Selected Bibliography

This bibliography is confined to books, articles, and government documents that have been cited more than once in the Notes.

Abbott, Martin. The Freedmen’s Bureau in South Carolina, 1865–1872. Chapel Hill, 1967.

An Address by the Colored People of Missouri to the Friends of Equal Rights. [State Executive Committee for Equal Political Rights in Missouri] St. Louis, 1865.

[African Methodist Episcopal Church]. Proceedings of the Forty-eighth Annual Session of the Baltimore Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, April 13th, 1865. Baltimore, 1865.

Albert, Mrs. Octavia V. Rogers. The House of Bondage, or Charlotte Brooks and Other Slaves. New York, 1891.

Alvord, John W. Semi-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen. Washington, D.C., 1867–1870.

Ames, Mary. From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie in 1865. Springfield, Mass., 1906.

Anderson, Ephraim M. Memoirs: Historical and Personal; including the Campaigns of the First Missouri Confederate Brigade. St. Louis, 1868.

Andrews, Eliza Frances. The War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 1864–1865. New York, 1908.

Andrews, Matthew Page (ed.). The Women of the South in War Times. Baltimore, 1920.

Andrews, Sidney. The South Since the War: As Shown by Fourteen Weeks of Travel and Observation in Georgia and the Carolinas. Boston, 1866.

Aptheker, Herbert. American Negro Slave Revolts. New York, 1943.

———. A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States. New York, 1951.

———. “Notes on Slave Conspiracies in Confederate Mississippi.” Journal of Negro History XXIX (1944), 75–79.

Armstrong, Mrs. M. F., and Helen W. Ludlow. Hampton and Its Students. By Two of Its Teachers. New York, 1875.

Armstrong, Orland Kay. Old Massa’s People: The Old Slaves Tell Their Story. Indianapolis, 1931.

Avary, Myrta Lockett. Dixie After the War. New York, 1906.

Ball, William W. The State That Forgot: South Carolina’s Surrender to Democracy. Indianapolis, 1932.

Basler, Roy P. (ed.). The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. 8 vols. New Brunswick, N.J., 1953.

Beatty, John. The Citizen Soldier; or Memoirs of a Volunteer. Cincinnati, 1879.

Bennett, Andrew J. The Story of the First Massachusetts Light Battery. Boston, 1886.

Bentley, George R. A History of the Freedmen’s Bureau. Philadelphia, 1955.

Berlin, Ira. Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South. New York, 1974.

Bettersworth, John K. Confederate Mississippi Baton Rouge, 1943.

———(ed.). Mississippi in the Confederacy: As They Saw It. Baton Rouge, 1961.

Blassingame, John W. Black New Orleans, 1860–1880. Chicago, 1973.

———. “The Recruitment of Colored Troops in Kentucky, Maryland and Missouri, 1863–1865.” The Historian XXIX (1967), 533–45.

———(ed.). Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies. Baton Rouge, 1977.

Botume, Elizabeth Hyde. First Days Amongst the Contrabands. Boston, 1893.

Bradford, Sarah. Harriet Tubman: The Moses of Her People. 2nd ed. 1886; repr. New York, 1961.

Bragg, Jefferson D. Louisiana in the Confederacy. Baton Rouge, 1941.

Brewer, James H. The Confederate Negro: Virginia’s Craftsmen and Military Laborers, 1861–1865. Durham, 1969.

Brooks, Aubrey Lee, and Hugh Talmage Lefler (eds.). The Papers of Walter Clark. 2 vols. Chapel Hill, 1948.

Brown, William Wells. “Narrative of William Wells Brown.” In Gilbert Osofsky (ed.), Puttin’ On Ole Massa. New York, 1969.

———. The Negro in the American Rebellion: His Heroism and His Fidelity. Boston, 1880.

Bruce, H. C. The New Man. Twenty-nine Years a Slave. Twenty-nine Years a Free Man. York, Pa., 1895; repr. New York, 1969.

Bruce, John E. Washington’s Colored Society. n.p., 1877 (typewritten copy in Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library).

Bryan, Thomas C. Confederate Georgia. Athens, 1953.

Bryant, William C. II (ed.). “A Yankee Soldier Looks at the Negro.” Civil War History VII (1961), 133–48.

Burge, Dolly L. The Diary of Dolly Lunt Burge, edited by James I. Robertson. Athens, 1962.

Burton, Elijah P. Diary of E. P. Burton, Surgeon 7th Reg. Ill. 3rd Brig. 2nd Div. 16 A.C. Des Moines, 1939.

[Campbell, Tunis G.]. Sufferings of the Rev. T. G. Campbell and His Family, in Georgia. Washington, D.C., 1877.

Cauthen, Charles E. (ed.). Family Letters of the Three Wade Hamptons, 1782–1901. Columbia, S.C., 1953.

Chamberlain, Hope Summerell. Old Days in Chapel Hill: Being the Life and Letters of Cornelia Phillips Spencer. Chapel Hill, 1926.

Chesnut, Mary Boykin. A Diary from Dixie, edited by Ben Ames Williams. Boston, 1949.

Coleman, Kenneth (ed.). Athens, 1861–1865. Athens, 1969.

[Convention of Colored Citizens of Arkansas]. Proceedings of the Convention of Colored Citizens of the State of Arkansas, Held in Little Rock. Thursday, Friday and Saturday, Nov. 30, Dec. 1 and 2. Helena, Ark., 1866.

[Convention of Colored Men, Kentucky]. Proceedings of the State Convention of Colored Men, Held at Lexington, Kentucky, in the A.M.E. Church, November 26th, 27th, and 28th, 1867. Frankfort, Ky., 1867.

[Convention of the Colored People of Virginia]. Proceedings of the Colored People of Va., Held in the City of Alexandria, Aug. 2, 3, 4, 5, 1865. Alexandria, 1865.

[Convention of the Equal Rights and Educational Assn. of Georgia]. Proceedings of the Convention of the Equal Rights and Educational Association of Georgia, Assembled at Macon, October 29th, 1866. Augusta, 1866.

Convention of the Freedmen of North Carolina: Official Proceedings. [Raleigh, 1865].

Conyngham, David P. Sherman’s March Through the South. New York, 1865.

Coppin, Bishop L. J. Unwritten History. Philadelphia, 1919.

Cornish, Dudley Taylor. The Sable Arm: Negro Troops in the Union Army, 1861–1865. New York, 1956.

Coulter, E. Merton. The Confederate States of America, 1861–1865. Baton Rouge, 1950.

———. “Slavery and Freedom in Athens, Georgia, 1860–1866.” In Elinor Miller and Eugene D. Genovese (eds.), Plantation, Town, and County: Essays on the Local History of American Slave Society, 337–64. Urbana, 1974.

[Council of the Georgia Equal Rights Assn.]. Proceedings of the Council of the Georgia Equal Rights Association. Assembled at Augusta, Ga. April 4th, 1866. Augusta, 1866.

Dawson, Sarah Morgan. A Confederate Girl’s Diary. Boston, 1913.

De Forest, John William. A Union Officer in the Reconstruction, edited by James H. Croushore and David M. Potter. New Haven, 1948.

Dennett, John Richard. The South As It Is, 1865–1866, edited by Henry M. Christman. New York, 1965.

Dew, Charles B. Ironmaker to the Confederacy: Joseph R. Anderson and the Tredegar Iron Works. New Haven, 1966.

Douglass, Frederick. Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. Written by Himself. Hartford, Conn, 1882.

———. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Written by Himself. 3rd English ed. Wortley, near Leeds, 1846.

Du Bois, W. E. Burghardt. Black Reconstruction, 1860–1880. New York, 1935.

———. The Souls of Black Folk. Chicago, 1903.

Durden, Robert F. The Gray and the Black: The Confederate Debate on Emancipation. Baton Rouge, 1972.

Easterby, J. H. (ed.). The South Carolina Rice Plantation: As Revealed in the Papers of Robert F. W. Allston. Chicago, 1945.

Eaton, John. Grant, Lincoln and the Freedmen: Reminiscences of the Civil War With Special Reference to the Work for the Contrabands and Freedmen of the Mississippi Valley. New York, 1907; repr. New York, 1969.

Ellison, Ralph. Shadow and Act New York, 1964.

Emilio, Luis F. History of the Fifty-Fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, 1863–1865. Boston, 1891.

Eppes, Mrs. Nicholas Ware [Susan Bradford Eppes]. The Negro of the Old South: A Bit of Period History. Chicago, 1925.

———. Through Some Eventful Years. Macon, 1926; repr. Gainesville, 1968.

Equal Suffrage. Address from the Colored Citizens of Norfolk, Virginia, to the People of the United States. Also An Account of the Agitation Among the Colored People of Virginia for Equal Rights. New Bedford, Mass., 1865.

Evans, W. McKee. Ballots and Fence Rails: Reconstruction on the Lower Cape Fear. Chapel Hill, 1967.

Farrison, William E. William Wells Brown: Author and Reformer. Chicago, 1969.

Fisk, Clinton B. Plain Counsels for Freedmen: In Sixteen Brief Lectures. Boston, 1866.

Fisk University. Unwritten History of Slavery. In George P. Rawick, The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, Vol. 18. Westport, Conn., 1972.

Fleming, Walter L. Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama. New York, 1905.

———(ed.). Documentary History of Reconstruction. 2 vols. Cleveland, 1906–07.

Forten, Charlotte L. The Journal of Charlotte L. Forten, edited by Ray Allen Billington. New York, 1953.

Franklin, John Hope (ed.). The Diary of fames T. Ayers: Civil War Recruiter. Springfield, Ill., 1947.

[Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia]. Proceedings of the Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia, Assembled at Augusta, January 10th, 1866. Augusta, 1866.

Fremantle, Arthur James Lyon. Three Months in the Southern States: April-June, 1863. New York, 1864.

Genovese, Eugene D. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York, 1974.

Gerteis, Louis S. From Contraband to Freedman: Federal Policy Toward Southern Blacks, 1861–1865. Westport, Conn., 1973.

Gordon, George H. A War Diary of Events in the War of the Great Rebellion, 1863–1865. Boston, 1882.

Gottlieb, Manuel. “The Land Question During Reconstruction.” Science and Society III (1939), 356–88.

Grimball, John Berkley. “Diary of John Berkley Grimball, 1858–1865.” South Carolina Historical Magazine LVI (1955), 8–30, 92–114, 157–80, 205–25; LVII (1956), 28–50, 88–102.

Guthrie, James M. Camp-Fires of the Afro-American; or, The Colored Man as a Patriot. Cincinnati, [1899].

Gutman, Herbert G. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750–1925. New York, 1976.

Haviland, Laura S. A Woman’s Life-Work: Labors and Experiences. Cincinnati, 1881.

Hepworth, George H. The Whip, Hoe, and Sword; or, The Gulf-Department in ‘63. Boston, 1864.

Heyward, Duncan Clinch. Seed From Madagascar. Chapel Hill, 1937.

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. Army Life in a Black Regiment. Boston, 1870.

Hitchcock, Henry. Marching With Sherman: Passages from the Letters and Campaign Diaries of Henry Hitchcock, edited by M. A. DeWolfe Howe. New Haven, 1927.

Holmes, Jack D. L. “The Underlying Causes of the Memphis Race Riot of 1866.” Tennessee Historical Quarterly XVII (1958), 195–221.

House, Albert V., Jr. (ed.). “Deterioration of a Georgia Rice Plantation During Four Years of Civil War.” Journal of Southern History IX (1943), 98–113.

Howard, Oliver Otis. Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard. 2 vols. New York, 1907.

Jackson, Bruce (ed.). The Negro and His Folklore in Nineteenth-Century Periodicals. Austin, 1967.

James, Rev. Horace. Annual Report of the Superintendent of Negro Affairs in North Carolina, 1864. Boston, n.d.

Jaquette, Henrietta S. (ed.). South After Gettysburg: Letters of Cornelia Hancock, 1863–1868. New York, 1956.

Jervey, Susan R., and Charlotte St. J. Ravenel. Two Diaries: From Middle St. John’s, Berkeley, South Carolina, February-May, 1865. Journals Kept by Miss Susan R. Jervey and Miss Charlotte St. J. Ravenel, at Northampton and Pooshee Plantations, and Reminiscences of Mrs. (Waring) Henagan. With Two Contemporary Reports from Federal Officials. St. John’s Hunting Club, 1921.

Johns, Henry T. Life With the Forty-Ninth Massachusetts Volunteers. Washington, D.C., 1890.

Johns, John E. Florida During the Civil War. Gainesville, 1963.

Jones, John B. A Rebel War Clerk’s Diary at the Confederate States Capital, edited by Earl S. Miers. New York, 1961.

Jones, Katharine M. (ed.). Heroines of Dixie: Confederate Women Tell Their Story of the War. Indianapolis, 1955.

———(ed.). When Sherman Came: Southern Women and the “Great March.” Indianapolis, 1964.

Jordan, Weymouth T. Hugh Davis and His Alabama Plantation. University, Ala., 1948.

Katz, William Loren (ed.). Five Slave Narratives. New York, 1969.

Kerby, Robert L. Kirby Smith’s Confederacy: The Trans-Mississippi South, 1863–1865. New York, 1972.

Knox, Thomas W. Camp-Fire and Cotton-Field: Southern Adventure in Time of War. Life With the Union Armies, and Residence on a Louisiana Plantation. Cincinnati, 1865.

Kolchin, Peter. First Freedom: The Responses of Alabama’s Blacks to Emanapation and Reconstruction. Westport, Conn., 1972.

LeConte, Emma. When the World Ended: The Diary of Emma LeConte, edited by Earl S. Miers. New York, 1957.

LeConte, Joseph. ’Ware Sherman: A Journal of Three Months’ Personal Experience in the Last Days of the Confederacy. Berkeley, Calif, 1938.

LeGrand, Julia. The Journal of Julia LeGrand, edited by Kate M. Rowland and Mrs. Morris E. Croxall. Richmond, 1911.

Leigh, Frances B. Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation Since the War. London, 1883.

Leland, Isabella Middleton (ed.). “Middleton Correspondence, 1861–1865.” South Carolina Historical Magazine LXIII (1962), 33–41, 61–70, 164–74, 204–10; LXIV (1963), 28–38, 95–104, 158–68, 212–19; LXV (1964), 33–44, 98–109.

Lester, Julius. To Be a Slave. New York, 1968.

Loring, F. W., and C. F. Atkinson. Cotton Culture and the South Considered With Reference to Emigration. Boston, 1869.

Lynch, Rev. James. The Mission of the United States Republic: An Oration. Delivered by Rev. James Lynch, at the Parade Ground, Augusta, Ga., July 4, 1865. Augusta, 1865.

McFeely, William S. Yankee Stepfather: General O. O. Howard and the Freedmen. New Haven, 1968.

McPherson, Edward. The Political History of the United States of America During the Period of Reconstruction, From April 15, 1865, to July 15, 1870. Washington, D.C., 1880.

McPherson, James M. The Negro’s Civil War: How American Negroes Felt and Acted During the War for the Union. New York, 1965.

———. “The New Puritanism: Values and Goals of Freedmen’s Education in America.” In Lawrence Stone (ed.), The University in Society, 2 vols. Princeton, 1974.

———. The Struggle for Equality: Abolitionists and the Negro in the Civil War and Reconstruction. Princeton, 1964.

Macrae, David. The Americans At Home. Edinburgh, 1870; repr. New York, 1952.

Messner, William F. “Black Violence and White Response: Louisiana, 1862.” Journal of Southern History XLI (1975), 19–38.

Miller, Elinor, and Eugene D. Genovese (eds.). Plantation, Town, and County: Essays on the Local History of American Slave Society. Urbana, Ill., 1974.

Montgomery, Margaret L. (ed.). “Alabama Freedmen: Some Reconstruction Documents.” Phylon, Third Quarter (1952), 245–51.

Moore, Frank (ed.). Rebellion Record. 11 vols. New York, 1861–68.

Moore, John Hammond (ed.). The Juhl Letters to the Charleston Courier: A View of the South, 1865–1871. Athens, 1974.

Morrow, Ralph E. Northern Methodism and Reconstruction. East Lansing, 1956.

Murray, Pauli. Proud Shoes: The Story of an American Family. New York, 1956.

Myers, Robert Manson (ed.). The Children of Pride: A True Story of Georgia and the Civil War. New Haven, 1972.

Nevins, Allan. The War for the Union: The Organized War to Victory, 1863–1864. New York, 1971.

———. The War for the Union: The Organized War to Victory, 1864–1865. New York, 1971.

[New England Educational Commission for Freedmen]. Extracts from Letters of Teachers and Superintendents of the New-England Educational Commission for Freedmen. Fourth Series, January 1, 1864. Boston, 1864.

Nichols, George W. The Story of the Great March from the Diary of a Staff Officer. New York, 1865.

Nolen, Claude H. The Negro’s Image in the South: The Anatomy of White Supremacy. Lexington, 1967.

Nordhoff, Charles. The Freedmen of South-Carolina: Some Account of Their Appearance, Character, Condition, and Peculiar Customs. [New York, 1863].

Oliphant, Mary C., Alfred Taylor Odell, and T. C. Duncan Eaves (eds.). The Letters of William Gilmore Simms. 5 vols. Columbia, S.C., 1952–56.

Osofsky, Gilbert (ed.). Puttin’ On Ole Massa: The Slave Narratives of Henry Bibb, William Wells Brown, and Solomon Northup. New York, 1969.

Patrick, Rembert W. The Fall of Richmond. Baton Rouge, 1960.

Pearson, Elizabeth Ware (ed.). Letters from Port Royal: Written at the Time of the Civil War. Boston, 1906.

Pearson, Henry Greenleaf. The Life of John A. Andrew: Governor of Massachusetts, 1861–1865. 2 vols. Boston, 1904.

Perdue, Charles L., Jr., Thomas E. Barden, and Robert K. Phillips (eds.). Weevils in the Wheat-Interviews with Virginia Ex-Slaves. Charlottesville, 1976.

Pierce, E. L. The Negroes at Port Royal: Report of E. L. Pierce, Government Agent, to the Hon. Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Treasury. Boston, 1862.

Pringle, Elizabeth W. Allston. Chronicles of Chicora Wood. New York, 1922.

[Puryear, Prof. Bennett]. The Public School in Its Relation to the Negro. By Civis. Richmond, 1877.

Putnam, Sallie A. In Richmond During the Confederacy. New York, 1867; repr. 1961.

Quarles, Benjamin. The Negro in the Civil War. Boston, 1953.

Rainwater, P. L. (ed.). “Letters of James Lusk Alcorn.” Journal of Southern History III (1937), 196–209.

Ravenel, Henry William. The Private Journal of Henry William Ravenel, 1859–1887, edited by Arney Robinson Childs. Columbia, S.C., 1947.

Rawick, George P. (ed.). The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography. 19 vols. Westport, Conn., 1972.

Record of Action of the Convention Held at Poughkeepsie, N. Y, July 15 th and 16th, 1863, For the Purpose of Facilitating the Introduction of Colored Troops into the Service of the United States. New York, 1863.

Reid, Whitelaw. After the War: A Southern Tour, May 1, 1865, to May 1, 1866. Cincinnati, 1866.

“Report of the Commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, November 1, 1866.” In Report of the Secretary of War, Appendix. Washington, D.C., 1867.

Report of the General Superintendent of Freedmen, Department of the Tennessee and State of Arkansas for 1864. Memphis, 1865.

Report of the Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Concert Hall, Philadelphia, On Tuesday Evening, November 3, 1863, To Take Into Consideration the Condition of the Freed People of the South. Philadelphia, 1863.

Richardson, Joe M. The Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 1865–1877. Tallahassee, 1965.

Ripley, C. Peter. Slaves and Freedmen in Civil War Louisiana. Baton Rouge, 1976.

Roark, James L. Masters Without Slaves: Southern Planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction. New York, 1977.

Rogers, George C. The History of Georgetown County, South Carolina. Columbia, 1970.

Rogers, William Warren. Thomas County, 1865–1900. Tallahassee, 1973.

Rollin, Frank A. Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany. Boston, 1883.

Rose, Willie Lee. Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment. Indianapolis, 1964.

Ruffin, Edmund. The Diary of Edmund Ruffin, edited by William K. Scarborough. 2 vols. Baton Rouge, 1972, 1976

Russell, William Howard. My Diary North and South. Boston, 1863.

Savannah Writers’ Project. Savannah River Plantations. Savannah, 1947.

Scarborough, William K. The Overseer: Plantation Management in the Old South. Baton Rouge, 1966.

Silver, James W. (ed.). Mississippi in the Confederacy: As Seen in Retrospect. Baton Rouge, 1961.

Simkins, Francis B., and James W. Patton. The Women of the Confederacy. Richmond, 1936.

[Simpson, Joseph]. Friends’ Central Committee for the Relief of the Emancipated Negroes, London, 9th Month 1st, 1865. Letters from Joseph Simpson, Manchester. [London, 1865].

Sitterson, J. Carlyle. Sugar Country: The Cane Sugar Industry in the South, 1753–1950. Lexington, Ky., 1953.

Smedes, Susan Dabney. Memorials of a Southern Planter, edited by Fletcher M. Green. New York, 1965.

Smith, Daniel E. Huger, Alice R. Huger Smith, and Arney R. Childs (eds.). Mason Smith Family Letters, 1860–1868. Columbia, S.C., 1950.

Smith, F. W. (ed.). “The Yankees in New Albany: Letter of Elizabeth Jane Beach, July 29th, 1864.” Journal of Mississippi History II (1940), 42–48.

Spencer, Cornelia Phillips. The Last Ninety Days of the War in North Carolina. New York, 1866.

Stampp, Kenneth M. The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South. New York, 1956.

Starobin, Robert S. (ed.). Blacks in Bondage: Letters of American Slaves. New York, 1974.

Stearns, Charles. The Black Man of the South, and the Rebels; or, The Characteristics of the Former, and the Recent Outrages of the Latter. New York, 1872.

Stephenson, Gilbert T. Race Distinctions in American Law. New York, 1911.

Stevens, George T. Three Years in the Sixth Corps. Albany, 1866.

Stone, Kate. Brokenburn: The Journal of Kate Stone, 1861–1868, edited by John Q. Anderson. Baton Rouge, 1972.

Stroyer, Jacob. “My Life in the South.” In William Loren Katz (ed.), Five Slave Narratives. New York, 1969.

Swint, Henry L. (ed.). Dear Ones at Home: Letters from Contraband Camps. Nashville, 1966.

———. The Northern Teacher in the South, 1862–1870. Nashville, 1941.

Sydnor, Charles S. A Gentleman of the Old Natchez Region: Benjamin L. C. Wailes. Durham, 1938.

Taylor, Alrutheus A. The Negro in Tennessee, 1865–1880. Washington, D.C., 1941.

———. The Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia. Washington, D.C., 1926.

Taylor, Susie King. Reminiscences of My Life in Camp: With the 33d United States Colored Troops Late 1st S.C. Volunteers. Boston, 1904.

Thompson, Henry Yates. An Englishman in the American Civil War: The Diaries of Henry Yates Thompson, edited by Christopher Chancellor. New York, 1971.

Towne, Laura M. Utters and Diary of Laura M. Towne: Written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina, 1862–1884, edited by Rupert Sargent Holland. Cambridge, 1912.

Trowbridge, J. T. The South: A Tour of Its Battle-Fields and Ruined Cities, A Journey Through the Desolated States, and Talks with the People. Hartford, 1866.

U.S. 38th Cong., 1st Sess., Senate Executive Document 53. Preliminary Report Touching the Condition and Management of Emancipated Refugees, Made to the Secretary of War by the American Freedmen’s Inquiry Commission, June 30, 1863. Washington, D.C., 1864.

U.S. 39th Cong., 1st Sess., House Executive Document 70. Freedmen’s Bureau. Utter from the Secretary of War … transmitting a report, by the Commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau, of all orders issued by him or any assistant commissioner. Washington, D.C., 1866.

U.S. 39th Cong., 1st Sess., House Report 101. Memphis Riots and Massacres. Washington, D.C., 1866.

U.S. 39th Cong., 1st Sess. Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction. Washington, D.C., 1866.

U.S. 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Senate Executive Document 2. “Report of Carl Schurz on the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.” In Message of the President of the United States. Washington, D.C., 1865.

U.S. 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Senate Executive Document 27. Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau made since December 1, 1865 and up until March 1, 1866. Washington, D.C., 1866.

U.S. 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., House Report 16. New Orleans Riots. Washington, D.C., 1866.

U.S. 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Senate Executive Document 6. “Laws in Relation to Freedmen.” In Freedmen’s Affairs, 170–230. Washington, D.C., 1867.

U.S. 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Senate Executive Document 6. Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of Freedmen. Washington, D. C., 1867.

U.S. 40th Cong., 2nd Sess., House Executive Document 1. Report of the Commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, November 1, 1867. Washington, D.C., 1867.

Voegeli, V. Jacque. Free but Not Equal: The Midwest and the Negro During the Civil War. Chicago, 1967.

Warren, Rev. Joseph. Extracts from Reports of Superintendents of Freedmen …, First Series, May, 1864. Vicksburg, 1864.

Washington, Booker T. Up from Slavery: An Autobiography. New York, 1902.

Waterbury, M. Seven Years Among the Freedmen. 3rd ed. Chicago, 1893.

Wharton, Vernon Lane. The Negro in Mississippi, 1865–1890. Chapel Hill, 1947.

White, Howard A. The Freedmen’s Bureau in Louisiana. Baton Rouge, 1970.

White, Newman Ivey (ed.). North Carolina Folklore. 7 vols. Durham, 1952–64.

Whittington, G. P. (ed.). “Concerning the Loyalty of Slaves in North Louisiana in 1863: Letters from John H. Ransdell to Governor Thomas O. Moore, dated 1863.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly XIV (1931), 487–502.

Wiley, Bell Irvin (ed.). Letters of Warren Akin: Confederate Congressman. Athens, 1959.

———. The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union. Indianapolis, 1952.

———. The Life of Johnny Reb: The Common Soldier of the Confederacy. Indianapolis, 1943.

———. Southern Negroes, 1861–1865. New Haven, 1938.

———. “Vicissitudes of Early Reconstruction Farming in the Lower Mississippi Valley.” Journal of Southern History III (1937), 441–52.

Williamson, Joel. After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina During Reconstruction, 1861–1877. Chapel Hill, 1965.

Wilson, Joseph T. The Black Phalanx: A History of the Negro Soldiers of the United States in the Wars of 1775–1812, 1861-’65. Hartford, 1888.

Wilson, Theodore B. The Black Codes of the South. University, Ala., 1965.

Winters, John D. The Civil War in Louisiana. Baton Rouge, 1963.

Winther, Oscar Osburn (ed.) With Sherman to the Sea: The Civil War Letters, Diaries & Reminiscences of Theodore F. Upson. Bloomington, 1958.

Wise, John S. The End of an Era. Boston, 1902.

Wish, Harvey. “Slave Disloyalty Under the Confederacy.” Journal of Negro History XXIII (1938), 435–50.

Work Projects Administration, Virginia. The Negro in Virginia. New York, 1940.


Amistad Research Center, Dillard University, New Orleans

American Missionary Association Papers (This collection was consulted when still housed in the Fisk University Library, Nashville, Tennessee.)

Duke University Library, Durham, North Carolina

Andrews Papers

Charles N. Hunter Scrapbook

Armisted L. Burt Papers

MacRae Papers

Henry S. Clark Papers

T. J. McKie Papers

Francis W. Dawson Papers

McLaurin Papers

DeRenne Papers

Joseph Belknap Smith Papers

Benjamin S. Hedrick Papers

Missouria Stokes Papers

Augustin L. Taveau Papers

William N. Tillinghast Papers

Ella Gertrude (Clanton) Thomas Journal

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

American Negro Historical Society Papers, Jacob C. White, Jr., Papers Cadwalader

Collection, J. F. Fisher Section, Henry Middleton and Wife

Edward Carey Gardiner Collection, Carey Papers

Sarah P. Miller Payne, Letters to Mary Clendenin and Nancy Hartshorne Clendenin Freeman, 1865–1872

Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery Papers

Howard University Library, Washington, D.C.

George L. Ruffin Papers

Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California

Brock Collection

Glazier Collection

Main File

Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Thaddeus Stevens Papers

Carter G. Woodson Collection

Louisiana State Department of Archives and History, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

Henry Anderson Papers

Gustave Lauve Papers

Pierre G. T. Beauregard Papers

St. John R. Liddell and Family Papers

R. J. Causey Papers

William N. Mercer Papers

Alexander E. De Clouet Papers

Alexander F. Pugh and Family Papers

Emily Caroline Douglas Papers

W. W. Pugh Papers

Christian D. Koch Papers

Micajah Wilkinson Papers

National Archives, Washington, D. C.

Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedmen’s Bureau)

Records of the Assistant Commissioners (Letters Received)

Records of the Subordinate Field Offices

Registers of Letters Received

New York Public Library, New York

Shaw Family Papers

North Carolina State Department of Archives and History, Raleigh

James H. Harris Papers

Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library

John E. Bruce Papers

South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia

Manigault Papers

South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

Ball Family Papers

Heyward Family Papers

John S. Bogert Papers

Emma E. Holmes Diary

Bruce-Jones-Murchison Papers

Miscellaneous Correspondence

Bonds Conway Papers

Thomas J. Moore Papers

Deas Papers

Dr. Edward Smith Tennent Papers

Glover-North Family Papers

Williams-Chesnut-Manning Papers

Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Samuel A. Agnew Diary

Josiah Gorgas Journal

Avery Family Papers

Gregorie-Elliott Family Papers

Everard Green Baker Diaries

Robert Philip Howell Memoirs

Bayside Plantation Records

Kean-Prescott Family Papers

Jesse and Overton Bernard Diaries

Lenoir Family Papers

John Houston Bills Diary

William Gaston Lewis Papers

Catherine Barbara Broun Diary

Mackay-Stiles Papers

John Hamilton Cornish Diary

Manigault Plantation Records

De Rosset Family Papers

William Porcher Miles Papers

Belle Edmondson Diary

Miscellaneous Correspondence

Grace B. Elmore Diaries

Thomas J. Myers Papers

James J. Philips Collection

George C. Taylor Collection

Quitman Papers

Trenholm Papers

William D. Simpson Papers

James W. White Papers


Anglo-African (New York)

New Era (Washington, D.C.)

Black Republican (New Orleans)

New National Era (Washington, D.C.)

Bulletin (Louisville)

New Orleans Tribune (New Orleans)

Christian Recorder (Philadelphia)

New York Times (New York)

Colored American (Augusta, Ga.)

New York Tribune (New York)

Colored Tennessean (Nashville)

St. Landry Progress (Opelousas, La.)

Douglass’ Monthly (Rochester)

Semi-Weekly Louisianian (New Orleans)

Freedman’s Press (Austin, Texas)

South Carolina Leader (Charleston)

Free Man’s Press (Austin, Texas)

Tennessean (Nashville)

Free Press (Charleston, S.C.)

The Union (New Orleans)

Louisianian (New Orleans)

Weekly Louisianian (New Orleans)

Loyal Georgian (Augusta)

Workingman’s Advocate (Chicago)

Missionary Record (Charleston, S.C.)

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