Appendix A — Table of Equivalent Ranks

Изображение выглядит как стол

Appendix B — Recipients of the Distinguished Service Cross

All pertinent Army records have been scrutinized in an effort to include in the following list the names of every soldier who received the DSC for his part in the operations recounted in this volume. Inasmuch as no complete listing of DSC awards is maintained in any single Army file, it is possible that some names may inadvertently have been omitted.

Lt. Col. Creighton W. Abrams

Lt. Col. Paul Bandy

Sgt. James L. Bayliss

Sgt. William J. Bennett

Pfc. J. O. Bird

Lt. Col. Barry D. Browne

Sgt. John Bueno

Cpl. Adam F. Burko

Pfc. Angelo Cestoni

Lt. Col. Steve A. Chappuis

Capt. John J. Christy

Capt. A. J. Cissna

Lt. Col. Derrill M. Daniel

Pvt. Albert A. Darago

Sgt. T. J. Dawson

Pfc. Daniel Del Grippo

Pvt. C. W. Dillingham

Sgt. Eddie Dolenc

Capt. Leland R. Dunham

Sgt. B. R. Eastburn

Capt. Paul F. Gaynor

Pfc. Jack Gebert

1st Lt. Charles R. Gniot

Capt. John W. Hall

Sgt. Lawrence L. Hatfield

1st Lt. Edgar C. Heist

Lt. Col. John M. Hightower

Pfc. S. E. Hull

2d Lt. Michael Hritsik

1st Lt. G. W. Jackman

Pvt. J. W. Jones

Lt. Col. R. W. Kinney

Capt. Frank Kutak

1st Lt. George D. Lamm

Pfc. O. M. Laughlin

Capt. James H. Leach

Pfc. John Leinen

2d Lt. Samuel Leo

2d Lt. S. D. Llewellyn

Sgt. H. L. Luther

Brig. Gen. Anthony C. McAuliffe

Pfc. W. J. McKenzie

2d Lt. W. D. Markin

Capt. Gabriel R. Martinez

Pfc. A. G. Means

Pfc. Edwin W. Metz

Pvt. Bernard Michin

1st Lt. A. L. Mills

Pfc. Richard Mills

1st Lt. Jesse Morrow

Sgt. Oscar M. Mullins

1st Lt. Kenneth R. Nelson

Pfc. N. A. Osterberg

1st Lt. R. A. Parker

2d Lt. G. F. Pennington

Sgt. T. E. Piersall

Lt. Col. Lemuel E. Pope

Pvt. R. L. Presser

2d Lt. Frederick Rau

Sgt. Woodrow W. Reeves

Sgt. George P. Rimmer

Maj. Gen. Walter M. Robertson

Lt. Col. James C. Rosborough

Pfc. F. S. Rose

Pfc. W. S. Rush

Sgt. I. R. Schwartz

Private Seamon

Sgt. M. N. Shay

Pfc. R. D. Smith

Capt. Robert W. Smith

T/Sgt. Russell N. Snoad

Cpl. C. E. Statler

Capt. Vaughn Swift

1st Lt. R. H. Thompson

Lt. Col. Paul V. Tuttle, Jr.

T/Sgt. John Van Der Kamp

Pfc. Gilbert Van Every

Sgt. J. W. Waldron

S/Sgt. William Walsh

2d Lt. R. L. Westbrook

2d Lt. John A. Whitehill

Sgt. William J. Widener

1st Sgt. Gervis Willis

Cpl. Edward S. Withee

Pfc. T. J. Zimmerer

Bibliographical Note

Two historically valuable books dealing specifically with the Ardennes Campaign are: Robert E. Merriam's Dark December (New York: Ziff-Davis Publishing Company, 1947) and John Toland's Battle: The Story of the Bulge (New York: Random House, 1959). Merriam's work subsequently was reprinted in a paperback edition under the title The Battle of the Bulge (New York: Ballantine Books, 1957). These two interesting and useful books show quite different approaches to the story. Merriam, while in the U.S. Army, participated in the task of organizing materials for a future Army history of the Ardennes Campaign and subsequently made use of these documents in his own work. Toland, who wrote his volume on the basis of extensive interviews with veterans of the campaign, stresses the human interest aspects of the battle.

There is a surprising dearth of published memoir literature from officers in a position of command during this operation. In part this lacuna is filled by the very large body of unit histories compiled by the American divisions, regiments, and even battalions, which fought in the Battle of the Bulge. Extensive collection of unit histories will be found in the New York Public Library, the Army Library (Washington, D.C.), and the Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army.

The bulk of the American documents used as source material in the present volume, as well as microfilm of the pertinent German documents, are in the keeping of the National Archives, or in the Office of the Chief of Military History. Much of the source material is in the form of reports made during or after battle by approximately 1,600 Army units in the European Theater of Operations. The story of this monumental effort in research and acquisition has been written by Royce L. Thompson, in his History of the Historical Section, ETO (May 1947), a manuscript in OCMH files. The American combat interviews, on which the author has drawn so freely, can be found listed in a manuscript Catalogue of Combat Interviews maintained by OCMH.

Most of the historical manuscripts prepared by German officers who took part in the Ardennes Campaign are catalogued in the Guide to Foreign Military Studies, 1945-54, published by Headquarters, U.S. Army, Europe, Historical Division, in 1954. Since this publication, there have been a few additions to the German manuscript collection and these are catalogued by OCMH. The history of the early attempts to trace German officers who served in the Ardennes, transfer them from prison cells, and elicit their cooperation as historians makes fascinating reading. Brig. Gen. S. L. A. Marshall has given a brief sketch of this venture in his introduction to The Fatal Decisions, edited by Seymour Freidin and William Richardson (New York: William Sloane Associates, 1956). A full and dramatic account of the attempt to obtain German cooperation has been written by one of the main actors in this little-known episode, then Maj. Kenneth W. Hechler. His manuscript is entitled The Enemy Side of the Hill: The 1945 Background on the Interrogation of German Commanders (Historical Division, Special Staff, U.S. Army, 30 July 1949). Finally, any student who delves deeply into the U.S. Army operations in western Europe during World War II must come inevitably to the Order of Battle of the United States Army, World War II, European Theater of Operations: Divisions, prepared under the direction of Capt. Robert J. Greenwald and Chief Warrant Officer Meyer M. Cahn in the Office of the Theater Historian, ETO (Paris, 1945).


A-2—Intelligence officer or section of an air staff

AAA—Antiaircraft artillery

AAR—After action report

Abwehr-Schlacht Im West—Defensive Battle in the West

AIB—Armored infantry battalion

Anlage—Appendix or annex



Aufmarschanweisung—Revised outline plan

AW—Aircraft warning; automatic weapons

BAR—Browning automatic rifle


CATOR—Combined Air Transport Operations Room

CCA—Combat Command A

CCB—Combat Command B

CCR—Combat Command Reserve

Chasseurs Ardenais—Belgian military unit

Christrose—One of several code names for the Ardennes offensive

CIC—Counter Intelligence Corps

C-in-C—Commander in Chief

CO—Commanding officer

Cp—Command post

DAGGER—Ninth Army operation intended to clear the Germans from the west bank of the Roer River once the dams were destroyed.


DSC—Distinguished Service Cross


Ersatzheer—Replacement Army

ETO—European Theater of Operations

FA—Field Artillery

Feldherr—Great general


Feuerwalze—Rolling barrage

Flak—Fliegerabwehrkanone (antiaircraft artillery gun)

Fremde Heere Ost—OKH Intelligence Section East

Frontsoldat—Front-line fighter

Führer Reserve—Central officers' reserve

Fusilier battalion—Separate infantry battalion performing both reconnaissance and support in German division

FUSA—First United States Army

G-2—Intelligence section of divisional or higher staff

G-3—Operations section of divisional or higher staff

G-4—Supply section of divisional or higher staff

Greif—German deception operation in support of the Ardennes counteroffensive

Herbstnebel—Autumn Fog (Army Group B plan)

I and R—Intelligence and Reconnaissance



Jabo—German slang for jagd-bomber (fighter-bomber)


Kampfgruppe—German combat group of variable size

K-Tag—12 December

KTB—Kriegstagebuch (war diary)

L-Tag—13 December

Martin—Code name applied to operations plan drawn up by OB WEST for Wacht am Rhein for submission to conference at headquarters Army Group B on 27 October 1944

Nebelwerfer—Multiple rocket projector

Null Tag—D-day (16 December)

Oberquartermeister—General staff officer at headquarters of an army (in charge of supply and administration)

OB WEST—Oberbefehlshaber West (Commander in Chief West or his headquarters)

OKH—Oberkommando des Heeres (Army High Command)

OKL—Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (Luftwaffe High Command)

OKW—Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (Armed Forces High Command)

OMAHA Beach—Normandy beach assaulted by troops of U.S. V Corps, 6 June 1944


O-Tag—D-day (16 December)

Panzerfaust—Recoilless German antitank rocket, hand-carried

POL—Petrol (gasoline), oil, and lubricants

POW—Prisoner of war

RCT—Regimental combat team


Reichsautobahnen—The German superhighway system

Reichsbahn—German state railroads

S-2—Intelligence officer or section of regimental or lower staff

S-3—Operations officer or section of regimental or lower staff


SHAEF—Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force

SHAPE—Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers, Europe

SS—Schutzstaffel (Elite guard)

TAC—Tactical Air Command

TC—Troop carrier

TD—Tank destroyer

T/E—Tables of equipment

T/O&E—Tables of organization and equipment

TOT—Time on target, a method of timing artillery fire from various points to fall on a given target simultaneously

TUSA—Third United States Army

VHF—Very high frequency

V-Leute—German agents

Volksdeutsche—Citizens of a country other than Germany who were considered Germans racially

Volkssturm—A people's militia, partially organized in one of the last steps of German mobilization for total war

Wacht am Rhein—Watch on the Rhine (Ardennes code name)

Waffen-SS—A mechanized Army-type force originally made up of volunteers from Nazi party organizations

Wehrmacht—German Armed Forces

WFSt—Wehrmachtführungsstab (Armed Forces Operations Staff)

Werfer—Rocket projector


If you find an error or have any questions, please email us at Thank you!