, reel 28, Chase Papers.

“The Tycoon is in fine whack…where he is”: JH to JGN, August 7, 1863, in Hay, At Lincoln’s Side, p. 49.

Hay had a good sense of humor…“peal of fun”: Stoddard, Inside the White House in War Times, pp. 93–94.

Hay accompanied the president: August 9, 1863, photograph of AL, in Philip B. Kunhardt, Jr., Philip B. Kunhardt III, and Peter W. Kunhardt, Lincoln: An Illustrated Biography (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992), p. 216.

“very good spirits”: “9 August 1863, Sunday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 70.

Rigidly posed…unsmiling portrait: Kunhardt, et al., Lincoln, p. 216.

required to sit…“Don’t move a muscle!”: George Sullivan, Mathew Brady: His Life and Photographs (New York: Cobblehill Books, 1994), pp. 17–18 (quote p. 18).

“contrived grinning…become obligatory”: James Mellon, ed., The Face of Lincoln (New York: Viking Press, 1979), pp. 13–14.

“the rebel power…to disintegrate”: “9 August 1863, Sunday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, p. 70.

pleasant outings…“sent me to bed”: “23 August 1863, Sunday,” in ibid., pp. 75–76 (quote p. 76); Washington Post, August 3, 1924; Pinsker, Lincoln’s Sanctuary, p. 115.

“I see the President…on K Street”: Whitman, Specimen Days (1971 edn.), p. 26.

“The President and I…the season is over”: EMS to Ellen Stanton, August 25, 1863, quoted in Gideon Stanton, ed., “Edwin M. Stanton.”

Stanton finally joined his wife…the Soldiers’ Home: Thomas and Hyman, Stanton, p. 284.

typically wide-ranging…“party to oppose a war”: “13 August 1863, Thursday,” in Hay, Inside Lincoln’s White House, pp. 72–73 (quote); Pamela Scott and Antoinette J. Lee, Buildings of the District of Columbia. Buildings of the United States Series (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 119, 128; “Progress of Civilization,” Architect of the Capitol website, www.aoc.gov/cc/art/pediments/prog_sen_r.htm (accessed November 2004).

tour of upstate New York…picnic on the lake: Philip Van Doren Stern, When the Guns Roared: World Aspects of the American Civil War (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1965), p. 230; Seward, Seward at Washington…1861–1872, pp. 186–87.

“All seemed…themselves very much”: FAS to Augustus Seward, August 27, 1863, reel 115, Seward Papers.

“When one comes really…to like in him”: Lord Lyons to Lord Russell, quoted in Stern, When the Guns Roared, p. 231.

“Hundreds of factories…and canals”: Seward, Seward at Washington…1861–1872, p. 186.

European shipbuilders…not be delivered: Van Deusen, William Henry Seward, pp. 352–56, 361; entries for August 12, 29, September 18, 25, 1863, Welles diary, Vol. I (1960 edn.), pp. 399, 429, 435–37, 443.

“The White House…health of the nation”: Dispatch of August 31, 1863, in Stoddard, Dispatches from Lincoln’s White House, p. 166.

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